MCID: MYC012
MIFTS: 49

Mycetoma

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Mycetoma

MalaCards integrated aliases for Mycetoma:

Name: Mycetoma 20 58 70 32
Madura Foot 20 58
Mycetoma of Foot 70

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
mycetoma
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

ICD10 32 B47 B47.9
MESH via Orphanet 45 D008271
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 B47.0 B47.1 B47.9
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C0024449
Orphanet 58 ORPHA2583
UMLS 70 C0024449 C2355609

Summaries for Mycetoma

GARD : 20 Mycetoma is a chronic infection that is caused by fungi or actinomycetes ( bacteria that produce filaments, like fungi). The first symptom of the condition is generally painless swelling beneath the skin, which progresses to a nodule (lump) over several years. Eventually, affected people experience massive swelling and hardening of the affected area; skin rupture; and formation of sinus tracts (holes) that discharge pus and grains filled with organisms. Some affected people have no discomfort while others report itching and/or pain. Mycetoma is rare in the United States, but is commonly diagnosed in Africa, Mexico and India. In these countries, it occurs most frequently in farmers, shepherds, and people living in rural areas. Frequent exposure to penetrating wounds by thorns or splinters is a risk factor. Treatment varies based on the cause of the condition and may include antibiotics or antifungal medications.

MalaCards based summary : Mycetoma, also known as madura foot, is related to eumycotic mycetoma and aspergillosis. An important gene associated with Mycetoma is THBS4 (Thrombospondin 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are NF-kappaB Signaling and Insulin receptor recycling. The drugs Guaifenesin and Phenylpropanolamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, lymph node and tongue, and related phenotypes are subcutaneous nodule and recurrent bacterial skin infections

Wikipedia : 73 Mycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous infection caused by aerobic actinomycetic bacteria (actinomycetoma)... more...

Related Diseases for Mycetoma

Diseases related to Mycetoma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 353)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 eumycotic mycetoma 32.8 TPT1 CHIT1
2 aspergillosis 30.2 IL10 CXCL8 CCL5
3 fungal infectious disease 29.9 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
4 lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia 29.9 HSD3B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
5 peritonitis 29.8 IL10 CXCL8 CR1
6 filariasis 29.7 NOS2 IL10 CHIT1 CCL5
7 subcutaneous mycosis 29.6 IL17A IL10
8 candidiasis 29.4 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CHIT1
9 endocarditis 29.4 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
10 bone inflammation disease 29.4 MMP9 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
11 leprosy 3 29.3 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
12 silicosis 29.0 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
13 nasal cavity disease 28.7 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CCL5
14 keratitis, hereditary 28.6 MMP9 IL17A IL10 CYP1B1 CXCL8
15 interstitial lung disease 28.5 MMP9 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CCL5
16 lung disease 28.4 MMP9 IL17A IL10 CXCR2 CXCL8 CCL5
17 pneumonia 28.3 IL17A IL10 CXCR2 CXCL8 CCL5
18 rhinitis 28.3 TPT1 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CCL5
19 cystic fibrosis 28.2 NOS2 MMP9 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
20 actinomycosis 11.2
21 mixed epithelial stromal tumour 10.3 CYP1B1 COMT
22 chromoblastomycosis 10.3
23 transsexualism 10.3 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
24 whiplash 10.3 COMT CCL5
25 osteomyelitis 10.2
26 nocardiosis 10.2
27 gender identity disorder 10.2 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
28 internal hemorrhoid 10.2 NOS2 MMP9
29 disease by infectious agent 10.2
30 testicular germ cell tumor 10.2 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 COMT
31 dermatomycosis 10.2 TPT1 CHIT1
32 chronic granulomatous disease 10.2
33 46,xy sex reversal 2 10.2 HSD3B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
34 disorder of sexual development 10.2 HSD3B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
35 bacterial infectious disease 10.2
36 baritosis 10.1 NOS2 CXCL8
37 denture stomatitis 10.1 CXCL8 CSN1S1
38 pseudohermaphroditism 10.1 HSD3B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
39 leiomyoma 10.1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1 COMT
40 cardiac rupture 10.1 MMP9 CXCL8
41 cow milk allergy 10.1 IL10 CSN1S1
42 sporotrichosis 10.1
43 dermatophytosis 10.1
44 posttransplant acute limbic encephalitis 10.1
45 mammographic density 10.1 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1 COMT
46 enterocolitis 10.1 IL10 CXCL8
47 phaeohyphomycosis 10.1
48 amelogenesis imperfecta, type ig 10.1 HSD3B1 CYP1B1 CYP19A1
49 estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer 10.1 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CXCL8
50 asperger syndrome 10.1 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1 COMT

