MCID: NRS003
MIFTS: 45

Neurosyphilis

Categories: Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Neurosyphilis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Neurosyphilis:

Name: Neurosyphilis 52 53 71

Classifications:



External Ids:

ICD10 32 A52.3
UMLS 71 C0027927

Summaries for Neurosyphilis

NINDS : 53 Neurosyphilis is a disease of the coverings of the brain, the brain itself, or the spinal cord. It can occur in people with syphilis, especially if they are left untreated.  Neurosyphilis is different from syphilis because it affects the nervous system, while syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease with different signs and symptoms.  There are five types of neurosyphilis: asymptomatic neurosyphilis meningeal neurosyphilis meningovascular neurosyphilis general paresis, and tabes dorsalis. Asymptomatic neurosyphilis means that neurosyphilis is present, but the individual reports no symptoms and does not feel sick.  Meningeal syphilis can occur between the first few weeks to the first few years of getting syphilis.  Individuals with meningeal syphilis can have headache, stiff neck, nausea, and vomiting.  Sometimes there can also be loss of vision or hearing. Meningovascular syphilis causes the same symptoms as meningeal syphilis but affected individuals also have strokes.  This form of neurosyphilis can occur within the first few months to several years after infection.  General paresiscan occur between 3 – 30 years after getting syphilis.  People with general paresis can have personality or mood changes.  Tabes dorsalis is characterized by pains in the limbs or abdomen, failure of muscle coordination, and bladder disturbances.  Other signs include vision loss, loss of reflexes and loss of sense of vibration, poor gait, and impaired balance. Tabes dorsalis can occur anywhere from 5 – 50 years after initial syphilis infection.  General paresis and tabes dorsalis are now less common than the other forms of neurosyphilis because of advances made in prevention, screening, and treatment. People with HIV/AIDS are at higher risk of having neurosyphilis.

MalaCards based summary : Neurosyphilis is related to meningovascular neurosyphilis and parenchymatous neurosyphilis, and has symptoms including syphilitic chancre An important gene associated with Neurosyphilis is CXCL13 (C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 13), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and ERK Signaling. The drugs Penicillin G and Procaine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, brain and spinal cord, and related phenotypes are hematopoietic system and immune system

Wikipedia : 74 Neurosyphilis refers to infection of the central nervous system in a patient with syphilis and can occur... more...

Related Diseases for Neurosyphilis

Diseases related to Neurosyphilis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 485)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 meningovascular neurosyphilis 34.2 IL17A CXCL13
2 parenchymatous neurosyphilis 33.9 TLR6 TLR1
3 encephalitis 30.4 TLR2 IL10 CXCL10
4 chorioretinitis 30.4 IL17A IL10
5 neuritis 30.3 IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
6 optic neuritis 30.3 IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
7 viral encephalitis 30.2 IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
8 myelitis 30.2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
9 transverse myelitis 30.1 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
10 acute transverse myelitis 30.0 IL10 CXCL8
11 tuberculous meningitis 29.9 TLR2 CXCL8
12 pustulosis of palm and sole 29.9 IL17A CXCL8
13 neuromyelitis optica 29.9 IL17A CXCL13 CXCL10
14 iridocyclitis 29.8 IL17A IL10
15 aseptic meningitis 29.7 IL10 CXCL8 CXCL13
16 retinal detachment 29.6 IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
17 allergic hypersensitivity disease 29.6 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
18 dermatitis 29.5 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
19 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy 29.5 IL17A IL10
20 panuveitis 29.5 IL17A IL10
21 uveitis 29.5 IL17A IL10 CXCR5 CXCL8 CXCL10
22 urethritis 29.5 TLR2 CXCL8
23 demyelinating disease 29.4 IL17A IL10 CXCL10
24 autoimmune disease 29.2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
25 aphthous stomatitis 29.1 TLR2 IL10 CXCL8
26 toxic shock syndrome 29.1 TLR2 IL10 CXCL8
27 toxoplasmosis 29.1 TLR2 TLR1 IL10
28 infective endocarditis 28.9 TLR6 TLR2 IL17A
29 meningitis 28.9 TLR2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CXCL13
30 tick-borne encephalitis 28.9 TLR2 IL10 CXCL13 CXCL10
31 lyme disease 28.8 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A
32 eye disease 28.7 TLR2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
33 bacterial meningitis 28.6 TLR2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
34 arthritis 28.6 TLR2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
35 candidiasis 28.6 TLR2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
36 skin disease 28.4 TLR2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
37 diabetes mellitus 28.2 TLR2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
38 psoriasis 28.2 TLR2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
39 endocarditis 28.0 TLR6 TLR2 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
40 malaria 27.9 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
41 bacterial infectious disease 27.9 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
42 peripheral nervous system disease 27.9 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
43 leprosy 3 27.0 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
44 asymptomatic neurosyphilis 12.8
45 tertiary neurosyphilis 12.5
46 tabes dorsalis 12.1
47 late congenital syphilis 11.7
48 cerebral atrophy 11.6
49 argyll robertson pupil 11.5
50 aids - neurological complications 11.2

Comorbidity relations with Neurosyphilis via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Acute Cystitis Decubitus Ulcer
Deficiency Anemia Hypertension, Essential
Latent Syphilis Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Neurosyphilis:



Diseases related to Neurosyphilis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Neurosyphilis

