MCID: NCR007
MIFTS: 51

Necrotizing Fasciitis

Categories: Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Necrotizing Fasciitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Necrotizing Fasciitis:

Name: Necrotizing Fasciitis 12 77 54 3 15 74
Fasciitis, Necrotizing 45

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9602
ICD9CM 36 728.86
MeSH 45 D019115
NCIt 51 C84916
SNOMED-CT 69 52486002
ICD10 34 M72.6
UMLS 74 C0238124

Summaries for Necrotizing Fasciitis

NIH Rare Diseases : 54 Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin, the tissue just beneath the skin (subcutaneous tissue), and the tissue that covers internal organs (fascia). Necrotizing fasciitis can be caused by several different types of bacteria, and the infection can arise suddenly and spread quickly. Early signs include flu-like symptoms and redness and pain around the infection site. A prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential. If the infection is not treated promptly, it can lead to multiple organ failure and death. Treatment typically includes intravenous (IV) antibiotics and surgery to remove infected and dead tissue.

MalaCards based summary : Necrotizing Fasciitis, also known as fasciitis, necrotizing, is related to fasciitis and osteomyelitis, and has symptoms including generalized muscle weakness and spasm. An important gene associated with Necrotizing Fasciitis is CD46 (CD46 Molecule), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. The drugs Anti-Bacterial Agents and Anti-Infective Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, bone and colon, and related phenotype is cardiovascular system.

CDC : 3 Bacteria called group A Streptococcus (group A strep) can cause many different infections. Some of these are common, relatively minor infections, like strep throat. Others are less common, but very serious and even deadly. People can easily spread group A strep to other people. Practicing good hygiene, like washing your hands often, is the best way to protect yourself from group A strep infections.

Wikipedia : 77 Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the... more...

Related Diseases for Necrotizing Fasciitis

Diseases related to Necrotizing Fasciitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 356)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 fasciitis 32.3 CD46 CXCL8 IL18 IL6
2 osteomyelitis 30.6 CXCL8 IL1RN IL6
3 appendicitis 30.6 CRP CXCL8 IL6
4 noma 30.5 CXCL8 IL18
5 pyelonephritis 30.5 CRP CXCL8 IL6
6 peritonitis 30.5 CRP CXCL8 IL6
7 septic arthritis 30.4 CRP CXCL8
8 perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 30.2 CRP CXCL8 IL6
9 arthritis 30.2 CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL6 LTA
10 colitis 30.2 CXCL8 IL2 IL6
11 toxic shock syndrome 30.2 CXCL8 IL2 IL6 LTA MYOM2
12 crohn's colitis 30.2 CXCL8 IL2
13 cystitis 30.1 CRP CXCL8 IL6
14 meningitis 30.1 CRP CXCL8 IL6
15 endocarditis 30.1 CRP CXCL8 IL6
16 streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome 30.0 CXCL8 IL2 IL6 LTA MYOM2
17 orbital cellulitis 29.9 CRP IL1RN LTA
18 conjunctivitis 29.9 CXCL8 IL2 IL6
19 systemic lupus erythematosus 29.9 CRP IL18 IL2 IL6 LTA
20 pneumonia 29.9 CRP CXCL8 IL6
21 pericarditis 29.8 CRP IL1RN IL6
22 tonsillitis 29.8 CXCL8 IL2 IL6 LTA
23 diabetes mellitus 29.8 CRP IL1RN IL2 IL6 LTA
24 rheumatoid arthritis 29.6 CRP CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL2 IL6
25 adult-onset still's disease 29.6 CRP IL18 IL1RN IL6
26 ulcerative colitis 29.5 CRP CXCL8 IL2 IL6
27 spondylitis 29.4 CRP IL1RN IL6 LTA
28 myeloma, multiple 29.1 CRP CXCL8 IL2 IL6 MYOM2
29 fournier gangrene 11.7
30 gas gangrene 10.4
31 cellulitis 10.4
32 necrotizing soft tissue infection 10.4
33 diverticulitis 10.4
34 mediastinitis 10.4
35 lupus erythematosus 10.4
36 sapho syndrome 10.4 CXCL8 IL18
37 myositis 10.4
38 pyoderma 10.4
39 chickenpox 10.4
40 recurrent corneal erosion 10.4 CXCL8 IL6
41 bagassosis 10.4 CXCL8 IL6
42 acute transverse myelitis 10.3 CXCL8 IL6
43 transverse myelitis 10.3 CXCL8 IL6
44 pyoderma gangrenosum 10.3
45 denture stomatitis 10.3 CXCL8 IL6
46 papillary conjunctivitis 10.3 CXCL8 IL6
47 funisitis 10.3 CXCL8 IL6
48 pouchitis 10.3 CXCL8 IL1RN
49 acute monoblastic leukemia 10.3 CXCL8 IL6
50 stachybotrys chartarum 10.3 IL18 IL6

