MCID: NLD001
MIFTS: 52

Nail Disease

Categories: Bone diseases, Fetal diseases, Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Nail Disease

MalaCards integrated aliases for Nail Disease:

Name: Nail Disease 12 6 15
Nail Diseases 42 44 70
Abnormality of the Nail 29 6
Nail Anomaly 58

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare skin diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:4123
ICD9CM 34 703
MeSH 44 D009260
SNOMED-CT 67 17790008
UMLS via Orphanet 71 C0265997 C0853087
Orphanet 58 ORPHA79368
UMLS 70 C0027339

Summaries for Nail Disease

MedlinePlus : 42 Your toenails and fingernails protect the tissues of your toes and fingers. They are made up of layers of a hardened protein called keratin, which is also in your hair and skin. The health of your nails can be a clue to your overall health. Healthy nails are usually smooth and consistent in color. Specific types of nail discoloration and changes in growth rate can be signs of lung, heart, kidney, and liver diseases, as well as diabetes and anemia. White spots and vertical ridges are harmless. Nail problems that sometimes require treatment include Bacterial and fungal infections Ingrown nails Tumors Warts Keeping your nails clean, dry, and trimmed can help you avoid some problems. Do not remove the cuticle, which can cause infection.

MalaCards based summary : Nail Disease, also known as nail diseases, is related to paronychia and nonsyndromic congenital nail disorder, and has symptoms including pruritus, exanthema and clubbing of nail. An important gene associated with Nail Disease is FZD6 (Frizzled Class Receptor 6), and among its related pathways/superpathways are ERK Signaling and Innate Immune System. The drugs Tazarotene and Polihexanide have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include nail, skin and thymus, and related phenotypes are Reduced mammosphere formation and hematopoietic system

Disease Ontology : 12 An integumentary system disease that is located in nail.

Wikipedia : 73 A nail disease or onychosis is a disease or deformity of the nail. Although the nail is a structure... more...

Related Diseases for Nail Disease

Diseases in the Nail Disease family:

Nail Disorder, Nonsyndromic Congenital, 6 Nail Disorder, Nonsyndromic Congenital, 2
Nail Disorder, Nonsyndromic Congenital, 3 Nail Disorder, Nonsyndromic Congenital, 1
Nail Disorder, Nonsyndromic Congenital, 5 Nail Disorder, Nonsyndromic Congenital, 4
Nail Disorder, Nonsyndromic Congenital, 7 Nail Disorder, Nonsyndromic Congenital, 8
Nail Disorder, Nonsyndromic Congenital, 9 Nonsyndromic Congenital Nail Disorder