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Mycetoma:



Diseases related to Mycetoma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Mycetoma

Human phenotypes related to Mycetoma:

58 31 (show all 30)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 subcutaneous nodule 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001482
2 recurrent bacterial skin infections 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0005406
3 recurrent fungal infections 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002841
4 prominent superficial veins 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001015
5 stiff skin 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0030053
6 structural foot deformity 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0010219
7 cobblestone-like hyperkeratosis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0031288
8 osteoporosis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000939
9 abnormality of the lymphatic system 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100763
10 osteomyelitis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002754
11 abnormality of the hand 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001155
12 abnormality of the knee 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002815
13 cutaneous cyst 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0025245
14 abnormality of forearm bone 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0040072
15 abnormal form of the vertebral bodies 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0003312
16 back pain 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0003418
17 bone cyst 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0012062
18 vertebral compression fractures 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002953
19 painless fractures due to injury 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002661
20 scalp tenderness 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100809
21 paraplegia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0010550
22 pathologic fracture 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002756
23 pelvic mass 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0031501
24 abdominal mass 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0031500
25 abnormal thorax morphology 31 very rare (1%) HP:0000765
26 abnormality of the thorax 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
27 abnormality of the nervous system 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
28 abnormal appendicular skeleton morphology 58 Occasional (29-5%)
29 abnormal bone structure 58 Frequent (79-30%)
30 abnormality of head or neck 58 Very rare (<4-1%)

Drugs & Therapeutics for Mycetoma

Drugs for Mycetoma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 14)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
2
Phenylpropanolamine Approved, Vet_approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 14838-15-4 26934
3
Itraconazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84625-61-6 55283
4
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 22916-47-8 4189
5
Clotrimazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 23593-75-1 2812
6 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors Phase 4
7
Hydroxyitraconazole Phase 4 108222
8 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
9 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
10 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 4
11 Antitussive Agents Phase 4
12 Hormones Phase 4
13 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
14 Antifungal Agents Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY OF ITRACONAZOLE IN CHRONIC CAVITARY PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS Completed NCT01259336 Phase 4 Itraconazole;treatment in cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis
2 A Randomized, Double Blind Phase II Proof-of-Concept Superiority Trial of Fosravuconazole 200 mg or 300 mg Weekly Dose Versus Itraconazole 400 mg Daily, All Three Arms in Combination With Surgery, in Patients With Eumycetoma in Sudan Unknown status NCT03086226 Phase 2 Fosravuconazole;Itraconazole
3 Studying the Tissue Microenvironment Signatures of the Mycetoma Granuloma Completed NCT04401969

Search NIH Clinical Center for Mycetoma

Genetic Tests for Mycetoma

Anatomical Context for Mycetoma

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Mycetoma:

40
Bone, Lymph Node, Tongue, Pituitary, Bone Marrow, Colon, Prostate

Publications for Mycetoma

Articles related to Mycetoma:

