MCID: NRL004
MIFTS: 52

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Categories: Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:

Name: Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome 12 73 20 53 58 36 54 44 15 17 70

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Prevalence: 1-5/10000 (Europe);

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases


Summaries for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

KEGG : 36 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but potentially life-threatening sideeffect to antipsychotic drugs characterized by fever, altered mental status, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction. NMS is classically associated with the use of high-potency antipsychotics (AP), such as butyrophenones and phenothiazines, but has also been described with newer agents, commonly described as atypical AP (risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine), other D2-receptor antagonists (metoclopramide), and following withdrawal of anti dopaminergic agents. Although the precise pathophysiologic mechanism underlying NMS remains unknown, a reduction in dopaminergic activity in the brain probably by dopamine D2 receptor blockade in the striatum and hypothalamus is generally assumed as a potential cause. Laboratory findings include elevation of serum creatine phosphokinase (CK), liver enzymes, and leukocitosis. Treatment includes immediately stopping the offending agent and implementing supportive measures, as well as pharmacological interventions in more severe cases.

MalaCards based summary : Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is related to serotonin syndrome and acute kidney failure. An important gene associated with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is CYP2D6 (Cytochrome P450 Family 2 Subfamily D Member 6), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Ca, cAMP and Lipid Signaling and Serotonergic synapse. The drugs Antipsychotic Agents and Creatine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include hypothalamus, brain and kidney, and related phenotypes are hyperhidrosis and fever

Disease Ontology : 12 A nervous system disease that is characterized by hyperthermia, muscular rigidity, autonomic dysfunction and altered consciousness and is associated with administration of antipsychotic and other central dopaminergic blockers.

GARD : 20 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare neurological condition that is caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic (tranquilizer) or antipsychotic drugs. These drugs are commonly prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and other neurological, mental, or emotional disorders. Affected people may experience high fever, muscle stiffness, sweating, unstable blood pressure, altered mental status, and autonomic dysfunction. In most cases, the condition develops within the first 2 weeks of treatment with the drug; however, it may develop any time during the therapy period. The exact underlying cause of neuroleptic malignant syndrome is unknown. In some cases, more than one family member can be affected which suggests there may be a genetic component. Upon diagnosis of the condition, the neuroleptic or antipsychotic drug is generally discontinued under a physician's supervision. Medications and/or other interventions may also be recommended to manage symptoms.

NINDS : 53 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a life-threatening, neurological disorder most often caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs. Symptoms include high fever, sweating, unstable blood pressure, stupor, muscular rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction. In most cases, the disorder develops within the first 2 weeks of treatment with the drug; however, the disorder may develop any time during the therapy period. The syndrome can also occur in people taking anti-Parkinsonism drugs known as dopaminergics if those drugs are discontinued abruptly.

Wikipedia : 73 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but life-threatening reaction that can occur in response... more...