Diseases related to Nail Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 148)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 paronychia 31.9 STAT1 EGFR
2 nonsyndromic congenital nail disorder 31.7 RSPO4 FZD6
3 psoriasis 30.3 STAT3 IL22 IL17F IL17A CCR6
4 skin disease 30.1 STAT3 IL22 IL17A EGFR CCR6
5 hair disease 30.1 IL17A EGFR CCR6 AIRE
6 dermatophytosis 29.6 STAT1 IL17A IL12RB1 CLEC7A CLEC6A CLEC4E
7 candidiasis 29.3 STAT3 STAT1 IL22 IL17RC IL17RA IL17F
8 chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis 28.6 STAT3 STAT1 IL22 IL17RC IL17RA IL17F
9 isolated nail anomaly 11.2
10 genetic nail anomaly 11.1
11 syndromic nail anomaly 11.1
12 tinea unguium 10.9
13 polyendocrinopathy 10.5 STAT1 AIRE
14 systemic autoimmune disease 10.4 IL17A AIRE
15 nail disorder, nonsyndromic congenital, 1 10.4 FZD6 CCR6 AIRE
16 ocular tuberculosis 10.4 RSPO4 FZD6
17 meningovascular neurosyphilis 10.4 IL17RA IL17A
18 penicilliosis 10.4 CLEC7A CARD9
19 vulvovaginal candidiasis 10.4 CLEC7A CCR6 CARD9
20 candidal paronychia 10.4 IL17RC CLEC4E
21 neonatal candidiasis 10.4 CLEC7A CLEC6A CARD9
22 candidiasis, familial, 2 10.4 CLEC7A CARD9
23 trichosporonosis 10.4 CLEC7A CLEC6A CARD9
24 commensal bacterial infectious disease 10.4 SETBP1 IL17A CCR6
25 tinea pedis 10.4 CLEC7A CLEC6A CARD9
26 ostertagiasis 10.4 CLEC7A CLEC4E
27 coccidiosis 10.4 STAT1 IL17A CCR6
28 rosacea 10.4 STAT1 IL17A CCR6
29 acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis 10.4 IL22 IL17F IL17A
30 immunodeficiency 29 10.4 IL17RC IL12RB1 CARD9
31 adenoiditis 10.4 CLEC7A CARD9
32 suppurative lymphadenitis 10.4 DOCK8 CCR6
33 fungal keratitis 10.4 CLEC7A CLEC4E
34 autoimmune enteropathy 10.4 STAT3 IL17A
35 nickel allergic contact dermatitis 10.4 IL22 IL17F IL17A
36 vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 1 10.4 IL17A CCR6 AIRE
37 chickenpox 10.4 STAT1 DOCK8 CCR6
38 invasive aspergillosis 10.4 CLEC7A CLEC6A CCR6
39 t cell deficiency 10.4 IL17A DOCK8 CCR6
40 tinea cruris 10.4 CLEC6A CARD9
41 thymus gland disease 10.4 EGFR CCR6 AIRE
42 aspergillosis 10.4 STAT3 CLEC7A CCR6
43 salivary gland disease 10.3 SETBP1 EGFR CCR6
44 thymus cancer 10.3 EGFR CCR6 AIRE
45 ileitis 10.3 STAT3 IL17A CCR6
46 immunodeficiency 27b 10.3 STAT1 IL12RB1 DOCK8
47 sebaceous gland disease 10.3 IL17A EGFR CCR6
48 immunodeficiency 21 10.3 STAT1 IL12RB1 DOCK8
49 rectal disease 10.3 IL17A EGFR CCR6
50 autoimmune disease of endocrine system 10.3 IL17F IL17A CCR6 AIRE

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Nail Disease:



Diseases related to Nail Disease

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Nail Disease

UMLS symptoms related to Nail Disease:


pruritus; exanthema; clubbing of nail

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Nail Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Reduced mammosphere formation GR00396-S 9.23 CCR6 CLEC7A EGFR FZD6 IL17A IL17RC

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Nail Disease:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.3 AIRE CARD9 CCR6 CLEC4E CLEC6A CLEC7A
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.2 AIRE CARD9 CCR6 CLEC4E CLEC7A EGFR
3 immune system MP:0005387 10.16 AIRE CARD9 CCR6 CLEC4E CLEC6A CLEC7A
4 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.01 AIRE CLEC7A EGFR IL17A IL17F IL22
5 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.97 AIRE CLEC4E CLEC6A CLEC7A EGFR FZD6
6 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.5 AIRE CLEC4E CLEC6A EGFR IL17A IL17RA
7 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.28 AIRE CLEC7A EGFR IL17A IL17F IL17RA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Nail Disease

Drugs for Nail Disease (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 23)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Tazarotene Approved, Investigational Phase 4 118292-40-3 5381
2
Polihexanide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 28757-47-3
3
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 124-94-7 31307
4
Ethyl chloride Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 75-00-3
5 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
6 Keratolytic Agents Phase 4
7 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4
8 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
9 Disinfectants Phase 4
10 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
11 Hormones Phase 4
12 Triamcinolone diacetate Phase 4
13 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 4
14 Triamcinolone hexacetonide Phase 4
15 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
16 triamcinolone acetonide Phase 4
17 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
18 glucocorticoids Phase 4
19 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
20 Anesthetics Phase 4
21 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
22 Hemostatics Phase 4
23
Docetaxel Approved, Investigational Phase 3 114977-28-5 148124