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Necrotizing Fasciitis:



Diseases related to Necrotizing Fasciitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Necrotizing Fasciitis

UMLS symptoms related to Necrotizing Fasciitis:


generalized muscle weakness, spasm

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Necrotizing Fasciitis:

47
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.23 CCNF CD46 CRP IL18 IL1RN IL2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Necrotizing Fasciitis

Drugs for Necrotizing Fasciitis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 24)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
2 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
3 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4,Not Applicable
4 Disinfectants Phase 4,Not Applicable
5
Azithromycin Approved Phase 3,Not Applicable 83905-01-5 447043 55185
6
Tobramycin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 32986-56-4 36294 5496
7
Vancomycin Approved Phase 2 1404-90-6 14969 441141
8 Antibodies Phase 2
9 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
10 Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 2
11 Immunologic Factors Phase 2
12 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 2
13 gamma-Globulins Phase 2
14 Immunoglobulin G Phase 2
15
Carbon monoxide Approved, Investigational Phase 1 630-08-0 281
16 Vaccines Phase 1
17 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1,Not Applicable
18
Protein C Approved
19
Daptomycin Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 103060-53-3 16129629
20
Cefazolin Approved Not Applicable 25953-19-9 33255 656510
21
Clindamycin Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 18323-44-9 29029
22 Clindamycin palmitate Not Applicable
23 Clindamycin phosphate Not Applicable
24 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 30)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Negative Pressure Wound Therapy With the Engenex™-Pump and Bio-Dome™ Dressing, an Evaluation Unknown status NCT01107821 Phase 4
2 Antimicrobial Dressing Versus Standard Dressing in Obese Women Undergoing Cesarean Delivery Not yet recruiting NCT03887299 Phase 4
3 Phase III Efficacy and Safety Study of AB103 in the Treatment of Patients With Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections Recruiting NCT02469857 Phase 3 AB103 0.5 mg/kg
4 Azithromycin-Prevention in Labor Use Study (A-PLUS) Not yet recruiting NCT03871491 Phase 3 Azithromycin;Placebo
5 Immunoglobulin for Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections: a Randomised Controlled Trial Completed NCT02111161 Phase 2 IVIG (Privigen);Saline 0.9%
6 Safety and Efficacy in Patients Treated for Hip or Knee PJI With Vancomycin and Tobramycin Joint Irrigation Recruiting NCT03721328 Phase 2
7 Safety and Efficacy of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Local Intramuscular Injection for Treatment of Uterine Scars Recruiting NCT02968459 Phase 2
8 Two-drug Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Scheduled Cesarean Deliveries Not yet recruiting NCT03960970 Phase 2 Azithromycin 500 mg;Mefoxin 2g
9 A Clinical Trial of the Clinical Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Thai Autistic Children Completed NCT00670891 Phase 1
10 Controlled Human Infection for Vaccination Against Streptococcus Pyogenes Recruiting NCT03361163 Phase 1
11 Safety of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Local Intramuscular Injection for Treatment of Uterine Scars Recruiting NCT03181087 Phase 1
12 Factors Associated With Complications of Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis Unknown status NCT02847234
13 Prognosis and Treatment of Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections: A Prospective Cohort Study Unknown status NCT03147352
14 Modulation of Biomarkers in Patients With Flesh-eating Bacterial Infections After With Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment Unknown status NCT02501382
15 Coagulation and Fibrinolysis as Virulence Factors for Invasive Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Infections Unknown status NCT01731483
16 Klebsiella Pneumoniae Necrotizing Fasciitis: Clinical and Microbiological Features Completed NCT01139112
17 Exploratory Study of Raised Serum Lactate as a Marker of Necrotizing Fasciitis Completed NCT01739959
18 Outcome and Related Factors of Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Limb Completed NCT00538577
19 Systems Medicine to Study Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections (NSTIs). Completed NCT01790698
20 Daptomycin for the Treatment of Severe Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections Completed NCT00261807 Not Applicable Daptomycin 6mg/kg/day
21 Fournier's Gangrene and the Origin of the Infection as a Prognostic of Morbidity and Mortality, an Analysis of 121 Patients Completed NCT03443544
22 Health-related Quality of Life After Massive Burn Injury Completed NCT03660150
23 Long Term Follow-up of Patients With Group A Streptococcal Infection Originating From the Genital Tract Completed NCT00299663
24 Biomarkers in Patients With Flesh-eating Bacterial Infections Completed NCT02180906
25 Study of Effectiveness and Safety of Azithromycin-based Extended-spectrum Prophylaxis to Prevent Post Cesarean Infection Completed NCT01235546 Not Applicable Azithromycin and standard of care;Placebo and standard of care
26 Evaluation of a New Device "Orthèse Diabète" in the Healing of Foot Ulcers in Diabetic Patients Completed NCT01956162 Not Applicable
27 Severe Soft Tissue Infections: Perspectives of Patients and Significant Others Recruiting NCT02169128
28 Genetic Susceptibility to Severe Streptococcal Infections Active, not recruiting NCT01911572
29 Hyperglycemia in Surgical Infections Terminated NCT00353275 Not Applicable Strict Glycemic control;Conventional Glycemic Control
30 Chlorhexidine Versus Betadine in Preventing Colonization of Femoral Nerve Catheters After Total Joint Arthroplasty (TJA) Withdrawn NCT00896402 Not Applicable Skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine;povidone-iodine