Related Diseases for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Diseases related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 331)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 serotonin syndrome 31.2 HTR2A HTR1A CYP2D6
2 acute kidney failure 31.2 PIK3C2A MB GPT
3 schizoaffective disorder 31.0 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2
4 myoglobinuria 31.0 PIK3C2A MB GPT
5 disseminated intravascular coagulation 30.9 PIK3C2A MB GPT
6 tardive dyskinesia 30.9 HTR2A DRD2 CYP2D6
7 malignant hyperthermia 30.8 RYR3 RYR1 PIK3C2A MB GPT
8 dysphagia 30.7 PIK3C2A DES
9 traumatic brain injury 30.7 DRD2 ANKK1
10 movement disease 30.7 HTR1A DRD2 CYP2D6
11 bipolar i disorder 30.5 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2
12 psychotic disorder 30.5 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 CYP2D6
13 galactorrhea 30.4 DRD2 CYP2D6
14 mental depression 30.2 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 CYP2D6
15 oculogyric crisis 30.2 HTR2A HTR1A
16 gas gangrene 30.2 PIK3C2A MB
17 schizophreniform disorder 30.2 HTR2A DRD2
18 major depressive disorder 30.1 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 CYP2D6
19 compartment syndrome 30.1 PIK3C2A MB GPT CHKB
20 mood disorder 30.1 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2
21 obsessive-compulsive disorder 30.1 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 CYP2D6
22 endogenous depression 30.1 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2
23 oppositional defiant disorder 30.0 HTR2A DRD2 ANKK1
24 creatine phosphokinase, elevated serum 30.0 PIK3C2A MB CHKB
25 gilles de la tourette syndrome 30.0 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2
26 alcohol dependence 30.0 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 ANKK1
27 generalized anxiety disorder 29.9 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 CYP2D6
28 neuromuscular disease 29.9 RYR1 MB DES CHKB
29 panic disorder 29.8 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2
30 alcohol use disorder 29.8 HTR2A HTR1A GPT DRD2 ANKK1
31 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 29.6 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 CYP2D6 ANKK1
32 substance abuse 29.2 HTR2A HTR1A GPT DRD2 CYP2D6 ANKK1
33 muscular dystrophy 29.2 RYR1 PIK3C2A MB DES CHKB
34 myopathy 28.6 RYR3 RYR1 PIK3C2A MB GPT DES
35 metabolic crises, recurrent, with rhabdomyolysis, cardiac arrhythmias, and neurodegeneration 10.9
36 encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with episodic rhabdomyolysis 10.9
37 autonomic dysfunction 10.8
38 tremor 10.8
39 subacute delirium 10.7
40 major affective disorder 8 10.6
41 major affective disorder 9 10.6
42 bipolar disorder 10.6
43 parkinsonism 10.6
44 kidney disease 10.5
45 ocular motor apraxia 10.5
46 mutism 10.5
47 encephalitis 10.5
48 dystonia 10.5
49 paranoid schizophrenia 10.5
50 myoclonus 10.5

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:



Diseases related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Human phenotypes related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:

58 31 (show top 50) (show all 55)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 hyperhidrosis 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000975
2 fever 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001945
3 extrapyramidal muscular rigidity 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0007076
4 mutism 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002300
5 abnormal autonomic nervous system physiology 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0012332
6 tremor 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001337
7 dysphagia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002015
8 fatigue 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012378
9 elevated serum creatine kinase 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003236
10 metabolic acidosis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001942
11 tachycardia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001649
12 leukocytosis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001974
13 drooling 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002307
14 muscle spasm 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003394
15 hypotension 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002615
16 chorea 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002072
17 proteinuria 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000093
18 dehydration 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001944
19 vomiting 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002013
20 hyperuricemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002149
21 anxiety 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000739
22 elevated hepatic transaminase 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002910
23 hyponatremia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002902
24 hypocalcemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002901
25 hypertensive crisis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100735
26 pulmonary embolism 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002204
27 hyperkalemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002153
28 encephalopathy 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001298
29 coma 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001259
30 aspiration pneumonia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0011951
31 urinary incontinence 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000020
32 acute kidney injury 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001919
33 hyperphosphatemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002905
34 hypomagnesemia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002917
35 thrombocytosis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001894
36 agitation 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000713
37 elevated alkaline phosphatase 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003155
38 nausea 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002018
39 rhabdomyolysis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003201
40 hypernatremia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003228
41 oculogyric crisis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0010553
42 myoglobinuria 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002913
43 nasogastric tube feeding 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0040288
44 rigors 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0025145
45 delirium 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0031258
46 increased lactate dehydrogenase level 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0025435
47 hypothermia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002045
48 thrombocytopenia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001873
49 sepsis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100806
50 bradycardia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001662

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 17)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00055-A-1 10 PIK3C2A
2 Decreased viability GR00055-A-2 10 PIK3C2A
3 Decreased viability GR00055-A-3 10 PIK3C2A
4 Decreased viability GR00173-A 10 ANKK1
5 Decreased viability GR00221-A-1 10 CHKB PIK3C2A
6 Decreased viability GR00221-A-2 10 ANKK1 CHKA CHKB PIK3C2A
7 Decreased viability GR00221-A-3 10 CHKB
8 Decreased viability GR00221-A-4 10 ANKK1 CHKA CHKB PIK3C2A
9 Decreased viability GR00240-S-1 10 PIK3C2A
10 Decreased viability GR00249-S 10 PIK3C2A
11 Decreased viability GR00301-A 10 CHKB
12 Decreased viability GR00342-S-1 10 PIK3C2A
13 Decreased viability GR00342-S-2 10 CHKA PIK3C2A
14 Decreased viability GR00342-S-3 10 PIK3C2A
15 Decreased viability GR00386-A-1 10 CHKA
16 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 10 CHKA
17 Decreased Hepatitis C Virus pseudoparticles (HCVpp; H77; genotype 1a) infection GR00234-A-1 9.13 CHKA CHKB PIK3C2A

