MCID: NNT008
MIFTS: 41

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Categories: Mental diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Summaries for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Disease Ontology : 12 A withdrawal disorder that is characterized by a group of problems that occur in a newborn who was exposed to addictive illegal or prescription drugs while in the mother's womb or postnatally following the discontinuance of drug treatment.

MalaCards based summary : Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome, also known as drug withdrawal syndrome in newborn, is related to disease of mental health and opiate dependence. An important gene associated with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome is OPRM1 (Opioid Receptor Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling and Clomipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics. The drugs Clonidine and Morphine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, skin and heart, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and integument

Related Diseases for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome:



Diseases related to Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.35 COMT NAGS OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1
2 integument MP:0010771 8.92 NAGS OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Drugs for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 72)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Clonidine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 4205-90-7 2803
2
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 57-27-2 5288826
3
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 93-14-1 3516
4
Opium Approved, Illicit Phase 4 8008-60-4
5
Phenobarbital Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 50-06-6 4763
6
Loperamide Approved Phase 4 53179-11-6 3955
7
Methadone Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable 76-99-3 4095
8
Clonazepam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 1622-61-3 2802
9
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
10 tannic acid Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
11 Narcotics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
12 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
13 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
14 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
15 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
16 Opiate Alkaloids Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
17 Antitussive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
18 GABA Modulators Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
19 GABA Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
20 Opium Poppy Phase 4
21 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
22 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
23 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
24 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
25 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
26 Antidiarrheals Phase 4
27 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
28 Anticonvulsants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
29 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
30 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
31 Sympatholytics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
32 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
33 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
34 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
35 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
36 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
37 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
38
Buprenorphine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 52485-79-7 40400 644073
39
Dopamine Approved Phase 3 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
40
Chlorpromazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-53-3 2726
41
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Phase 2, Phase 3 50-36-2 5760 446220
42
Hydrocortisone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-03-3
43
Chamomile Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 3
44
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-23-7 5754
45 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
46 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
47 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
48 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 3
49 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
50 Antiemetics Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 56)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT01723722 Phase 4 Methadone;Diluted Deodorized Tincture of Opium
2 NAS Treatment - Opiate Versus Non-Opiate Completed NCT01734551 Phase 4 Morphine;Clonidine
3 Comparison Between Methadone and Morphine for Neonatal Opiate Withdrawal Completed NCT01804075 Phase 4 Methadone;Morphine
4 Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome With Clonidine Versus Morphine as Primary Therapy Recruiting NCT03092011 Phase 4 Clonidine;Morphine Sulfate
5 Morphine Versus Methadone for Opiate Exposed Infants With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Recruiting NCT02851303 Phase 4 Morphine;Methadone
6 Buprenorphine vs Buprenorphine/Naloxone on the Effects of Maternal Symptomatology Recruiting NCT03740243 Phase 4 Buprenorphine/naloxone;Buprenorphine
7 Clonidine as Adjunct to Morphine for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Suspended NCT03762317 Phase 4 Clonidine;Placebo
