Myasthenia Gravis (MG)

Categories: Eye diseases, Immune diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Myasthenia Gravis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Myasthenia Gravis:

Name: Myasthenia Gravis 57 12 75 53 25 54 59 37 29 55 43 44 15 38 17 72 33
Mg 57 25
Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis 59
Acquired Myasthenia 59


Orphanet epidemiological data:

myasthenia gravis
Inheritance: Multigenic/multifactorial,Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (Europe),1-5/10000 (Europe),1-9/100000 (Worldwide),1-9/1000000 (United States),1-5/10000 (Canada),1-9/100000 (Spain),1-5/10000 (United Kingdom),1-9/100000 (United Kingdom),1-9/100000 (Serbia),1-5/10000 (United States),1-5/10000 (Serbia),1-9/100000 (Italy),1-5/10000 (Austria),1-9/100000 (Australia),1-5/10000 (Italy),1-9/100000 (Taiwan, Province of China),1-5/10000 (Australia),1-9/1000000 (Greece),1-5/10000 (Taiwan, Province of China),1-9/1000000 (Croatia),1-9/100000 (Estonia),1-9/100000 (Greece),1-9/100000 (Croatia),1-9/100000 (Egypt),1-9/1000000 (Worldwide); Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: normal life expectancy;


usually sporadic
1 to 4 % of cases are familial without a simple mendelian pattern
familial predisposition may be due to autoimmunity in general.


myasthenia gravis:
Inheritance multifactorial inheritance


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:437
OMIM 57 254200
KEGG 37 H01594
ICD9CM 35 358.0 358.00
MeSH 44 D009157
NCIt 50 C60989
SNOMED-CT 68 91637004
ICD10 33 G70.0 G70.00
MESH via Orphanet 45 D009157
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 G70.0
UMLS via Orphanet 73 C0026896
Orphanet 59 ORPHA589
MedGen 42 C0026896
UMLS 72 C0026896 C1260409

Summaries for Myasthenia Gravis

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Myasthenia gravis is a disorder that causes weakness of the skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. The weakness most often starts in the muscles around the eyes, causing drooping of the eyelids (ptosis) and difficulty coordinating eye movements, which results in blurred or double vision. In a form of the disorder called ocular myasthenia, the weakness remains confined to the eye muscles. In most people with myasthenia gravis, however, additional muscles in the face and neck are affected. Affected individuals may have unusual facial expressions, difficulty holding up the head, speech impairment (dysarthria), and chewing and swallowing problems (dysphagia) that may lead to choking, gagging, or drooling. Other muscles in the body are also affected in some people with myasthenia gravis. The muscles of the arms and legs may be involved, causing affected individuals to have changes in their gait or trouble with lifting objects, rising from a seated position, or climbing stairs. The muscle weakness tends to fluctuate over time; it typically worsens with activity and improves with rest. Weakness of the muscles in the chest wall and the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity (the diaphragm) can cause breathing problems in some people with myasthenia gravis. About 10 percent of people with this disorder experience a potentially life-threatening complication in which these respiratory muscles weaken to the point that breathing is dangerously impaired, and the affected individual requires ventilation assistance. This respiratory failure, called a myasthenic crisis, may be triggered by stresses such as infections or reactions to medications. People can develop myasthenia gravis at any age. For reasons that are unknown, it is most commonly diagnosed in women younger than age 40 and men older than age 60. It is uncommon in children, but some infants born to women with myasthenia gravis show signs and symptoms of the disorder for the first few days or weeks of life. This temporary occurrence of symptoms is called transient neonatal myasthenia gravis.

MalaCards based summary : Myasthenia Gravis, also known as mg, is related to neonatal myasthenia gravis and neuromuscular disease, and has symptoms including ptosis, diplopia and dysarthria. An important gene associated with Myasthenia Gravis is AKAP12 (A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 12), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Allograft rejection and Immune response NFAT in immune response. The drugs Azathioprine and Midazolam have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include thymus, t cells and testes, and related phenotypes are ptosis and diplopia

Disease Ontology : 12 An autoimmune disease of the nervous system that has material basis in antibodies to acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, has symptom ptosis, has symptom diplopia, has symptom dysphagia, has symptom dysarthria, has symptom muscle weakness and has symptom dyspnea.

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by weakness of the skeletal muscles. Common symptoms include weakness of the muscles that control the eye and eyelid, facial expressions, chewing, talking, and swallowing. Weakness tends to increase during periods of activity and improve after periods of rest. The condition results from a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, which is due to the presence of antibodies against acetylcholine. The exact reason this occurs is not known. Some cases have been linked to tumors in the thymus gland. Researchers believe that variations in certain genes may increase a person's risk to develop MG, but other factors likely also play a role. There is no cure for MG at this time, but treatment can significantly improve muscle weakness. Some cases may go into remission temporarily, and muscle weakness may disappear so that medications can be discontinued.