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Efficacy of Combined Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser and Topical Tazarotene in the Treatment of Psoriatic: Nail Disease a Single-blind, Intrapatient Left-to-right Controlled Study. Unknown status NCT03263624 Phase 4 Tazarotene Cream 0.1%
2 Efficacy of Intraoperative Surgical Scrubbing in Reducing Bacterial Load After Nail Removal Surgery Completed NCT01330706 Phase 4 Polihexanide
3 Benefit of Placebo and Different Concentrations of Triamcinolone Acetonide in Nail Psoriasis Recruiting NCT03991936 Phase 4 Placebos;Triamcinolone Acetonide 2.5 mg/mL;Triamcinolone Acetonide 5.0 mg/mL;Triamcinolone Acetonide 7.5 mg/mL;Triamcinolone Acetonide 10 mg/mL
4 The Evaluation of External Thermomechanical Stimulation for Pain Reduction in Patients Undergoing Nail Injection Not yet recruiting NCT04422795 Phase 4 Ethyl chloride skin refrigerant spray
5 The Evaluation of Topical Hemostatic Powder Containing Hydrophilic Polymer With Potassium Ferrate for Hemostasis Following Nail Surgery Not yet recruiting NCT04384679 Phase 4
6 Randomized Trial Evaluating the Cryotherapy in the Prevention of Nails Toxicity Induced by Taxotere® in Patient Treated for Breast or Prostate Cancer. Completed NCT00925418 Phase 3
7 Subclinical Nail Involvement in Relevant Skin Diseases Not yet recruiting NCT04092413

Search NIH Clinical Center for Nail Disease

Cochrane evidence based reviews: nail diseases

Genetic Tests for Nail Disease

Genetic tests related to Nail Disease:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Abnormality of the Nail 29

Anatomical Context for Nail Disease

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Nail Disease:

19
Nail

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Nail Disease:

40
Skin, Thymus, Salivary Gland, Breast, Prostate, Cervix, Tongue

Publications for Nail Disease

Articles related to Nail Disease:

(show top 50) (show all 463)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
One year in review 2019: psoriatic arthritis. 42
33253102 2020
2
Diagnosis of Subungual Glomus Tumors with 18 MHz Ultrasound and CDFI. 42
33082509 2020
3
Social media and dissemination: impressions of fish pedicures following a case of onychomadesis. 42
32815700 2020
4
Management of Nail Psoriasis. 61
33745634 2021
5
Dermoscopy of the Nail Unit. 61
33745641 2021
6
Nail Surgery: Six Essential Techniques. 61
33745642 2021
7
Pathology of the Nail Unit. 61
33745643 2021
8
Onychoscopy: a quick and effective tool for diagnosing onychomycosis in a resource-poor setting. 61
33765751 2021
9
Race reporting and representation in onychomycosis clinical trials: A systematic review. 61
33655595 2021
10
Validation of a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for tinea unguium diagnosis. 61
33686693 2021
11
Nail Psoriasis: Diagnosis, Assessment, Treatment Options, and Unmet Clinical Needs. 61
33589557 2021
12
Direct examination, histopathology and fungal culture for the diagnosis of onychomycosis: A retrospective, comparative study on 2245 specimens. 61
33075162 2021
13
Iontophoresis to Overcome the Challenge of Nail Permeation: Considerations and Optimizations for Successful Ungual Drug Delivery. 61
33439400 2021
14
Investigation of the Dual-Stage Method of Active Er:YLF Laser Drug Delivery Through the Nail and Laser-Induced Transformations of the Drug Extinction Spectrum. 61
33450786 2021
15
Nail Disease: Clinical Decisions among Portuguese Dermatologists and Family Physicians. 61
33614712 2021
16
Case Report: Coral Reef Pathogen Aspergillus sydowii Causing Black Grain Mycetoma: A Review. 61
33399044 2021
17
Management of nail psoriasis. 61
32741010 2021
18
Axial psoriatic arthritis: An update for dermatologists. 61
32747079 2021
19
Nail Changes in Lichen Planus: A Single-Center Study. 61
33336579 2020
20
The change of causative pathogens in toenail onychomycosis. 61
33179427 2020
21
Safety of current therapies for onychomycosis. 61
32990062 2020
22
Psoriatic arthritis for dermatologists. 61
31014154 2020
23
Psoriatic arthritis and depressive symptoms: does systemic inflammation play a role? 61
33009969 2020
24
Association of Nail Psoriasis With Disease Activity Measures and Impact in Psoriatic Arthritis: Data From the Corrona Psoriatic Arthritis/Spondyloarthritis Registry. 61
33060307 2020
25
Prevalence of extra-articular manifestations in psoriatic arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
32160297 2020
26
Perceptions Surrounding Onychomycosis in the Health Professions Student Population: The Disease, Treatments, and Quality of Life. 61
33179067 2020
27
Assessment of internet sources on subungual melanoma. 61
30169432 2020
28
Dermoscopic Features of Nail Psoriasis: An Observational, Analytical Study. 61
32903967 2020
29
Pemphigus vegetans with paronychia-like changes resistant to rituximab therapy. 61
32367637 2020
30
The musculoskeletal impairment negatively impacts the quality of life of children and adolescents with psoriasis. 61
32552795 2020
31
Combination of toenail thinning and photodynamic therapy in distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis treatment: A case report. 61
32109622 2020
32
Trachyonychia: a retrospective study of 122 patients in a period of 30 years. 61
31923322 2020
33
Mixed Infection of Toe Nail Caused by Trichosporon asahii and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. 61
31760556 2020
34
Clinical improvement in psoriatic nail disease and psoriatic arthritis with tildrakizumab treatment. 61
31899569 2020
35
Oral antifungal therapies for toenail onychomycosis: a systematic review with network meta-analysis toenail mycosis: network meta-analysis. 61
32043906 2020
36
Optical coherence tomography of onychomycosis: proposed terminology and a suggestion of practical usage. 61
31595307 2020
37
Clinical Observation and Follow-Up of Subungual Splinter Hemorrhages of Toenails in Chinese Adults. 61
32029933 2020
38
An Open Study to Evaluate Effectiveness and Tolerability of a Nail Oil Composed of Vitamin E and Essential Oils in Mild to Moderate Distal Subungual Onychomycosis. 61
32021856 2020
39
Formulations Based on Natural Ingredients for the Treatment of Nail Diseases. 61
31969086 2020
40
Impact of Having Family History of Psoriasis or Psoriatic Arthritis on Psoriatic Disease. 61
30680951 2020
41
Onychoscopy with red light for vascular pattern identification: a study of 33 patients. 61
31287600 2019
42
Emerging drugs for the treatment of onychomycosis. 61
31652088 2019
43
Fractional carbon dioxide laser and topical tioconazole in the treatment of fingernail onychomycosis. 61
31025207 2019
44
Adalimumab for nail psoriasis: efficacy and safety over 52 weeks from a phase-3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. 61
31304993 2019
45
A Double Case of Nail-Patella Syndrome in the Same Family: The Importance of Nail Changes as Diagnostic Clues for Renal Involvement. 61
31799274 2019
46
The ambulatory care burden of nail conditions in the United States. 61
31613182 2019
47
Paclitaxel-related nail toxicity. 61
31542098 2019
48
The use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of nail disease among patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis: a systematic review. 61
31488208 2019
49
Disease burden and treatment challenges of psoriatic arthritis in Africa and the Middle East. 61
31134289 2019
50
Should Methotrexate Have Any Place in the Treatment of Psoriatic Arthritis? 61
31277747 2019

