Categories: Fetal diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Myelomeningocele

Summaries for Myelomeningocele

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Myelomeningocele is the most severe form of spina bifida. It happens when parts of the spinal cord and nerves come through the open part of the spine. It causes nerve damage and other disabilities. Seventy to ninety percent of children with this condition also have too much fluid on their brains (hydrocephalus). This happens because fluid that protects the brain and spinal cord is unable to drain like it should. The fluid builds up, causing pressure and swelling. Without treatment, a person's head grows too big, and they may have brain damage. Other disorders of the spinal cord may be seen, including syringomyelia and hip dislocation. The cause of myelomeningocele is unknown. However, low levels of folic acid in a woman's body before and during early pregnancy is thought to play a part in this type of birth defect.

MalaCards based summary : Myelomeningocele, also known as meningomyelocele, is related to neural tube defects, folate-sensitive and strabismus. An important gene associated with Myelomeningocele is MTHFR (Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signaling by Wnt and Wnt / Hedgehog / Notch. The drugs Oxybutynin and Neuromuscular Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include spinal cord, brain and skin, and related phenotypes are growth/size/body region and cardiovascular system

Disease Ontology : 12 A spina bifida characterized by protrusion of the spinal cord through an opening, covered by meningeal membranes.

CDC : 3 Spina bifida is a condition that affects the spine and is usually apparent at birth. It is a type of neural tube defect (NTD). Spina bifida can happen anywhere along the spine if the neural tube does not close all the way. When the neural tube doesn't close all the way, the backbone that protects the spinal cord doesn't form and close as it should. This often results in damage to the spinal cord and nerves. Spina bifida might cause physical and intellectual disabilities that range from mild to severe. The severity depends on: The size and location of the opening in the spine. Whether part of the spinal cord and nerves are affected.

Wikipedia : 75 Spina bifida is a birth defect in which there is incomplete closing of the spine and membranes around... more...

Related Diseases for Myelomeningocele

Diseases related to Myelomeningocele via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 378)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neural tube defects, folate-sensitive 32.3 MTHFR MTHFD1
2 strabismus 30.2 VANGL2 VANGL1 PRICKLE1
3 placental abruption 30.1 MTHFR MTHFD1
4 neural tube defects 28.8 VANGL2 VANGL1 SLC19A1 SCRIB PRICKLE1 PAX3
6 chiari malformation type ii 11.8
7 chiari malformation 11.7
8 meningocele 11.6
9 schwartz cohen-addad lambert syndrome 11.6
10 ankyloblepharon filiforme imperforate anus 11.3
11 otopalatodigital syndrome, type ii 11.1
12 heterotaxy, visceral, 1, x-linked 11.1
13 chromosome 15q24 deletion syndrome 11.1
14 congenital laryngeal palsy 11.1
15 orofaciodigital syndrome 12 11.1
16 hydrocephalus 11.0
17 congenital hydrocephalus 11.0
18 scoliosis 10.7
19 neurogenic bladder 10.7
20 hydrocephalus, congenital, 1 10.5
21 tethered cord syndrome 10.5
22 syringomyelia, noncommunicating isolated 10.4
23 syringomyelia 10.4
24 vesicoureteral reflux 1 10.4
25 spinal cord injury 10.4
26 rare surgical neurologic disease 10.4
27 paraplegia 10.4
28 spasticity 10.4
29 hydronephrosis 10.4
30 constipation 10.4
31 spina bifida aperta 10.3
32 acute cystitis 10.3
33 ischemic neuropathy 10.3 NGF MTHFR
34 hydromyelia 10.3
35 methotrexate toxicity or dose selection 10.3 SLC19A1 MTHFR
36 latex allergy 10.3
37 neurogenic bowel 10.3
38 cerebrospinal fluid leak 10.3
39 clubfoot 10.2
40 detrusor sphincter dyssynergia 10.2
41 cerebral palsy 10.2
42 diastematomyelia 10.2
43 split spinal cord malformation 10.2
44 pediatric osteosarcoma 10.2 SLC19A1 MTHFR
45 lipomatosis, multiple 10.2
46 pleomorphic lipoma 10.2
47 oligohydramnios 10.2
48 47,xyy 10.2
49 precocious puberty 10.2
50 branch retinal artery occlusion 10.2 PAX3 MTHFR

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Myelomeningocele:

Diseases related to Myelomeningocele

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Myelomeningocele

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Myelomeningocele:

46 (show all 17)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.32 CELSR1 DACT1 FOLR1 GFAP MTHFD1 MTHFR
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.27 DACT1 FOLR1 GFAP MTHFD1 NGF PAX3
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.25 CELSR1 DACT1 FOLR1 GFAP MTHFD1 MTHFR
4 embryo MP:0005380 10.22 CELSR1 DACT1 FOLR1 MTHFD1 PAX3 PRICKLE1
5 nervous system MP:0003631 10.18 CELSR1 DACT1 FOLR1 GFAP MTHFD1 MTHFR
6 cellular MP:0005384 10.16 CELSR1 FOLR1 GFAP MTHFD1 PAX3 PRICKLE1
7 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.14 DACT1 FOLR1 GFAP PAX3 PRICKLE1 SCRIB
8 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 10.11 CELSR1 DACT1 MTHFD1 MTHFR PAX3 PRICKLE1
9 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 10.04 CELSR1 FOLR1 PAX3 PRICKLE1 SCRIB VANGL1
10 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.02 CELSR1 FOLR1 PAX3 PRICKLE1 SCRIB VANGL2
11 integument MP:0010771 9.95 CELSR1 MTHFR NGF PAX3 PRICKLE1 SLC19A1
12 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.91 DACT1 MTHFR NGF PAX3 PRICKLE1 SCRIB
13 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.87 DACT1 FOLR1 PAX3 PRICKLE1 SCRIB SLC19A1
14 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.8 CELSR1 DACT1 MTHFR SCRIB SLC19A1 VANGL1
15 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.63 CELSR1 PAX3 PRICKLE1 SCRIB VANGL1 VANGL2
16 skeleton MP:0005390 9.5 CELSR1 DACT1 MTHFR PAX3 PRICKLE1 VANGL1
17 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.28 CELSR1 FOLR1 GFAP MTHFR NGF PAX3

Drugs & Therapeutics for Myelomeningocele

Drugs for Myelomeningocele (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 30)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Oxybutynin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5633-20-5 4634
2 Neuromuscular Agents Phase 4
3 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
Darifenacin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 133099-04-4 444031
5 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2
6 Cholinergic Agents Phase 2
7 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 2
8 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 2
Methenamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 100-97-0 4101
Mycophenolic acid Approved Phase 1 24280-93-1 446541
11 Acidophilus Phase 1
12 Methenamine mandelate Phase 1
13 Methenamine hippurate Phase 1
14 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 1
15 Antitubercular Agents Phase 1
16 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 1
17 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 1
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved 10024-97-2 948
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational 51-84-3 187
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
22 abobotulinumtoxinA
23 Acetylcholine Release Inhibitors
24 Botulinum Toxins
25 Botulinum Toxins, Type A
26 glucocorticoids
27 Hormones
28 Hormone Antagonists
29 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
30 Cola