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.65 CHKB DES DRD2 F2RL1 HTR1A HTR2A
2 muscle MP:0005369 9.23 CHKB DES DRD2 HTR2A MB NHLRC1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Drugs for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 2
2
Creatine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical 57-00-1 586
3 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
4 Clofibric Acid 882-09-7

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Transcutaneous Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation (t-VNS) in the Treatment of Schizophrenia: a Randomized, Controlled, Double Blind, Two-armed Clinical Trial Completed NCT01176721 Phase 2
2 Rhabdomyolysis - A Retrospective Study in Hospitalized Patients Unknown status NCT01022450
3 Multicenter Assessment of Pre-Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Evaluation and ECT Application Recruiting NCT04335916

Search NIH Clinical Center for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :


2-Bromoergocryptine Mesylate
Bromocriptine
Dantrolene
Dantrolene Sodium

Cochrane evidence based reviews: neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Genetic Tests for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:

40
Hypothalamus, Brain, Kidney, Heart, Tongue, Liver, Subthalamic Nucleus

Publications for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Articles related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 2232)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
[Catatonia in a 14 year-old girl: treatment with clorazepam and carbamazepine, a 10-year follow-up]. 54 61
20159196 2010
2
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome or a statin drug reaction? A case report. 54 61
19952877 2009
3
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a review and report of six cases. 61 54
17214072 2006
4
[Importance of creatine kinase psychiatry--truths and myths]. 54 61
16813275 2006
5
Massive creatine kinase elevations with quetiapine: report of two cases. 54 61
16453254 2006
6
CYP2D6 gene deletion allele in patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome: preliminary report. 61 54
16048458 2005
7
Cardiac involvement in malignant syndrome in Parkinson's disease. 54 61
16145285 2005
8
Relationship between functional dopamine D2 and D3 receptors gene polymorphisms and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 54 61
12555236 2003
9
High serum creatinine kinase level: possible risk factor for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 61 54
12006894 2002
10
Association of the TaqI A polymorphism of the dopamine D(2) receptor gene with predisposition to neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 61 54
11579007 2001
11
Lack of association in Japanese patients between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and a debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase genotype with low enzyme activity. 54 61
11204351 2000
12
Psychopharmacology research in the English-speaking Caribbean. 54 61
10820583 2000
13
Severe catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome: report of 3 cases. 61 54
10561954 1999
14
CYP2D6 HhaI genotype and the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 61 54
9892857 1999
15
Mutation involving cytochrome P450IID6 in two Japanese patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 61 54
9804127 1998
16
Lack of association between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and polymorphisms in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor genes. 61 54
9734554 1998
17
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome with risperidone. 54 61
9165568 1997
18
The obscure autopsy and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 54 61
9029927 1997
19
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hydroxylase gene mutations: no association with CYP2D6A or CYP2D6B. 61 54
9323326 1997
20
[Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, syndrome malin]. 61 54
8904246 1996
21
The role of creatine kinase in the diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 61 54
8101383 1993
22
[Creatine phosphokinase in a hospitalized psychiatric population]. 61 54
1362345 1992
23
[The relationship between syndrome malin and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and rhabdomyolysis]. 54 61
1970519 1990
24
Dysphagia in a Case of Atypical Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. 61
33734166 2021
25
Can a 4-Month Tolerability Assessment With Paliperidone Palmitate 1-Monthly Prevent Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated With the 3-Monthly?: Analysis Based on a Spontaneous Reporting System Database in Japan. 61
33538535 2021
26
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with long-acting injectable versus oral second-generation antipsychotics: Analyses based on a spontaneous reporting system database in Japan. 61
33752105 2021
27
Subcortical Structure Disruption in Diffusion Tensor Tractography of the Patient With the Syndrome of Irreversible Lithium-Effectuated Neurotoxicity Combined With Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Case Report. 61
33560007 2021
28
Rhabdomyolysis secondary to severe tic fits. 61
33653856 2021
29
Dose-dependent effects of antipsychotics on efficacy and adverse effects in schizophrenia. 61
33417992 2021
30
Successful Emergency Treatment of Refractory Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome With Electroconvulsive Therapy and a Novel Use of Dexmedetomidine: A Case Report From California in the Era of COVID-19. 61
33600120 2021
31
Crippling Side Effects Induced by Paliperidone Palmitate Treatment: A Case Report. 61
33796427 2021
32
Beneficial effects of dantrolene in the treatment of rhabdomyolysis as a potential late complication associated with COVID-19: a case report. 61
33557936 2021
33
Late-onset Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated With Paliperidone Long-acting Injection and Lithium: A Case Report. 61
33605644 2021
34
Levosulpiride associated neuroleptic malignant syndrome in an elderly patient: a tale of confusing brand names. 61
33609249 2021
35
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome following COVID-19 vaccination. 61
33642127 2021
36
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome After Re-introduction of Atypical Antipsychotics in a COVID-19 Patient. 61
33763319 2021
37
Prophylactic Administration of Diphenhydramine to Reduce Neuroleptic Side Effects in the Acute Care Setting: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 61
33131965 2021
38
Atypical Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in the Setting of Quetiapine Overdose: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. 61
33585092 2021
39
Ziprasidone Associated Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. 61
33763185 2021
40
Neurological Consequences of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Concurrence of Treatment-Induced Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events in COVID-19 Patients: Navigating the Uncharted. 61
33681293 2021
41
A case of extended-release Quetiapine causing recurrent low-grade fevers. 61
33246590 2021
42
Case Report: Ziprasidone induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 61
33763203 2021
43
Development of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in a Patient with Lewy Body Dementia after Intramuscular Administration of Paliperidone. 61
33520321 2021
44
Creatine kinase elevation and discontinuation of clozapine: fear-driven clinical practice in a forensic case with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and persistent violent behaviour. 61
33272348 2020
45
HyperCKemia and rhabdomyolysis in the neuroleptic malignant and serotonin syndromes: A literature review. 61
33250373 2020
46
Severe Agitation in a Teenager With Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Clinical Challenge. 61
32384395 2020
47
Antipsychotics and Risk of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Population-Based Cohort and Case-Crossover Study. 61
33010024 2020
48
Expanding the Catatonia Tent: Recognizing Electroconvulsive Therapy Responsive Syndromes. 61
33122500 2020
49
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome with abnormally elevated cardiac troponin I: a case report. 61
33203271 2020
50
Outcomes of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome With Depot Versus Oral Antipsychotics: A Systematic Review and Pooled, Patient-Level Analysis of 662 Case Reports. 61
33238083 2020