Variations for Nail Disease

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Nail Disease:

6
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 FZD6 NM_003506.4(FZD6):c.1531C>T (p.Arg511Cys) SNV Pathogenic 30356 rs151339003 GRCh37: 8:104340634-104340634
GRCh38: 8:103328406-103328406
2 FZD6 NM_003506.4(FZD6):c.1750G>T (p.Glu584Ter) SNV Pathogenic 30355 rs151339002 GRCh37: 8:104342091-104342091
GRCh38: 8:103329863-103329863
3 POGZ NM_015100.4(POGZ):c.2771del (p.Pro924fs) Deletion Pathogenic 523510 rs1553212868 GRCh37: 1:151378740-151378740
GRCh38: 1:151406264-151406264
4 SETBP1 NM_015559.3(SETBP1):c.2614G>A (p.Gly872Arg) SNV Likely pathogenic 523513 rs1555706928 GRCh37: 18:42531919-42531919
GRCh38: 18:44951954-44951954
5 PKD1 NM_001009944.3(PKD1):c.226C>T (p.His76Tyr) SNV Uncertain significance 523385 rs932577597 GRCh37: 16:2169369-2169369
GRCh38: 16:2119368-2119368
6 OFD1 NM_003611.3(OFD1):c.1999G>A (p.Ala667Thr) SNV Uncertain significance 523463 rs1394450537 GRCh37: X:13778578-13778578
GRCh38: X:13760459-13760459

Expression for Nail Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Nail Disease.