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 41)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Phase 4 Study of the Effect of Botulinum-A Toxin Injected in Neurogenic Overactive Bladders of Children Born With Myelomeningocele Unknown status NCT00175123 Phase 4 Botulinum A toxin
2 A 14-day, Open-label, Multicenter, Dose-escalating, Sequential Cohort Study to Evaluate Pharmacodynamics (Urodynamics) and Pharmacokinetics, Clinical Efficacy, Tolerability and Safety, Following Multiple Doses (mg/kg/Day) of Darifenacin Liquid Oral Suspension Given b.i.d. (Twice Daily) in Children, Ages 2 - 15 Years, With Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity Terminated NCT00712322 Phase 2 Darifenacin;Darifenacin;Darifenacin;Darifenacin
3 Bacteriuria Eradication Through Probiotics Unknown status NCT00717600 Phase 1
4 Pilot Study of Mycophenolate Mofetil in Congenital Uropathies Completed NCT00193635 Phase 1 mycophenolate mofetil
5 Study to Compare 2 Minimally Invasive Fetal Neural Tube Defect Repair Techniques: Repair Using Durepair Patch vs. Repair Without Durepair Patch Recruiting NCT03794011 Phase 1
6 Minimally Invasive Fetal Neural Tube Defect Repair Study Active, not recruiting NCT02230072 Phase 1
7 Changes in the Cuff Pressure in Infants in the Absence of Nitrous Oxide Unknown status NCT03088761
8 NSC Assistive Technology Research: Reciprocating Gait Orthoses for Paraplegia Patients Unknown status NCT02227407
9 In Vivo Comparison of Air Charged Catheters With Water Filled Catheters for Intravesical and Intrarectal Pressures Recording During Urodynamic Study Unknown status NCT02030340
10 Can Dynamic Ultrasonography Replace Urodynamics in the Follow-up of Patients With Myelomeningocele: A Prospective Concurrent Study Completed NCT03550898
11 Myelomeningocele Repair Randomized Trial Completed NCT00060606
12 Risk Factors Associated With Spontaneous Preterm Delivery Status Post Open Fetal Myelomeningocele Repair Completed NCT03073382
13 Brain Function and White Matter Changes in Congenital, Acute and Chronic Spinal Cord Lesions Completed NCT01208584
14 Feasibility of a Home-based Interactive System for Upper Limb Therapy (YouGrabber) Completed NCT02368223
15 Reliability of the Melbourne Assessment Completed NCT02595411
16 Retrospective Study With Botulinic Toxin in Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity Completed NCT03042052 detrusor infection of Botulinum toxin
17 An Audit of the Posterior Fossa Characterization in Open Spina Bifida Based on Tertiary Center Experience Completed NCT03544970
18 A Three-year Behavioral Treatment of Obese Children: the Effect of Age on Change in BMI SDS and Dropout Rate Completed NCT01029964
19 New Protocol for Identification of Serious Bacterial Infection in Febrile Newborn Completed NCT03183531
20 In Utero Endoscopic Correction of Myelomeningocele: Laparotomy Versus Percutaneous - A Pilot Study Recruiting NCT03856034
21 Extended Criteria For Fetal Myelomeningocele Repair: A Pilot Study Recruiting NCT02664207
22 Prenatal Endoscopic Repair of Fetal Spina Bifida Recruiting NCT02390895
23 Long Term Assessment and Outcome of Adult Patients With Congenital Genitourinary Abnormalities. Recruiting NCT03061084
24 Fetal Endoscopic Surgery for Spina Bifida Recruiting NCT03315637
25 Epigenetic Alterations in Stress Regulation Genes Among Newborns After Fetal Surgery for Myelomeningocele Repair: An Exploratory Study Recruiting NCT04027374
26 Qualitative In-depth Interviews With Women and Their Partners Concerning the Acceptability of Fetal Surgery Recruiting NCT03788122
27 Study of Fetoscopic Repair of Myelomeningocele in Fetuses With Isolated Spina Bifida Recruiting NCT03090633
28 Open Spina Bifida Fetoscopic Repair Project Recruiting NCT03562286
29 Retrograde Colonic Irrigation to Manage Spina Bifida Functional Digestive Sequelae: a Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT02361450
30 Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for the Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis in Children Recruiting NCT02900495
31 Prenatal Surgical Repair of Fetal Myelomeningocele Active, not recruiting NCT01983345
32 Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Extramembranous and Interosseous Technique of Tibialis Posterior Tendon Transfer. Active, not recruiting NCT01751503
33 Minimally Invasive Fetoscopic Regenerative Repair of Spina Bifida - A Pilot Study Enrolling by invitation NCT03936322
34 Telemedicine in Spina Bifida Transition: A Pilot Study Enrolling by invitation NCT03466996
36 Effectiveness of Prophylaxis of Urinary Tract Infections in Children With a Probiotic Containing Lactobacillus Rhamnosus PL1 and Lactobacillus Plantarum PM1, a Randomised Clinical Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03462160
37 A Patient-centered Approach to Urinary Incontinence and Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents With Spina Bifida Not yet recruiting NCT03410667
38 Fetal Myelomeningocele Repair With Maternal BMI Between 35.0 and 40.0 Terminated NCT02509377
39 Evaluation of Hysterotomy Site After Open Fetal Surgery Terminated NCT02493062
40 Open Fetal Myelomeningocele Repair With Maternal BMI Between 35.0 And 40.0 Terminated NCT03044821
41 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Spine Withdrawn NCT01382290

Search NIH Clinical Center for Myelomeningocele

Cochrane evidence based reviews: meningomyelocele

Genetic Tests for Myelomeningocele

Anatomical Context for Myelomeningocele

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Myelomeningocele:

Spinal Cord, Brain, Skin, Bone, Testes, Colon, Kidney

Publications for Myelomeningocele

Articles related to Myelomeningocele:

(show top 50) (show all 4254)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Neural tube defects and folate pathway genes: family-based association tests of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. 9 38
17035141 2006
Homocysteine, folate, lipid profile and MTHFR genotype and disability in children with myelomeningocele. 9 38
16602021 2006
MTHFR 677 TT genotype in a mother and her child with Down syndrome, atrioventricular canal and exstrophy of the bladder: implications of a mutual genetic risk factor? 9 38
16602006 2006
No evidence for heterozygote advantage at MTHFR in patients with lumbosacral myelomeningocele or their relatives. 9 38
14726815 2004
The effect of C677T mutation of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene and plasma folate level on hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with meningomyelocele. 9 38
11048629 2000
Possible interaction of genotypes at cystathionine beta-synthase and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in neural tube defects. NTD Collaborative Group. 9 38
10517251 1999
Myelomeningocele and Waardenburg syndrome (type 3) in patients with interstitial deletions of 2q35 and the PAX3 gene: possible digenic inheritance of a neural tube defect. 9 38
9482647 1998
Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines for Pediatric Myelomeningocele: Executive Summary. 38
31418038 2019
Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline on the Incidence of Tethered Cord Syndrome in Infants With Myelomeningocele With Prenatal Versus Postnatal Repair. 38
31418037 2019
Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline on the Management of Patients With Myelomeningocele: Whether Persistent Ventriculomegaly Adversely Impacts Neurocognitive Development. 38
31418036 2019
Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline on Closure of Myelomeningocele Within 48 Hours to Decrease Infection Risk. 38
31418041 2019
Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline on the Incidence of Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Infants With Myelomeningocele After Prenatal Versus Postnatal Repair. 38
31418039 2019
Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline on the Management of Patients With Myelomeningocele: Whether Prenatal or Postnatal Closure Affects Future Ambulatory Status. 38
31418040 2019
Acellular Dermal Matrix as a Definitive Reconstructive Option for Management of a Large Myelomeningocele Defect in the Setting of Severe Lumbar Kyphosis. 38
31247357 2019
Interhypothalamic adhesions in endoscopic third ventriculostomy. 38
31172270 2019
Fecal Incontinence and Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction in Women With Traumatic and Nontraumatic Spinal Cord Injury. 38
31318774 2019
South African adolescents living with spina bifida: contributors and hindrances to well-being. 38
31368378 2019
A case-control analysis of maternal diet and risk of neural tube defects in Bangladesh. 38
30989821 2019
Fetal surgery for spina bifida. 38
31370010 2019
YouTube as a Source of Patient Information for Prenatal Repair of Myelomeningocele. 38
31430813 2019
Sleep in infants with myelomeningocele-an opportunity to improve outcomes? 38
31420583 2019
The role of appetite-regulating hormones: Ghrelin and leptin in the nutritional status of children with neurogenic bladder due to myelomeningocele. 38
30488610 2019
Biomaterials in fetal surgery. 38
31099350 2019
Comparison of two different methods in preoperative planning of the amount of lengthening in Z achilloplasty technique. 38
31425334 2019
Surgical intervention for hydrocephalus in infancy; etiology, age and treatment data in a Dutch cohort. 38
31407034 2019
Kyphectomy and interbody fixation using lag screws in a child with myelomeningocele kyphosis: a technical case report. 38
31139905 2019
Detailed Analysis of Hydrocephalus and Hindbrain Herniation After Prenatal and Postnatal Myelomeningocele Closure: Report From a Single Institution. 38
31432079 2019
In Utero Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell Therapy Protects Against Myelomeningocele via Spinal Cord Coverage and Hepatocyte Growth Factor Secretion. 38
31407874 2019
Ambulation, lesion level, and health-related quality of life in children with myelomeningocele. 38
31423555 2019
Abnormal anisotropic diffusion properties in pediatric myelomeningocele patients treated with fetal surgery: an initial DTI study. 38
31399765 2019
Towards Guideline-Based Management of Tethered Cord Syndrome in Spina Bifida: A Global Health Paradigm Shift in the Era of Prenatal Surgery. 38
31284336 2019
Real prevalence of neural tube defects in Japan: How many of such pregnancies have been terminated? 38
30883906 2019
SOX3 duplication: A genetic cause to investigate in fetuses with neural tube defects. 38
31299102 2019
Evaluation of Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) After Exposure to Raltegravir During Pregnancy. 38
30908331 2019
Open fetal surgery for neural tube defects. 38
31078425 2019
Neural-Tube Defects and Antiretroviral Treatment Regimens in Botswana. 38
31329379 2019
Prevalence of Congenital Anomalies in the Japan Environment and Children's Study. 38
30249945 2019
Morbidity and cost burden of prenatal myelomeningocele repair. 38
31345076 2019
Learning curves of open and endoscopic fetal spina bifida closure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 38
31273862 2019
Program Evaluation of Camp V.I.P: Promoting Self-confidence and Independence for Patients with Spina Bifida. 38
31026678 2019
Bladder Self-management in the Transition to Adulthood With Spina Bifida in 3 Countries: A Comparative Study. 38
31274863 2019
Are primary and secondary types of brain anomalies exclusive factors affecting the attention networks in individuals with spina bifida? 38
31282688 2019
Fetal myelomeningocele diagnosed in the antenatal period: Maternal-fetal characteristics and their relationship with pregnancy decision-making. 38
31381533 2019
An Open Fetal Myelomeningocele Repair With Incorporation of a Skin Allograft. 38
31289012 2019
Intracranial infection in patients with myelomeningocele: profile and risk factors. 38
31289854 2019
Increased complications without neurological benefit are associated with prophylactic spinal cord untethering prior to scoliosis surgery in children with myelomeningocele. 38
31267182 2019
Economic benefit of neurosurgical intervention for infant hydrocephalus in Haiti. 38
31277055 2019
Intravesical Electromotive Botulinum Toxin Type A (Dysport) Administration in Children With Myelomeningocele. 38
31299327 2019
Nationwide survey of fetal myelomeningocele in Japan: Background for fetal surgery. 38
31116463 2019
Long-term follow-up of myelomeningocele defect closure with dorsal intercostal artery perforator propeller flaps. 38
30610481 2019