MedlinePlus : 43 Myasthenia gravis is a disease that causes weakness in your voluntary muscles. These are the muscles that you control. For example, you may have weakness in the muscles for eye movement, facial expressions, and swallowing. You can also have weakness in other muscles. This weakness gets worse with activity, and better with rest. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease. Your body's immune system makes antibodies that block or change some of the nerve signals to your muscles. This makes your muscles weaker. Other conditions can cause muscle weakness, so myasthenia gravis can be hard to diagnose. Tests used to make a diagnosis include blood, nerve, muscle, and imaging tests. With treatment, the muscle weakness often gets much better. Medicines can help improve nerve-to-muscle messages and make muscles stronger. Other drugs keep your body from making so many abnormal antibodies. These medicines can have major side effects, so they should be used carefully. There are also treatments which filter abnormal antibodies from the blood or add healthy antibodies from donated blood. Sometimes, surgery to take out the thymus gland helps. Some people with myasthenia gravis go into remission. This means that they do not have symptoms. The remission is usually temporary, but sometimes it can be permanent. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

NINDS : 54 Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal muscles of the body, which are responsble for breathing and moving parts of the body. In myasthenia gravis, the immune system--which normally protects the body from foreign organisms--mistakenly attacks itself.  Symptoms vary in type and intensity. The hallmark of myasthenia gravis is muscle weakness that increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. Certain muscles that control eye and eyelid movements, facial expression, chewing, talking, and swallowing are often, but not always, involved. The muscles that control breathing and neck and limb movements may also be affected. Myasthenia gravis is caused by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles. Normally when impulses travel down the nerve, the nerve endings release a neurotransmitter substance called acetylcholine. In myasthenia gravis, antibodies produced by the body's own immune system block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine. The first noticeable symptoms of myasthenia gravis may be weakness of the eye muscles, difficulty in swallowing, or slurred speech. Other symptoms may include blurred or double vision, drooping eyelid(s), and weakness in the arms, hands, fingers, legs, and neck. Myasthenia gravis is not directly inherited nor is it contagious.

KEGG : 37
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by a defective transmission of nerve impulses to muscles leading to muscle weakness and fatigability. Some, but not all, muscles are affected and not necessarily symmetrically. Increased weakness with continued muscle activity represents a diagnostic clue for MG, but these clinical features can vary. MG is B-cell mediated, and is associated with antibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), muscle-specific kinase (MUSK), lipoprotein-related protein 4 (LRP4), or agrin in the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction. Patients should be classified into subgroups to help with therapeutic decisions and prognosis. Subgroups based on serum antibodies and clinical features include early-onset, late-onset, thymoma, MUSK, LRP4, antibody-negative, and ocular forms of myasthenia gravis. Agrin-associated MG might emerge as a new entity. The prognosis is good with optimum symptomatic, immunosuppressive, and supportive treatment. The evolution of MG is unpredictable, but it is generally characterized by the occurrence of relapses, sometimes subsequent to remissions and a worsening trend. For 85% of MG patients, the maximum severity is reached within less than 3 years.

Wikipedia : 75 Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal... more...

More information from OMIM: 254200

Related Diseases for Myasthenia Gravis

Diseases in the Myasthenia Gravis family:

Myasthenia Gravis Congenital Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis
Adult-Onset Myasthenia Gravis