Search NIH Clinical Center for Necrotizing Fasciitis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: fasciitis, necrotizing

Genetic Tests for Necrotizing Fasciitis

Anatomical Context for Necrotizing Fasciitis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Necrotizing Fasciitis:

42
Skin, Bone, Colon, Prostate, Bone Marrow, Myeloid, B Cells

Publications for Necrotizing Fasciitis

Articles related to Necrotizing Fasciitis:

(show top 50) (show all 1796)
# Title Authors Year
1
Severe Neutropenia Complicated with Necrotizing Fasciitis Unveils a Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Report. ( 31019857 )
2019
2
Breakthrough invasive Trichosporon asahii infection in an uremic patient with systemic calciphylaxis complicating necrotizing fasciitis during echinocandin therapy for C. tropicalis. ( 31023578 )
2019
3
Predisposing factors of necrotizing fasciitis with comparison to cellulitis in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based case-control study. ( 30738634 )
2019
4
Community-acquired Disseminated Exophiala dermatitidis Mycosis with Necrotizing Fasciitis in Chronic Graft-versus-host Disease. ( 30449799 )
2019
5
A multiplex PCR assay for detection of Vibrio vulnificus, Aeromonas hydrophila, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae from the isolates of patients with necrotizing fasciitis. ( 30690211 )
2019
6
A case report of successful treatment of necrotizing fasciitis using negative pressure wound therapy: Erratum. ( 30702636 )
2019
7
Monomicrobial gram-negative necrotizing fasciitis: An uncommon but fatal syndrome. ( 30713116 )
2019
8
Fasciotomy wound secondary to necrotizing fasciitis closure using combination of negative pressure wound therapy and progressive primary closure. ( 30756498 )
2019
9
Ultrasonography for early detection of non-infectious necrotizing fasciitis secondary to cutaneous loxoscelism. ( 30768820 )
2019
10
Surgical management of a perforated caecal carcinoma presenting as abdominal wall necrotizing fasciitis. ( 30790418 )
2019
11
Necrotizing Fasciitis Following Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in an Immunocompromised Patient. ( 30805235 )
2019
12
Lactate on emergency department arrival as a predictor of in-hospital mortality in necrotizing fasciitis: a retrospective study. ( 30841912 )
2019
13
A Patient With Periorbital Necrotizing Fasciitis by Klebsiella pneumoniae. ( 30845085 )
2019
14
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis with Serious Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis. ( 30865123 )
2019
15
Distinguishing necrotizing from non-necrotizing fasciitis: a new predictive scoring integrating MRI in the LRINEC score. ( 30887193 )
2019
16
Exhaustion of the immune system by Group A Streptococcus necrotizing fasciitis: the occurrence of late secondary infections in a retrospective study. ( 30899798 )
2019
17
Lower Extremity Necrotizing Fasciitis in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients: Mortality and Amputation. ( 30929530 )
2019
18
Necrotizing fasciitis of the neck and head complicated with chronic osteomyelitis: Case report presentation. ( 30952495 )
2019
19
Total body necrotizing fasciitis. ( 30956583 )
2019
20
A Systematic Review of the Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis Score and Its Utility in Orthopedics for Diagnosing Necrotizing Fasciitis in Adults. ( 30964538 )
2019
21
Periorbital necrotizing fasciitis without initial trauma: A rare case report. ( 30979555 )
2019
22
Aggressive Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Head and Neck Resulting in Massive Defects. ( 30987458 )