Variations for Myelomeningocele

Expression for Myelomeningocele

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Myelomeningocele.

Pathways for Myelomeningocele

GO Terms for Myelomeningocele

Cellular components related to Myelomeningocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 anchored component of external side of plasma membrane GO:0031362 8.96 FOLR3 FOLR1
2 basolateral plasma membrane GO:0016323 8.92 VANGL2 SLC19A1 SCRIB FOLR1

Biological processes related to Myelomeningocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 multicellular organism development GO:0007275 9.97 VANGL2 VANGL1 SCRIB PAX3 DACT1 CELSR1
2 wound healing GO:0042060 9.72 VANGL2 SCRIB CELSR1
3 hair follicle development GO:0001942 9.61 VANGL2 CELSR1
4 regulation of Wnt signaling pathway GO:0030111 9.6 VANGL2 DACT1
5 regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway GO:0060828 9.59 FOLR1 DACT1
6 one-carbon metabolic process GO:0006730 9.58 MTHFR MTHFD1
7 establishment or maintenance of epithelial cell apical/basal polarity GO:0045197 9.58 VANGL2 SCRIB
8 establishment of planar polarity GO:0001736 9.57 VANGL2 CELSR1
9 planar cell polarity pathway involved in neural tube closure GO:0090179 9.56 VANGL2 CELSR1
10 Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway GO:0060071 9.56 VANGL2 VANGL1 PRICKLE1 CELSR1
11 tetrahydrofolate interconversion GO:0035999 9.54 MTHFR MTHFD1
12 methionine biosynthetic process GO:0009086 9.52 MTHFR MTHFD1
13 apical protein localization GO:0045176 9.51 VANGL2 CELSR1
14 methionine metabolic process GO:0006555 9.48 MTHFR MTHFD1
15 folate import across plasma membrane GO:1904447 9.46 SLC19A1 FOLR1
16 establishment of body hair planar orientation GO:0048105 9.43 VANGL2 CELSR1
17 planar dichotomous subdivision of terminal units involved in lung branching morphogenesis GO:0060489 9.4 VANGL2 CELSR1
18 orthogonal dichotomous subdivision of terminal units involved in lung branching morphogenesis GO:0060488 9.37 VANGL2 CELSR1
19 folic acid transport GO:0015884 9.33 SLC19A1 FOLR3 FOLR1
20 lateral sprouting involved in lung morphogenesis GO:0060490 9.32 VANGL2 CELSR1
21 folic acid metabolic process GO:0046655 9.26 SLC19A1 MTHFR MTHFD1 FOLR1
22 neural tube closure GO:0001843 9.1 VANGL2 SCRIB PRICKLE1 MTHFR MTHFD1 CELSR1

Molecular functions related to Myelomeningocele according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 folic acid binding GO:0005542 8.8 SLC19A1 FOLR3 FOLR1

Sources for Myelomeningocele

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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