8 Blinded Trial of Buprenorphine or Morphine in the Treatment of the Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT01452789 Phase 3 sublingual buprenorphine;oral morphine
9 Fetal and Infant Effects of Maternal Buprenorphine Treatment Completed NCT01561079 Phase 2, Phase 3 Buprenorphine
10 Maternal Acupuncture for Substance Abuse Completed NCT00225316 Phase 3
11 How to Treat Opiate Withdrawal in Neonates Completed NCT02810782 Phase 3 Phenobarbital;Chlorpromazine;Morphine
12 Tobacco Use in Opioid Agonist Treated Pregnant Women Completed NCT00497068 Phase 2, Phase 3
13 RCT Comparing Methadone and Buprenorphine in Pregnant Women Completed NCT00271219 Phase 3 Methadone;Buprenorphine
14 Recovery Housing For Drug Dependent Pregnant Women Completed NCT00497302 Phase 2, Phase 3
15 Non-Opiate Treatment After Prenatal Opiate Exposure to Prevent Postnatal Injury to the Young Brain Recruiting NCT03396588 Phase 3 Clonidine;Morphine
16 Improving Outcomes in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Active, not recruiting NCT01958476 Phase 3 Neonatal Morphine Solution;Methadone;Phenobarbital
17 The Effect of Aromatherapy on Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and Salivary Cortisol Levels Enrolling by invitation NCT03097484 Phase 3 lavender and chamomile essential oils
18 Clonidine to Treat Iatrogenic-induced Opioid Dependence in Infants Terminated NCT01360450 Phase 2, Phase 3 Clonidine HCL;saline
19 Sublingual Buprenorphine Treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome - Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02249026 Phase 1, Phase 2 BZDs + opiate exposure treated with BPN;Opiates exposure treated with BPN
20 Clonidine as Adjunct Therapy for the Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT00510016 Phase 2 Clonidine HCL
21 Comparison of Buprenorphine to Morphine in Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) Completed NCT01708707 Phase 2 Buprenorphine;Morphine Sulfate
22 RCT of High- vs. Standard-Calorie Formula for Methadone-Exposed Infants Completed NCT02178189 Phase 2
23 How Pregnant Women and Their Babies Metabolize Ondansetron Compared to a Group of Non-pregnant Women Completed NCT01801475 Phase 1, Phase 2 Ondansetron
24 Can Ondansetron Prevent Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) in Babies Born to Narcotic-dependent Women Recruiting NCT01965704 Phase 2 Ondansetron;Placebo
25 Clonidine Versus Phenobarbital as Adjunctive Therapy for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Recruiting NCT03670160 Phase 2 Phenobarbital;Clonidine
26 Methadone Demonstration Project Recruiting NCT03134703 Phase 2 Methadone;Morphine
27 Maternal Buprenorphine-naloxone Treatment and the Infant Recruiting NCT03291847 Phase 2 Buprenorphine Naloxone;Methadone
28 Buprenorphine Pharmacometric Open Label Research Study of Drug Exposure Not yet recruiting NCT03608696 Phase 1, Phase 2 Buprenorphine
29 Buprenorphine for Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in Infants With In Utero Exposure to Benzodiazepines Completed NCT01671410 Phase 1 oral morphine;sublingual buprenorphine
30 Buprenorphine for the Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT00521248 Phase 1 buprenorphine;Oral morphine solution
31 Donor Human Milk in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Unknown status NCT02182973
32 Efficacy of Auricular Acupuncture on Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT02872077 Not Applicable
33 The Pharmacokinetics of Oral Methadone in the Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT01754324 Methadone
34 Vagal Tone and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT00496951
35 Role of Low Lactose Infant Formula In The Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Completed NCT03549936 Not Applicable
36 Acupuncture in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) Babies Completed NCT02062151 Not Applicable
37 Weighted Blankets With Infants With NAS Completed NCT03113656 Not Applicable
38 Interest of Concentrations in Meconium of Buprenorphine and Methadone as a Prognostic Factor of NAS Outcome Completed NCT03334981
39 Buprenorphine Dose Adjustments and Gestational Age Completed NCT03028883
40 Utility of Psychosocial Intervention in Improving Outcome for Methadone-exposed Infants and Their Mothers Completed NCT01889121
41 The Effects of Methadone and Buprenorphine on Fetal Neurobehavior and Infant Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome - 1 Completed NCT00218621
42 RESPECT-PLUS: Services for Infants With Prenatal Opiate Exposure Completed NCT02334111 Not Applicable
43 Fetal Neurobehavior in Poly-drug Dependent Women Completed NCT00653692
44 Fetal Neurobehavioral Development in Methadone Maintained Pregnancies Completed NCT00067184
45 The Effect of Fetal Gender on Maternal Substance Abuse Treatment Completed NCT00882648
46 Conflict Between Maternal Autonomy and Child Health in Substance-use Completed NCT02797990
47 Effect of Music Therapy on Infants With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Recruiting NCT03533985 Not Applicable
48 Opioid Dependence Treatment Therapies in Pregnancy Recruiting NCT03098407 Not Applicable Buprenorphine;Methadone
49 Transmission of Chronic Hepatitis C in Pregnancy Recruiting NCT03570112 SOF/VEL- sofosbuvir 400mg and velpatasvir 100mg
50 Physiology and Therapeutic Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Enrolling by invitation NCT02768844 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Cochrane evidence based reviews: neonatal abstinence syndrome