Diseases related to Myasthenia Gravis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1040)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neonatal myasthenia gravis 34.9 MUSK CHRNG
2 neuromuscular disease 33.7 TTN RYR1 MUSK
3 thymoma 32.3 TTN RYR1 IL2 CTLA4 AIRE
4 congenital myasthenic syndrome 32.1 RYR1 RAPSN MUSK CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
6 meningitis 31.2 TNF IL10 IFNG
7 neuromuscular junction disease 31.1 TTN RAPSN MUSK CHRNE CHRNA1 AGRN
8 exanthem 31.0 TNF IL2 CTLA4
9 graft-versus-host disease 31.0 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG
10 immune deficiency disease 30.9 IL4 IL2 IL10
11 aseptic meningitis 30.9 TNF IL10 IFNG
12 lymphadenitis 30.9 TNF IL10 IFNG
13 sarcoidosis 1 30.8 TNF IL2 IFNG
14 transverse myelitis 30.8 TNF MBP IL10
15 lichen planus 30.8 TNF IL4 IFNG
16 ulcerative colitis 30.8 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG
17 mixed connective tissue disease 30.8 TNF IL10 IFNG
18 autoimmune myocarditis 30.7 TNF IFNG
19 chronic graft versus host disease 30.6 TNFSF13B TNF IL10 IFNG
20 postsynaptic congenital myasthenic syndromes 30.6 RAPSN MUSK CHRNE CHRNA1 AGRN
21 bronchiolitis obliterans 30.6 TNF IL10 IFNG
22 tetanus 30.5 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
23 chronic fatigue syndrome 30.5 TNF IL2 IL10
24 polyradiculoneuropathy 30.5 MBP IL10 IFNG
25 pulmonary sarcoidosis 30.5 TNF IL2 IFNG
26 candidiasis 30.4 IL10 IFNG AIRE
27 ige responsiveness, atopic 30.4 IL4 IL10 IFNG
28 conjunctivitis 30.4 IL4 IL2 IFNG
29 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30.4 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG CTLA4
30 neuritis 30.4 TNF MBP IL4 IFNG
31 aplastic anemia 30.3 TNF IL4 IL2 IFNG
32 erythema multiforme 30.3 TNF IL2 IFNG
33 osteomyelitis 30.3 TNF IL10 IFNG
34 poliomyelitis 30.3 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNG
35 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 30.3 TNFSF13B IL10 IFNG CTLA4 AIRE
36 pleurisy 30.3 TNF IL2 IFNG
37 connective tissue disease 30.3 TNFSF13B TNF IL10 IFNG
38 scleritis 30.3 TNF IL4 IFNG
39 fixed drug eruption 30.3 IL2 IFNG
40 leprosy 3 30.3 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG
41 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 30.2 TNF MBP IL2
42 human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease 30.2 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG
43 interstitial lung disease 30.2 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNG
44 skin disease 30.2 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNG
45 mumps 30.2 TNF IL2 IFNG
46 demyelinating disease 30.2 TNF MBP IL10 IFNG
47 gastroenteritis 30.2 TNF IL4 IL10
48 rasmussen encephalitis 30.2 TNF IL4 IFNG
49 rubella 30.2 TNF IL4 IL10
50 primary progressive multiple sclerosis 30.2 TNF MBP IL10

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Myasthenia Gravis:

Diseases related to Myasthenia Gravis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Myasthenia Gravis

Human phenotypes related to Myasthenia Gravis:

59 32 (show all 39)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 ptosis 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000508
2 diplopia 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000651
3 dysarthria 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001260
4 dysphagia 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002015
5 dyspnea 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002094
6 myositis 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100614
7 ophthalmoparesis 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000597
8 abnormality of the thymus 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000777
9 bulbar palsy 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001283
10 single fiber emg abnormality 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0030006
11 acetylcholine receptor antibody positivity 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0030208
12 muscle specific kinase antibody positivity 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0030210
13 hearing impairment 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000365
14 hashimoto thyroiditis 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000872
15 hyperthyroidism 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000836
16 paresthesia 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003401
17 primary adrenal insufficiency 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0008207
18 hyperacusis 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0010780
19 rheumatoid arthritis 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001370
20 systemic lupus erythematosus 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002725
21 glycosuria 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003076
22 raynaud phenomenon 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030880
23 seizures 59 32 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001250
24 acrocyanosis 59 32 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001063
25 hepatitis 59 32 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0012115
26 hemolytic anemia 59 32 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001878
27 psychosis 59 32 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000709
28 pure red cell aplasia 59 32 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0012410
29 muscle weakness 59 Very frequent (99-80%)
30 facial palsy 32 HP:0010628
31 autoimmunity 32 HP:0002960
32 abnormality of the endocrine system 32 HP:0000818
33 abnormality of the immune system 32 HP:0002715
34 nasal speech 32 HP:0001611
35 thymoma 32 HP:0100522
36 proximal muscle weakness 32 HP:0003701
37 impaired mastication 32 HP:0005216
38 limb muscle weakness 32 HP:0003690
39 fatigable weakness 32 HP:0003473

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

H E E N T:
facial muscle weakness
difficulty chewing

antibodies to acetylcholine receptor (achr)
association with gm type

proximal limb muscle weakness.

ventilatory insufficiency

G I:

nasal speech


childhood or adolescent onset
static or only slowly progressive

Clinical features from OMIM:



  • ptosis
  • diplopia
  • dysarthria
  • muscle weakness
  • dysphagia
  • dyspnea

UMLS symptoms related to Myasthenia Gravis:

seizures, muscle weakness, tremor, back pain, pain, headache, syncope, chronic pain, sciatica, vertigo/dizziness, sleeplessness, facial paresis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Myasthenia Gravis:

46 (show all 19)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.46 ACHE AGRN AIRE AKAP12 CHRNA1 CHRNE
2 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.41 ACHE AGRN AIRE AKAP12 CHRNA1 CHRNE
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.39 ACHE AGRN AIRE CHRNE CHRNG IFNG
4 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.37 ACHE AGRN AIRE CHRNG CTLA4 IFNG
5 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.31 ACHE AIRE AKAP12 CTLA4 IFNG IL10
6 immune system MP:0005387 10.25 AIRE AKAP12 CTLA4 IFNG IL10 IL2
7 nervous system MP:0003631 10.25 ACHE AGRN AIRE AKAP12 CHRNA1 CHRNE
8 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.22 AIRE CTLA4 IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4
9 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.21 AIRE AKAP12 CTLA4 IFNG IL10 IL2
10 muscle MP:0005369 10.21 ACHE AGRN AKAP12 CHRNE CHRNG IFNG
11 integument MP:0010771 10.15 CHRNG CTLA4 IFNG IL10 IL4 MUSK
12 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.12 ACHE IFNG IL10 IL4 RYR1 TNF
13 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.08 AIRE AKAP12 CTLA4 IFNG IL10 IL2
14 respiratory system MP:0005388 10.03 ACHE AGRN AIRE AKAP12 CHRNE CHRNG
15 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.97 ACHE AIRE CHRNE IFNG IL10 IL2
16 normal MP:0002873 9.97 AGRN AIRE AKAP12 CTLA4 IFNG IL10
17 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.91 ACHE AIRE AKAP12 IFNG IL10 IL2
18 skeleton MP:0005390 9.61 CHRNA1 CTLA4 IFNG IL10 IL4 MUSK
19 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.28 ACHE AIRE IFNG IL10 IL2 IL4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Myasthenia Gravis