Pathways for Nail Disease

Pathways related to Nail Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 24)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.73 STAT3 STAT1 IL22 IL17RC IL17RA IL17A
2
Show member pathways
13.59 STAT3 STAT1 IL22 IL17RC IL17RA IL17F
3
Show member pathways
13.58 STAT3 IL22 IL17RC IL17RA IL17F IL17A
4
Show member pathways
13.26 STAT3 STAT1 IL22 IL17RC IL17RA IL17A
5
Show member pathways
13.2 IL22 IL17RC IL17RA IL17A IL12RB1 EGFR
6
Show member pathways
13.08 STAT3 STAT1 IL22 IL17RC IL17RA IL17F
7 12.73 STAT3 STAT1 IL12RB1 FZD6 EGFR
8
Show member pathways
12.38 STAT3 STAT1 IL22 IL17F IL17A IL12RB1
9
Show member pathways
12.32 CLEC7A CLEC6A CLEC4E CARD9
10
Show member pathways
12.32 STAT3 STAT1 IL22 IL12RB1 EGFR
11
Show member pathways
12.27 STAT3 STAT1 IL17F IL17A IL12RB1 EGFR
12
Show member pathways
12.23 STAT3 IL17RC IL17RA IL17F IL17A
13 12.13 STAT1 CLEC7A CLEC4E CARD9
14 12.09 STAT3 STAT1 FZD6 EGFR
15
Show member pathways
12.04 STAT1 CLEC7A CLEC6A CLEC4E CARD9
16 11.89 STAT3 STAT1 IL17F IL17A
17 11.8 STAT3 STAT1 EGFR
18 11.68 IL22 IL17A IL12RB1 CCR6
19
Show member pathways
11.61 STAT3 STAT1 IL17A IL12RB1
20 11.59 STAT3 STAT1 EGFR
21
Show member pathways
11.4 STAT3 IL17RC IL17RA IL17F IL17A IL12RB1
22 11.28 STAT3 STAT1 EGFR
23
Show member pathways
11.13 STAT3 STAT1 IL22 IL17RA IL17F IL17A
24 11.08 STAT3 STAT1 EGFR

GO Terms for Nail Disease

Biological processes related to Nail Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 24)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 10.1 STAT3 STAT1 POGZ IL17F IL17A EGFR
2 immune system process GO:0002376 10.04 IL17RA IL17F IL17A CLEC7A CLEC6A CLEC4E
3 innate immune response GO:0045087 9.95 IL17RA IL17F IL17A CLEC7A CLEC6A CLEC4E
4 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.91 STAT3 IL22 IL17RC IL17RA IL17F IL17A
5 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.8 STAT3 STAT1 IL22 IL17RC IL17F IL17A
6 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 9.79 IL17F IL17A CARD9
7 cellular response to cytokine stimulus GO:0071345 9.74 STAT3 STAT1 IL17RA
8 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production GO:0032760 9.73 STAT3 IL17A CLEC7A CARD9
9 positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production GO:0032731 9.72 STAT3 IL17A CLEC7A
10 defense response to fungus GO:0050832 9.69 IL17RC IL17A CLEC6A
11 regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032675 9.61 IL17F CARD9
12 interleukin-35-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070757 9.61 STAT3 STAT1
13 interleukin-27-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070106 9.6 STAT3 STAT1
14 interleukin-23-mediated signaling pathway GO:0038155 9.59 STAT3 IL12RB1
15 interleukin-9-mediated signaling pathway GO:0038113 9.58 STAT3 STAT1
16 interleukin-21-mediated signaling pathway GO:0038114 9.58 STAT3 STAT1
17 positive regulation of interleukin-23 production GO:0032747 9.54 IL17RA IL17A
18 fibroblast activation GO:0072537 9.52 IL17RA IL17A
19 positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 production GO:2000340 9.5 IL17RA IL17F IL17A
20 regulation of interleukin-2 production GO:0032663 9.48 IL17F CARD9
21 positive regulation of antimicrobial peptide production GO:0002225 9.46 IL17F IL17A
22 interleukin-17-mediated signaling pathway GO:0097400 9.46 IL17RC IL17RA IL17F IL17A
23 positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response GO:1900017 9.35 STAT3 IL17RC IL17F IL17A CLEC7A
24 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.17 STAT3 IL17RC IL17RA IL17F IL17A CLEC7A

Molecular functions related to Nail Disease according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein binding GO:0005515 10.13 STAT3 STAT1 SETBP1 RSPO4 POGZ IL22
2 pattern recognition receptor activity GO:0038187 9.26 CLEC7A CLEC4E
3 CCR5 chemokine receptor binding GO:0031730 8.96 STAT3 STAT1
4 interleukin-17 receptor activity GO:0030368 8.62 IL17RC IL17RA

Sources for Nail Disease

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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