Genetic Tests for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome:

41
Brain, Skin, Heart, Breast

Publications for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Articles related to Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 379)
# Title Authors Year
1
Comparison of outcomes between morphine and concomitant morphine and clonidine treatments for neonatal abstinence syndrome. ( 29972601 )
2018
2
Non-pharmacological interventions for neonatal abstinence syndrome. ( 29797741 )
2018
3
Mental Health of Mothers of Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and Prenatal Opioid Exposure. ( 29417369 )
2018
4
Does Maternal Buprenorphine Dose Affect Severity or Incidence of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome? ( 29905586 )
2018
5
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Exploring Nurses' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Practice. ( 29360671 )
2018
6
Whole-family treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome. ( 29661819 )
2018
7
Opioid Use in Pregnancy, Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome, and Childhood Outcomes: Executive Summary of a Joint Workshop by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Academy of Pediatrics, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the March of Dimes Foundation. ( 29266062 )
2018
8
Changing Neonatal Nurses' Perceptions of Caring for Infants Experiencing Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and Their Mothers: An Evidenced-Based Practice Opportunity. ( 29595550 )
2018
9
Neonatal abstinence syndrome: an update. ( 29346142 )
2018
10
Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: The Importance of a Multifaceted Program Spanning Inpatient and Outpatient Care. ( 29793879 )
2018
11
Torticollis in Infants with a History of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29395169 )
2018
12
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and the Pediatric Hospitalist: 5 Years Later. ( 29263123 )
2018
13
Safety of Reiki Therapy for Newborns at Risk for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29315084 )
2018
14
A Novel Approach to Assessing Infants With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29263121 )
2018
15
Maternal opioid use disorder and neonatal abstinence syndrome in northwest Ontario: a 7-year retrospective analysis. ( 29547380 )
2018
16
A Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase Scoring Consistency and Accuracy of the Finnegan Tool: Challenges in Obtaining Reliable Assessments of Drug Withdrawal in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29373349 )
2018
17
Treating Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in a Rural Hospital: Lessons Learned. ( 29428413 )
2018
18
Quality improvement initiative to improve inpatient outcomes for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29740196 )
2018
19
The Epidemic of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome, Historical References of Its' Origins, Assessment, and Management. ( 29520355 )
2018
20
Hospital Variation in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Incidence, Treatment Modalities, Resource Use, and Costs Across Pediatric Hospitals in the United States, 2013 to 2016. ( 29263122 )
2018
21
Finding the right treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome: is this the right time? ( 29515226 )
2018
22
Association of Rooming-in With Outcomes for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. ( 29404599 )
2018
23
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment. ( 29614184 )
2018
24
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) in Southwestern Border States: Examining Trends, Population Correlates, and Implications for Policy. ( 29572587 )
2018
25
Outpatient pharmacologic weaning for neonatal abstinence syndrome: a systematic review. ( 29739484 )
2018
26
Incidence and Costs of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Among Infants With Medicaid: 2004<b>-</b>2014. ( 29572288 )
2018
27
The effect of standardizing treatment when managing neonatal abstinence syndrome<sup/>. ( 29757685 )
2018
28
Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Methadone vs Morphine for Treatment of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. ( 29913015 )
2018
29
Opioid Utilization by Pregnant Women with Sickle Cell Disease and the Risk of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29580450 )
2018
30
Outpatient Pharmacotherapy for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29754866 )
2018
31
Social Ecological Examination of Factors That Influence the Treatment of Newborns With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29763579 )
2018
32
Nonpharmacological management of neonatal abstinence syndrome: a review of the literature. ( 29207895 )
2018
33
The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Buprenorphine in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29516490 )
2018
34
Feeding Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Finding the Sweet Spot. ( 29436353 )
2018
35
Mental Disorders Among Children Born With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 30453858 )
2018
36
Neonatal abstinence syndrome - a better way. ( 30455578 )
2018
37
Neonatal abstinence syndrome. ( 30467361 )
2018
38
Neonatal abstinence syndrome. ( 30467370 )
2018
39
Pharmacological Interventions for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 30507817 )
2018
40
Positive Predictive Value of Administrative Data for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 30514781 )
2018
41
Advances in Management of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: What’s the score? ( 30520287 )
2018
42
Neonatal Head Circumference in Newborns With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 30530638 )
2018
43
Clinical Opinion Letters Regarding Breastfeeding and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome for Child Apprehension Family Court Proceedings. ( 30543758 )
2018
44
A Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase Scoring Consistency and Accuracy of the Finnegan Tool: Challenges in Obtaining Reliable Assessments of Drug Withdrawal in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29045256 )
2018
45
Antenatal methadone vs buprenorphine exposure and length of hospital stay in infants admitted to the intensive care unit with neonatal abstinence syndrome. ( 29048415 )
2018
46
Buprenorphine in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29105752 )
2018
47
Methadone Versus Buprenorphine for Opioid Use Dependence and Risk of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29112519 )
2018
48
Comparison of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Treatment with Sublingual Buprenorphine versus Conventional Opioids. ( 29112997 )
2018
49
Opioid Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: An Overview. ( 29285767 )
2018
50
The Role of Preterm Birth in the Association Between Opioid Maintenance Therapy and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. ( 29372750 )
2018