Drugs for Myasthenia Gravis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 181)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Azathioprine Approved Phase 4 446-86-6 2265
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Cimetropium Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 150521-16-7
4 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
5 Cola Phase 4
6 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4
7 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
8 GABA Agents Phase 4
9 Adjuvants, Anesthesia Phase 4
10 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
11 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4
12 GABA Modulators Phase 4
13 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
14 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
15 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
16 Calamus Phase 4
Tacrolimus Approved, Investigational Phase 3 104987-11-3 445643 439492 6473866
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 93-14-1 3516
rituximab Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 174722-31-7 10201696
Rocuronium Approved Phase 3 119302-91-9, 143558-00-3 441290
Ravulizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 3 1803171-55-2
tannic acid Approved Phase 3 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
Leflunomide Approved, Investigational Phase 3 75706-12-6 3899
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 51-84-3 187
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 53-03-2 5865
Nifedipine Approved Phase 3 21829-25-4 4485
Tyrosine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 3 60-18-4 6057
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 7440-70-2 271
30 Immunoglobulin G Phase 3
31 Immunologic Factors Phase 2, Phase 3
32 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 3
33 gamma-Globulins Phase 3
34 Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 3
35 Calcineurin Inhibitors Phase 3
36 Vaccines Phase 3
37 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
38 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 3
39 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 2, Phase 3
40 Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents Phase 3
41 Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Phase 3
42 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 2, Phase 3
43 Adrenergic beta-Agonists Phase 2, Phase 3
44 Respiratory System Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 2, Phase 3
46 Albuterol Phase 2, Phase 3
47 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
48 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
49 Complement System Proteins Phase 3
50 Complement Inactivating Agents Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 125)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Usefulness Of Flospan As A Premedication For Colonoscopy : A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01842932 Phase 4 Phloroglucin;Cimetropium bromide;Placebo
2 A Randomized Trial of Plasma Exchange vs. IVIG in the Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT01179893 Phase 4
3 Comparison of Two Tapering Strategies of Prednisone in Patients With Generalised Myasthenia Gravis Treated With Prednisone and Azathioprine: a Single-blind Randomised Controlled Multicenter Study Completed NCT00987116 Phase 4 Prednisone - Azathioprine
4 Study Evaluating Rapid Infusion Rituximab in Patients With Autoimmune Diseases Completed NCT02040116 Phase 4 Rituximab Infusion
5 Changes of Skin Resistance After Midazolam and After the End of Anaesthesia Completed NCT03791424 Phase 4 Midazolam
6 Effect of Pyridostigmine (Mestinon) on Muscle Strength in Myasthenia Gravis Recruiting NCT03510546 Phase 4 Pyridostigmine;Placebo oral capsule
7 A Pilot Trial To Assess The Feasibility And Efficacy Of Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin In Patients With Myasthenia Gravis Exacerbation Unknown status NCT02774239 Phase 3 Human normal immunoglobulin G (IgG)
8 A Trial of Mycophenolate Mofetil in Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT00285350 Phase 3 mycophenolate mofetil
9 A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study of GB-0998 for Treatment of Generalized Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT00515450 Phase 3
10 FK506 Phase 3 Study: a Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study for Steroid Non-Resistant Myasthenia Gravis Patients Completed NCT00309088 Phase 3 tacrolimus;placebo
11 A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled, and Multi-centered Clinical Trial Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Tacrolimus Capsule in Myasthenia Gravis That Was Insufficiently Treated by Glucocorticoid Therapy Completed NCT01325571 Phase 3 Tacrolimus capsule;Placebo
12 FK506 Phase 3 Study: An Open Study for Steroid Resistant, Non-Thymectomized MG Patients Completed NCT00309101 Phase 3 tacrolimus
13 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Center Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Eculizumab in Subjects With Refractory Generalized Myasthenia Gravis (gMG) Completed NCT01997229 Phase 3 Placebo
14 A Randomized, Double-Blind Study to Evaluate the Safety of Continued Treatment With CellCept in Patients With Well-Controlled Myasthenia Gravis Receiving a Stable Dose of Prednisone Completed NCT00408213 Phase 3 mycophenolate mofetil [CellCept];Placebo
15 A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group, Multicenter, 36-Week Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Adjunct Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) to Maintain or Improve Symptom Control With Reduced Corticosteroid in Subjects With Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT00683969 Phase 3 mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept);placebo
16 ECU-MG-302, A Phase III, Open-label, Extension Trial of ECU-MG-301 to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Eculizumab in Subjects With Refractory Generalized Myasthenia Gravis (gMG) Completed NCT02301624 Phase 3
17 IVIG Treatment Compared to Placebo in Patients With Myasthenia Gravis: A Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT00306033 Phase 3 Intravenous ImmuneGlobulin
18 A Multi-Center, Single-Blind, Randomized Study Comparing Thymectomy to No Thymectomy in Non-Thymomatous Myasthenia Gravis (MG) Patients Receiving Prednisone Completed NCT00294658 Phase 3 prednisone alone