(show top 50) (show all 1675)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Development of E1224 by leveraging a strategic partnership for the medicines creation against neglected tropical diseases. 61
33370607 2021
2
Localized cutaneous infection caused by Scedosporium apiospermum: Report of a case diagnosed on cytology. 61
33074579 2021
3
Estimates of serious fungal infection burden in Côte d'Ivoire and country health profile. 61
33259981 2021
4
First report of cutaneous mycetoma by Paecilomyces variotii and the successful treatment with combined itraconazole and terbinafine along with resection surgeries. 61
33759175 2021
5
Pulmonary Madurella mycetomatis mycetoma secondary to knee eumycetoma, Senegal. 61
33764976 2021
6
Mycetoma spatial geographical distribution in the Eastern Sennar locality, Sennar State, Sudan. 61
33675358 2021
7
Invasive, aggressive mastoid bone eumycetoma: a treatment challenge. 61
33682008 2021
8
Mycetoma in West Africa. 61
33728466 2021
9
A possible role for ticks in the transmission of Madurella mycetomatis in a mycetoma-endemic village in Sudan. 61
33690861 2021
10
Distribution of invasive fungal infections: Molecular epidemiology, etiology, clinical conditions, diagnosis and risk factors: A 3-year experience with 490 patients under intensive care. 61
33212195 2021
11
Madura foot: Actinomycetoma of the calcaneum. 61
33689841 2021
12
A study of 87 mycetoma patients seen at three health facilities in Nouakchott, Mauritania. 61
33580966 2021
13
Mycetoma in Sudan: experience of the Mycetoma Project from 1968 to 1991. 61
33561267 2021
14
Mycetoma: the journey from neglect to recognition as a neglected tropical disease. 61
33539538 2021
15
Mycetoma imaging: the best practice. 61
33537774 2021
16
In vitro susceptibility testing for black grain eumycetoma causative agents. 61
33537781 2021
17
A case of false identity: Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma masquerading as Madura Foot. 61
33573513 2021
18
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on AIDS-related mycoses and fungal neglected tropical diseases: Why should we worry? 61
33561159 2021
19
Case Report: Coral Reef Pathogen Aspergillus sydowii Causing Black Grain Mycetoma: A Review. 61
33399044 2021
20
Melanin production in coelomycetous agents of black grain eumycetoma. 61
33463687 2021
21
Actinomycetoma laboratory-based diagnosis: a mini-review. 61
33449118 2021
22
Metagenomics of black grains: new highlights in the understanding of eumycetoma. 61
33449116 2021
23
Multiple extensive Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma lesions: a case report and review of the literature. 61
33406268 2021
24
Mycetoma caused by Microascus gracilis: a novel agent of human eumycetoma in Sudan. 61
33515449 2021
25
Mycetoma and the Community Dermatology Program, Mexico. 61
33479763 2021
26
The challenges of recruitment in clinical trials in developing countries: the Mycetoma Research Centre experience. 61
33484566 2021
27
Deep mycoses and pseudomycoses of the foot: a single-center retrospective study of 160 cases, in a tertiary-care center in Mexico. 61
33453613 2021
28
Extensive perineal Actinomadura pelletieri actinomycetoma-induced urethral stricture: a rare complication. 61
33399848 2021
29
Abdominal wall actinomycotic mycetoma involving the bowel: a rare entity. 61
33504519 2021
30
Mycetoma in Moshi, Tanzania. 61
33438021 2021
31
Compressive epidural collection as an unusual complication of FESS for a pediatric mycetoma. 61
32409960 2021
32
Massive complicated secondary inguinal mycetoma: a case series. 61
33476389 2021
33
Surgery in mycetoma-endemic villages: unique experience. 61
33515452 2021
34
Scedosporium apiospermum lung disease in a patient with nontuberculous mycobacteria. 61
33318800 2021
35
Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces Phage Salutena. 61
33414317 2021
36
Development of the Global Mycetoma Working Group. 61
33320935 2020
37
Mycetoma - a long journey out of the shadows. 61
33313922 2020
38
New molecular marker for phylogenetic reconstruction of black yeast-like fungi (Chaetothyriales) with hypothetical EIF2AK2 kinase gene. 61
33213783 2020
39
Human actinomycetoma caused by Actinomadura mexicana in Sudan: the first report. 61
33382899 2020
40
A Short Tandem Repeat Assay for Studying Genetic Variation in Madurella mycetomatis (MmySTR). 61
33298608 2020
41
Severely stigmatised skin neglected tropical diseases: a protocol for social science engagement. 61
33324991 2020
42
Scedosporium Cell Wall: From Carbohydrate-Containing Structures to Host-Pathogen Interactions. 61
32990888 2020
43
Nasal Gel Loaded with Amphotericin Nanotransferosomes as Antifungal Treatment for Fungal Sinusitis. 61
33379314 2020
44
Madura foot in a developed tropical country. 61
33075524 2020
45
Mycetoma caused by Microsporum canis in a patient with renal transplant: A case report and review of the literature. 61
33217133 2020
46
Molecular identification of Actinomadura madurae isolated from a patient originally from Algeria; observations from a case report. 61
33176717 2020
47
Mycetoma - a history of the first contributions to the description of the disease and its pathogenesis. 61
33205160 2020
48
The use of traditional medicines among mycetoma patients. 61
33247308 2020
49
Research capacity building with mycetoma as the central research challenge. 61
33210120 2020
50
Inducible nitric oxide synthase blockade with aminoguanidine, protects mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis from actinomycetoma development. 61
33091049 2020