2019
23
Yokenella regensburgei necrotizing fasciitis in an immunocompromised host. ( 31003955 )
2019
24
The Relationship Between Fluid Accumulation in Ultrasonography and the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Patients with Necrotizing Fasciitis. ( 31031033 )
2019
25
Necrotizing fasciitis and meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9 N: a case report. ( 31035964 )
2019
26
Necrotizing fasciitis and the midterm outcomes after survival. ( 31057795 )
2019
27
Uncommon presentation of a common condition: necrotizing fasciitis caused by diverticular mircroperforation. ( 31069951 )
2019
28
Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Head and Neck. ( 30243707 )
2019
29
Necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of osteonecrosis of the jaw related to oral bisphosphonate application in a patient with osteoporosis: a case report. ( 30288621 )
2019
30
Necrotizing Fasciitis Involving Spine: Unusual Medical Emergency for Spine Surgeon. ( 30321674 )
2019
31
Clinical Features of Neutrophilic Dermatosis Variants Resembling Necrotizing Fasciitis. ( 30383110 )
2019
32
A case report of successful treatment of necrotizing fasciitis using negative pressure wound therapy. ( 30633151 )
2019
33
Fitness genes of group A streptococci in necrotizing fasciitis and myositis. ( 30667379 )
2019
34
Necrotizing fasciitis with mediastinitis following snakebite envenomation. ( 30671248 )
2019
35
A Rare Presentation of Escherichia coli Necrotizing Fasciitis in Renal Transplantation. ( 30674239 )
2019
36
Monomicrobial Klebsiella pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis: an emerging life-threatening entity. ( 29787886 )
2019
37
Acute appendicitis complicated with necrotizing fasciitis in a patient with adult-onset Still's disease: A case report. ( 29384877 )
2018
38
Necrotizing fasciitis of chest and right abdominal wall caused by acute perforated appendicitis: Case report. ( 30368121 )
2018
39
Group B Streptococcal Cellulitis and Necrotizing Fasciitis in Infants: A Systematic Review. ( 29424798 )
2018
40
Necrotizing fasciitis following colonoscopy in the setting of ulcerative colitis. ( 30548148 )
2018
41
Necrotizing fasciitis of the thigh due to penetrated descending colon cancer: a case report. ( 30478748 )
2018
42
A case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Finegoldia magna in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ( 30555141 )
2018
43
Necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity caused by perforated sigmoid diverticulitis-a case report. ( 30093996 )
2018
44
Thigh Necrotizing Fasciitis Secondary to Perforated Sigmoid Diverticulitis. ( 29229358 )
2018
45
Necrotizing fasciitis of the hand: a case report. ( 30715018 )
2018
46
Periocular Necrotizing Fasciitis with Toxic Shock Syndrome. ( 29928226 )
2018
47
Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: Systematic review and analysis of 1235 reported cases from the literature. ( 29934952 )
2018
48
Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis with gas gangrene caused by urethral stricture. ( 29984183 )
2018
49
A Case of Fatal Clostridial Necrotizing Fasciitis After Radical Prostatectomy. ( 30009841 )
2018
50
Human polyspecific immunoglobulin attenuates group A streptococcal virulence factor activity and reduces disease severity in a murine necrotizing fasciitis model. ( 30025835 )
2018

Variations for Necrotizing Fasciitis

Expression for Necrotizing Fasciitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Necrotizing Fasciitis.