19 A Multicenter, Prospective, Open-label, Non-controlled Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Immune Globulin (Human), 10% Caprylate/Chromatography Purified (IGIV-C) in Patients With Myasthenia Gravis Exacerbations Completed NCT02413580 Phase 3
20 Requirement of Skeletal Muscle Paralysis in Hypothermic Patients After Cardiac Arrest - a Pilot Study Completed NCT01719770 Phase 3 rocuronium
21 Phase 3: Randomised Controlled Trial of Rituximab in Active Ulcerative Colitis Completed NCT00261118 Phase 2, Phase 3 Rituximab
22 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Efficacy and Safety of Rozanolixizumab in Adult Patients With Generalized Myasthenia Gravis Recruiting NCT03971422 Phase 3 Rozanolixizumab
23 An Open-Label, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Eculizumab in Pediatric Patients With Refractory Generalized Myasthenia Gravis Recruiting NCT03759366 Phase 3 Eculizumab
24 Long Term Safety Study of Amifampridine Phosphate in Patients With MuSK Antibody Positive and AChR (Acetylcholine Receptor) Antibody Positive Myasthenia Gravis Recruiting NCT03579966 Phase 3 Amifampridine Phosphate
25 A Long-Term, Single-Arm, Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase 3 Follow-on Trial of ARGX-113-1704 to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of ARGX-113 in Patients With Myasthenia Gravis Having Generalized Muscle Weakness Recruiting NCT03770403 Phase 3
26 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Phase 3 Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of ARGX-113 in Patients With Myasthenia Gravis Having Generalized Muscle Weakness Recruiting NCT03669588 Phase 3
27 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Ravulizumab in Complement-Inhibitor-Naïve Adult Patients With Generalized Myasthenia Gravis Recruiting NCT03920293 Phase 3 Placebo
28 Beta-agonist Efficacy and Tolerability as Adjuvant Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis Recruiting NCT03914638 Phase 2, Phase 3 Salbutamol 4Mg Tablet;Placebo oral capsule
29 A Randomized, Placebo-control, Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Effect of Amifampridine Phosphate in Patients With MuSK Antibody Positive Myasthenia Gravis, and a Sample of AChR Antibody Positive Myasthenia Gravis Patients Recruiting NCT03304054 Phase 3 Amifampridine Phosphate;Placebo Oral Tablet
30 The Efficacy and Safety of Leflunomide or Azathioprine Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis Patients After Expand Thymectomy Recruiting NCT01727193 Phase 3 Azathioprine;Leflunomide
31 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Multicenter Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Rituximab (Mabthera®) in Patients With New Onset Generalized Myasthenia Gravis (MG) Recruiting NCT02950155 Phase 3 Rituximab;Sodium Chloride solution
32 Postoperative Pain and Quality of Life for Patients Undergoing Mediastinal Tumor Resection by Subxiphoid and Intercostal VATS:A Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT03521986 Phase 3
33 A 48-Week Prospective, Double-Blinded, Randomized, Cross-over Design in Multicenter Study of 250 Unit of Dysport Versus 50 Unit of Neuronox Injection For Cervical Dystonia in Thai Patients Not yet recruiting NCT03805152 Phase 3 Neuronox(R);Dysport (R)
34 Efficacy of Prednisone In the Treatment of Ocular Myasthenia: The EPITOME' Study Terminated NCT00995722 Phase 3 Prednisone;Placebo
35 Study of Different Doses of Nifedipine to Treat Preterm Labor Terminated NCT00137501 Phase 3 Nifedipine
36 A Multi-centre, Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Subcutaneous Injections of the Active Targeted Immunotherapy CV-MG01 in Patients With Moderate to Severe Myasthenia Gravis. Withdrawn NCT03165435 Phase 2, Phase 3
37 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Study to Evaluate the Safety, Efficacy, and Pharmacokinetics of ARGX-113 in Patients With Myasthenia Gravis Who Have Generalized Muscle Weakness Completed NCT02965573 Phase 2 Placebo
38 A Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel Group Study to Preliminarily Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of CFZ533 in Patients With Moderate to Severe Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT02565576 Phase 2 Placebo;CFZ533
39 A Multicenter, Randomized, Investigator- and Subject-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Treatment Sequence Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of UCB7665 in Subjects With Moderate to Severe Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT03052751 Phase 2 UCB7665
40 Phase II Trial of Methotrexate in Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT00814138 Phase 2 Methotrexate
41 A Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Immune Globulin (Human), 10% Caprylate/Chromatography Purified (IGIV-C) in Symptomatic Subjects With Generalized Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT02473952 Phase 2 IGIV-C;Placebo
42 B Cell Targeted Treatment In Myasthenia Gravis (BeatMG): A Phase II Trial of Rituximab In Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT02110706 Phase 2 Rituximab;Placebo
43 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of lGIV-C as a Corticosteroid Sparing Agent in Corticosteroid Dependent Patients With Generalized Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT02473965 Phase 2 IGIV-C;Placebo
44 Phase 1-2 Pilot Study of Rituximab (Rituxan) in Refractory Myasthenia Gravis. Completed NCT00619671 Phase 1, Phase 2 Rituximab (Rituxan)
45 A First-in-human and Proof-of-concept Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenic Response of CV-MG01, Acetylcholine Receptor Mimetic Peptides, as Potential Therapeutic Vaccine, in Patients With Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT02609022 Phase 1, Phase 2
46 A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacodynamics of Belimumab in Subjects With Generalized Myasthenia Gravis (MG) Completed NCT01480596 Phase 2
47 FORCE: Rituximab (CD 20+-B Cell-depleting Monoclonal Antibody) for the Treatment of Refractory Inflammatory Myopathies With Specific Antibodies and Refractory Myasthenia Gravis Completed NCT00774462 Phase 2 Rituximab
48 Augmentation of Parasympathetic Signaling With Pyridostigmine in Heart Failure Completed NCT01415921 Phase 2 Pyridostigmine Bromide
49 Effect of IVIg on Pregnancy Rate of Patient With Recurrent Implantation Failure With Immunological Causes Completed NCT03174964 Phase 2 IVIg
50 Pilot Study of an ACh-E Inhibitor Upon Immune Activation Markers in HIV-1 Infected Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Showing an Incomplete Immune Response. Completed NCT00518154 Phase 2 Pyridostigmine tablets