Variations for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Expression for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

Pathways for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

GO Terms for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Cellular components related to Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dendrite GO:0030425 9.58 COMT OPRK1 OPRM1
2 perikaryon GO:0043204 9.43 OPRK1 OPRM1
3 axon terminus GO:0043679 9.37 OPRD1 OPRK1
4 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.32 OPRK1 OPRM1
5 integral component of synaptic vesicle membrane GO:0030285 9.26 OPRD1 OPRK1
6 dendrite membrane GO:0032590 9.16 OPRD1 OPRM1
7 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.13 OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1
8 spine apparatus GO:0097444 8.62 OPRD1 OPRM1

Biological processes related to Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.58 OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1
2 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.57 OPRK1 OPRM1
3 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 9.56 OPRK1 OPRM1
4 response to estrogen GO:0043627 9.55 COMT OPRK1
5 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.54 OPRD1 OPRM1
6 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007193 9.54 OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1
7 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.52 OPRK1 OPRM1
8 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.51 OPRK1 OPRM1
9 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.5 OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1
10 response to radiation GO:0009314 9.49 OPRK1 OPRM1
11 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.48 OPRK1 OPRM1
12 estrous cycle GO:0044849 9.46 OPRK1 OPRM1
13 sensory perception GO:0007600 9.43 OPRK1 OPRM1
14 eating behavior GO:0042755 9.33 OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1
15 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0031635 9.26 OPRK1 OPRM1
16 opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0038003 9.13 OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1
17 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 8.92 COMT OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1

Molecular functions related to Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 receptor serine/threonine kinase binding GO:0033612 9.16 OPRD1 OPRK1
2 neuropeptide binding GO:0042923 9.13 OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1
3 opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 8.8 OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1

Sources for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
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30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
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42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
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49 NCI
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51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
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74 UMLS via Orphanet
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