Pathways for Necrotizing Fasciitis

Pathways related to Necrotizing Fasciitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 31)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.55 CCNF CD46 CRP CXCL8 ICOSLG IL18
2
Show member pathways
13.15 CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL2 IL6 LTA
3
Show member pathways
13.1 CXCL8 IL18 IL2 IL6 LTA
4
Show member pathways
12.58 CXCL8 ICOSLG IL18 IL2 IL6 LTA
5
Show member pathways
12.16 CRP IL2 IL6
6 12.01 CXCL8 IL1RN IL6
7
Show member pathways
12.01 CXCL8 IL18 IL2 IL6 LTA
8
Show member pathways
12 CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL6
9
Show member pathways
11.91 CXCL8 IL18 IL2 IL6
10 11.87 CXCL8 IL2 IL6
11
Show member pathways
11.85 IL18 IL2 IL6 LTA
12 11.84 CXCL8 IL18 IL6
13 11.74 CXCL8 IL18 IL2
14 11.72 CXCL8 IL18 IL6
15 11.69 CXCL8 IL18 IL6
16
Show member pathways
11.65 CXCL8 IL2 LTA
17 11.64 CXCL8 IL2 IL6
18 11.62 IL18 IL2 LTA
19
Show member pathways
11.5 CXCL8 IL2 IL6
20 11.41 CXCL8 IL18 IL6
21 11.34 CXCL8 IL18 IL6
22 11.31 IL18 IL1RN IL2 IL6
23 11.18 CXCL8 IL6
24 11.15 IL18 IL6
25 11.1 IL2 IL6
26 11.08 IL18 IL2
27 11.04 IL2 LTA
28 10.81 CXCL8 IL18 IL2 IL6 LTA
29 10.78 CRP CXCL8 IL6
30 10.61 CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL6
31 10.58 CXCL8 IL18 IL2 IL6 LTA

GO Terms for Necrotizing Fasciitis

Cellular components related to Necrotizing Fasciitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.5 CRP CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL2 IL6
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.17 CRP CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL2 IL6

Biological processes related to Necrotizing Fasciitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 21)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.88 CD46 CRP IL18 IL6
2 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.77 CXCL8 IL1RN IL6
3 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.72 CRP CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL6
4 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 9.7 CRP IL6 LTA
5 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.67 IL18 IL2 IL6
6 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.61 CD46 IL2 IL6
7 natural killer cell activation GO:0030101 9.6 IL18 IL2
8 positive regulation of glial cell proliferation GO:0060252 9.58 IL6 LTA
9 positive regulation of interleukin-17 production GO:0032740 9.57 IL18 IL2
10 positive regulation of immunoglobulin secretion GO:0051024 9.56 IL2 IL6
11 positive regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation GO:0045591 9.55 CD46 IL2
12 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.55 CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL2 IL6
13 neutrophil activation GO:0042119 9.54 CXCL8 IL18
14 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032729 9.54 IL18 IL2 LTA
15 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.51 CRP IL6
16 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.48 IL18 IL6
17 positive regulation of tissue remodeling GO:0034105 9.46 IL18 IL2
18 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation GO:0042104 9.43 ICOSLG IL18 IL2
19 immune response GO:0006955 9.43 CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL2 IL6 LTA
20 negative regulation of interleukin-1-mediated signaling pathway GO:2000660 9.4 IL1RN IL6
21 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.1 CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL2 IL6 LTA

Molecular functions related to Necrotizing Fasciitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.1 CXCL8 IL18 IL1RN IL2 IL6 LTA

Sources for Necrotizing Fasciitis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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