Search NIH Clinical Center for Myasthenia Gravis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :

Neostigmine bromide
Neostigmine Methylsulfate
Pyridostigmine Bromide

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Myasthenia Gravis cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Myasthenia Gravis:
Hematopoietic stem cells for refractory myasthenia gravis
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Myasthenia Gravis:
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells

Cochrane evidence based reviews: myasthenia gravis

Genetic Tests for Myasthenia Gravis

Genetic tests related to Myasthenia Gravis:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Myasthenia Gravis 29

Anatomical Context for Myasthenia Gravis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Myasthenia Gravis:

Thymus, T Cells, Testes, Eye, Skeletal Muscle, B Cells, Thyroid

Publications for Myasthenia Gravis

Articles related to Myasthenia Gravis:

(show top 50) (show all 13509)
# Title Authors PMID Year
An IRF8-binding promoter variant and AIRE control CHRNA1 promiscuous expression in thymus. 38 8
17687331 2007
Overexpression of IFN-induced protein 10 and its receptor CXCR3 in myasthenia gravis. 38 8
15843529 2005
Markedly enhanced susceptibility to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in the absence of decay-accelerating factor protection. 38 8
12417565 2002
Myasthenia gravis in a woman with congenital AChR deficiency due to epsilon-subunit mutations. 38 8
12034803 2002
The natural history and ophthalmic involvement in childhood myasthenia gravis at the hospital for sick children. 38 8
10711889 2000
Suppression of ongoing experimental myasthenia by oral treatment with an acetylcholine receptor recombinant fragment. 38 8
10606626 1999
Immunogenetic heterogeneity and associated autoimmune disorders in myasthenia gravis: a population-based survey in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy. 38 8
7887131 1994
Familial autoimmune myasthenia gravis. 38 8
7908425 1994
Familial autoimmune myasthenia gravis with different pathogenetic antibodies. 38 8
3225607 1988
Myasthenia gravis in monozygotic twins. Clinical follow-up nine years after thymectomy. 38 8
6541031 1984
Heterozygous C2-deficiency and myasthenia gravis. 38 8
7191069 1980
Gm allotypes in myasthenia gravis. 38 8
6103092 1980
A genetic study of infantile and juvenile myasthenia gravis. 38 8
5026010 1972
Familial myasthenia gravis. Report of 27 patients in 12 families and review of 164 patients in 73 families. 38 8
5146412 1971
Genetic study of sample of 70 patients with myasthenia gravis. 38 8
4976972 1968
Familial myasthenia gravis. 38 8
6036434 1967
Myasthenia gravis occurring in families. 38 8
5948009 1966
14237778 1965
Unusual familial occurrence of myasthenia gravis. 38 8
13823698 1960
An ocular myasthenia gravis attack after oral pyrantel pamoate: An unusual case report. 38 17
31277177 2019
Thymoma associated myasthenia gravis with atypical presentation of lipomatous tongue atrophy: a case report. 38 17
31143343 2019
Clinical syndromes of myasthenia in infancy and childhood. A review. 8
341864 1978
Weak and Winded. 17
31269370 2019
Preparation and in vitro screening of symmetrical bispyridinium cholinesterase inhibitors bearing different connecting linkage-initial study for Myasthenia gravis implications. 9 38
20138518 2010
The use of sugammadex in a patient with myasthenia gravis. 9 38
20105151 2010
A functional SNP in the regulatory region of the decay-accelerating factor gene associates with extraocular muscle pareses in myasthenia gravis. 9 38
19675582 2010
Structure-activity relationship of quaternary acetylcholinesterase inhibitors - outlook for early myasthenia gravis treatment. 9 38
20345342 2010
[Mediation of cellular immune response by TP5 in pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis]. 9 38
20193562 2009
The PTPN22gain-of-function+1858T(+) genotypes correlate with low IL-2 expression in thymomas and predispose to myasthenia gravis. 9 38
19693092 2009
Myasthenia gravis patients with anti-MuSK antibodies. 9 38
20102061 2009
Methylacridinium and its cholinergic properties. 9 38
19565307 2009
[Effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors on patients with MuSK antibody positive myasthenia gravis]. 9 38
19999149 2009
The effect of plasma from muscle-specific tyrosine kinase myasthenia patients on regenerating endplates. 9 38
19745065 2009
Immunocapture and identification of cell membrane protein antigenic targets of serum autoantibodies. 9 38
19332416 2009
Muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibody positive myasthenia gravis current status. 9 38
19587811 2009
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in MG: to be or not to be? 9 38
19260048 2009
Autoimmune disorders of the neuromuscular junction. 9 38
19428298 2009
Interleukin-10 promoter polymorphisms in myasthenia gravis. 9 38
19299022 2009
Muscle histopathology in myasthenia gravis with antibodies against MuSK and AChR. 9 38
19187062 2009
Muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase antibody-positive and seronegative myasthenia gravis. 9 38
19349708 2009
Autoantibodies against type I interferons as an additional diagnostic criterion for autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I. 9 38
18728167 2008
A potential role for B-cell activating factor in the pathogenesis of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. 9 38
18852352 2008
Hypothetical review: thymic aberrations and type-I interferons; attempts to deduce autoimmunizing mechanisms from unexpected clues in monogenic and paraneoplastic syndromes. 9 38
18727623 2008
Identification of CTLA-4 isoforms produced by alternative splicing and their association with myasthenia gravis. 9 38
18595775 2008
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and cholinergic modulation in Myasthenia Gravis and neuroinflammation. 9 38
18684515 2008
Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) antibody-associated myasthenia gravis after bone marrow transplantation. 9 38
18537145 2008
Two cases of thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis without antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor. 9 38
18657424 2008
[Thymopentin 5 in treatment of relapse after extended thymectomy: a randomized comparative clinical trial of 135 patients with myasthenia gravis]. 9 38
19087694 2008
Serum BAFF expression in patients with myasthenia gravis. 9 38
18586330 2008
PTPN22 R620W promotes production of anti-AChR autoantibodies and IL-2 in myasthenia gravis. 9 38
18533277 2008

Variations for Myasthenia Gravis

Expression for Myasthenia Gravis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Myasthenia Gravis.