Variations for Mycetoma

Expression for Mycetoma

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Mycetoma.

Pathways for Mycetoma

Pathways related to Mycetoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 12.39 TPT1 IL17A IL10 CCL5
2
Show member pathways
12.3 NOS2 CXCR2 CXCL8 CCL5
3
Show member pathways
12.15 NOS2 CXCR2 CXCL8 CCL5
4
Show member pathways
12.11 IL10 CXCR2 CXCL8 CCL5
5 11.85 NOS2 MMP9 CXCL8
6 11.75 NOS2 IL10 CXCL8
7 11.7 IL17A CXCL8 CCL5
8
Show member pathways
11.62 HSD3B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
9 11.58 NOS2 IL10 CXCL8
10 11.49 NOS2 IL10 CR1
11
Show member pathways
11.43 NOS2 MMP9 CXCL8
12 11.41 MMP9 CXCL8 CCL5
13 11.41 NOS2 MMP9 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
14
Show member pathways
11.36 HSD3B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1 COMT
15 11.27 IL10 CXCL8 CCL5
16 11.27 HSD3B1 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
17 11.16 THBS4 IL10 CXCL8 CR1
18
Show member pathways
11.08 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 COMT
19
Show member pathways
10.85 HSD3B1 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1 COMT
20 10.81 MMP9 CCL5

GO Terms for Mycetoma

Cellular components related to Mycetoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 TPT1 THBS4 MMP9 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
2 organelle membrane GO:0031090 9.13 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1

Biological processes related to Mycetoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.8 NOS2 IL17A CXCR2 CXCL8 CCL5
2 cellular response to interleukin-1 GO:0071347 9.7 IL17A CXCL8 CCL5
3 neutrophil chemotaxis GO:0030593 9.67 CXCR2 CXCL8 CCL5
4 chemokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070098 9.63 CXCR2 CXCL8 CCL5
5 immune response GO:0006955 9.63 IL17A IL10 CXCR2 CXCL8 CHIT1 CCL5
6 steroid biosynthetic process GO:0006694 9.61 HSD3B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
7 dendritic cell chemotaxis GO:0002407 9.58 CXCR2 CCL5
8 nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0006809 9.57 NOS2 CYP1B1
9 negative regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0045744 9.56 CXCL8 CCL5
10 estrogen biosynthetic process GO:0006703 9.55 HSD3B1 CYP19A1
11 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.54 IL10 CXCL8
12 androgen biosynthetic process GO:0006702 9.51 HSD3B1 CYP17A1
13 glucocorticoid biosynthetic process GO:0006704 9.48 HSD3B1 CYP17A1
14 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.43 IL10 CYP1B1 CCL5
15 endothelial cell-cell adhesion GO:0071603 9.37 THBS4 CYP1B1
16 positive regulation of cellular biosynthetic process GO:0031328 9.32 CXCL8 CCL5
17 neutrophil activation GO:0042119 9.13 CXCR2 CXCL8 CCL5
18 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.1 NOS2 MMP9 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CCL5

Molecular functions related to Mycetoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oxidoreductase activity GO:0016491 9.77 NOS2 HSD3B1 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
2 monooxygenase activity GO:0004497 9.5 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
3 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.46 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CCL5
4 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen GO:0016705 9.43 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
5 heme binding GO:0020037 9.26 NOS2 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1
6 oxygen binding GO:0019825 8.8 CYP1B1 CYP19A1 CYP17A1

Sources for Mycetoma

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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