Variations for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Expression for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome.

Pathways for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

GO Terms for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Cellular components related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 calcium channel complex GO:0034704 9.26 RYR3 RYR1
2 smooth endoplasmic reticulum GO:0005790 9.16 RYR3 RYR1
3 Z disc GO:0030018 9.13 RYR3 RYR1 DES
4 sarcolemma GO:0042383 8.8 RYR3 RYR1 DES

Biological processes related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 9.51 HTR2A DRD2
2 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 9.49 HTR2A DRD2
3 behavior GO:0007610 9.48 HTR2A HTR1A
4 phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthetic process GO:0006646 9.46 CHKB CHKA
5 negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051481 9.43 RYR3 DRD2
6 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.4 HTR2A DRD2
7 cellular response to caffeine GO:0071313 9.37 RYR3 RYR1
8 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 9.32 HTR2A DRD2
9 serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007210 9.26 HTR2A HTR1A
10 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 9.26 RYR3 RYR1 HTR2A DRD2
11 CDP-choline pathway GO:0006657 9.16 CHKB CHKA
12 release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol GO:0051209 8.92 RYR3 RYR1 HTR2A DRD2

Molecular functions related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G-protein alpha-subunit binding GO:0001965 9.4 HTR2A F2RL1
2 serotonin binding GO:0051378 9.37 HTR2A HTR1A
3 calcium-release channel activity GO:0015278 9.32 RYR3 RYR1
4 calcium-induced calcium release activity GO:0048763 9.26 RYR3 RYR1
5 ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity GO:0005219 9.16 RYR3 RYR1
6 ethanolamine kinase activity GO:0004305 8.96 CHKB CHKA
7 choline kinase activity GO:0004103 8.62 CHKB CHKA

Sources for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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