Pathways for Myasthenia Gravis

Pathways related to Myasthenia Gravis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 37)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.6 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
Show member pathways
12.55 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
Show member pathways
5 12.38 TNFSF13B TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.23 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNG
Show member pathways
12.22 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
Show member pathways
12.04 TNFSF13B IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
Show member pathways
12.02 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG
Show member pathways
12 11.9 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
13 11.86 TNF IL10 IFNG
15 11.76 IL4 IL2 IFNG
Show member pathways
17 11.72 TNF IL2 IL10 IFNG
18 11.67 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
Show member pathways
11.63 TNF IL2 IFNG
Show member pathways
11.62 TNF IL2 IFNG
Show member pathways
23 11.53 TNF IL2 IFNG
25 11.5 TNF IL10 IFNG
26 11.5 TNF IL4 IL10
27 11.48 TNF IL2 IFNG
28 11.44 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
29 11.4 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
30 11.34 TNF IL10 IFNG
31 11.27 IL4 IL2 IFNG
32 11.25 TNF IL4 IFNG
33 11.15 TNFSF13B TNF IL4 IL2 IL10
34 11.12 IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
35 10.98 TNFSF13B TNF MUSK IL4 IL2 IL10
36 10.77 RYR1 CHRNE CHRNA1
37 10.48 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG

GO Terms for Myasthenia Gravis

Cellular components related to Myasthenia Gravis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 9.98 TNF RYR1 MUSK CTLA4 CHRNG CHRNE
2 cell junction GO:0030054 9.87 RAPSN MUSK CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1 AGRN
3 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.65 RAPSN MUSK CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
5 acetylcholine-gated channel complex GO:0005892 9.33 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
6 neuromuscular junction GO:0031594 9.02 RAPSN MUSK CHRNE CHRNA1 ACHE
7 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.18 TNFSF13B TNF RYR1 RAPSN MUSK MBP
8 extracellular region GO:0005576 10.06 TTN TNFSF13B TNF IL4 IL2 IL10

Biological processes related to Myasthenia Gravis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 31)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.95 TNF IL4 IL2 IL10
2 ion transmembrane transport GO:0034220 9.94 RYR1 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
3 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.88 TNF MUSK IL2 IFNG
4 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.8 IL4 IL2 IFNG
5 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.79 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
6 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.77 TNFSF13B IL4 IL2
7 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.76 TNF IFNG AIRE
8 nervous system process GO:0050877 9.74 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
9 regulation of postsynaptic membrane potential GO:0060078 9.72 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
10 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.72 RAPSN MBP CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
11 response to nicotine GO:0035094 9.67 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
12 muscle contraction GO:0006936 9.67 TTN RYR1 CHRNG CHRNE
13 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 9.65 TNF IL10
14 positive regulation of B cell proliferation GO:0030890 9.65 TNFSF13B IL4 IL2
15 negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host GO:0044130 9.64 TNF IL10
16 negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034115 9.63 MBP IL10
17 positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes GO:0048304 9.63 IL4 IL2
18 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.61 TNF IL10
19 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.59 IL4 IL10
20 neuromuscular synaptic transmission GO:0007274 9.58 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
21 negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response GO:0002740 9.56 TNF IL10
22 regulation of synaptic growth at neuromuscular junction GO:0008582 9.54 MUSK AGRN
23 type 2 immune response GO:0042092 9.52 IL4 IL10
24 regulation of isotype switching GO:0045191 9.51 IL4 IL10
25 receptor biosynthetic process GO:0032800 9.46 TNF IL10
26 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.43 TNF IFNG
27 regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation GO:0045589 9.33 IL2 IFNG CTLA4
28 immune response GO:0006955 9.28 TNFSF13B TNF MBP IL4 IL2 IL10
29 positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process GO:0060557 9.26 TNF IFNG
30 synaptic transmission, cholinergic GO:0007271 9.26 RAPSN CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
31 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10 TTN TNF MUSK IL4 IFNG

Molecular functions related to Myasthenia Gravis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ion channel activity GO:0005216 9.67 RYR1 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
2 protease binding GO:0002020 9.62 TTN TNF RYR1 MBP
3 extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0005230 9.58 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
4 acetylcholine-gated cation-selective channel activity GO:0022848 9.43 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
5 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.43 TNFSF13B TNF IL4 IL2 IL10 IFNG
6 acetylcholine receptor activity GO:0015464 9.33 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1
7 acetylcholine binding GO:0042166 8.92 CHRNG CHRNE CHRNA1 ACHE
8 protein binding GO:0005515 10.36 TTN TNFSF13B TNF TMPO RYR1 MUSK

Sources for Myasthenia Gravis

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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