UMLS symptoms related to Neurosyphilis:


syphilitic chancre

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Neurosyphilis:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.56 CXCL10 CXCL13 CXCR5 IL10 IL17A TLR1
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.23 CXCL10 CXCL13 CXCR5 IL10 IL17A TLR1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Neurosyphilis

Drugs for Neurosyphilis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 18)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Penicillin G Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 61-33-6 5904
2
Procaine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-46-1 4914
3 Penicillin G Benzathine Phase 4
4 Penicillin G Procaine Phase 4
5 penicillins Phase 4
6 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
7 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
8
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 564-25-0 54671203
9
Azithromycin Approved Phase 3 83905-01-5 447043 55185
10 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
11 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
12 Antimalarials Phase 3
13
Parathyroid hormone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 9002-64-6
14
Teriparatide Approved, Investigational Phase 2 52232-67-4 16133850
15 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2
16 Hormones Phase 2
17
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 2 7440-70-2 271
18
Ceftriaxone Approved 73384-59-5 5361919 5479530

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Syphilis Response to Higher Penicillin Dosage in HIV Co-Infected Patients Completed NCT02611765 Phase 4 Benzathine penicillin G intramuscular 7.2 million units;Benzathine penicillin G intramuscular 2.4 million units
2 A Phase III Equivalence Trial of Azithromycin vs. Benzathine Penicillin for the Treatment of Early Syphilis Completed NCT00031499 Phase 3 Azithromycin;Benzathine Penicillin;Doxycycline
3 Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Association With Clinical and Laboratory Predictors for the Diagnosis of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Patients With Neurological Disorders in Rural Hospitals of Bandundu,Democratic Republic of Congo Completed NCT01589289 Phase 3
4 To Study the Efficacy of Teriparatide in Improving Remodeling of Foot Bones in Chronic Charcot Neuroarthropathy in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus. Unknown status NCT02023411 Phase 2 Teriparatide
5 A Pilot Study Evaluating Penicillin G and Ceftriaxone as Therapies for Presumed Neurosyphilis in HIV Seropositive Individuals Completed NCT00000648 Penicillin G potassium;Ceftriaxone sodium
6 Xijing HOSPITAL, Fourth Military Medical University, China Completed NCT00921648
7 Danish Study Group of Infections of the Brain: A Nationwide Prospective Observational Cohort Study of All Central Nervous System Infections in Adults at Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark Recruiting NCT03418441

Search NIH Clinical Center for Neurosyphilis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Probenecid

Genetic Tests for Neurosyphilis

Anatomical Context for Neurosyphilis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Neurosyphilis:

40
Testes, Brain, Spinal Cord, Eye, Bone, Skin, Cerebellum

Publications for Neurosyphilis

Articles related to Neurosyphilis:

(show top 50) (show all 2176)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Syphilis Laboratory Guidelines: Performance Characteristics of Nontreponemal Antibody Tests. 61
32578862 2020
2
Sensitivity and Specificity of Treponemal-specific Tests for the Diagnosis of Syphilis. 61
32578866 2020
3
The potential for CXCL13 in CSF as a differential diagnostic tool in central nervous system infection. 61
32479125 2020
4
Frequency of Screening and Prevalence of Neurosyphilis in Stroke Population. 61
32570248 2020
5
Persistent Verrucous Plaques in an HIV-Positive Patient with Secondary and Neurosyphilis. 61
32496387 2020
6
An epidemiological study of syphilis and predictors of treatment failure in University Malaya Medical Centre. 61
32467532 2020
7
Syphilitic aortitis: still a current common cause of aneurysm of the tubular portion of ascending aorta. 61
31951962 2020
8
Peripheral blood mononuclear cell microRNA profiles in syphilitic patients with serofast status. 61
32333247 2020
9
The Devil Is in the Details: Neurological Diseases Presenting as Religious Hallucinations in Two Literary Works. 61
32434181 2020
10
Reply to query: Cerebrospinal fluid tests for neurosyphilis diagnosis by Drago et al. 61
32366607 2020
11
Increased CCL24 and CXCL7 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurosyphilis. 61
32419252 2020
12
Mixed-pattern syphilitic alopecia of the scalp associated with uveitis and asymptomatic neurosyphilis. 61
32441352 2020
13
Cerebrospinal fluid tests for neurosyphilis diagnosis. 61
32366605 2020
14
The Treponema pallidum outer membrane protein Tp92 activates endothelial cells via the chemerin/CMKLR1 pathway. 61
32173267 2020
15
Chemokine Ligand 13 (CXCL13) in Neuroborreliosis and Neurosyphilis as Selected Spirochetal Neurological Diseases: A Review of Its Diagnostic Significance. 61
32331231 2020
16
Comparative genomics and full-length Tprk profiling of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum reinfection. 61
32251462 2020
17
Neuroimaging Features, Follow-Up Analyses, and Comparisons Between Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Neurosyphilis. 61
32124253 2020
18
[Ocular syphilis, a re-emergent pathology: Series of 12 patients in one Hospital, 2017]. 61
31301942 2020
19
Neurosyphilis Presenting as Mania and Psychosis After Incidental Treatment With Cephalexin: A Case Report and Literature Review of Jarisch-Herxheimer Reactions. 61
31331661 2020
20
General paresis of insane: A forgotten entity. 61
32415032 2020
21
Differential diagnosis of temporal lobe lesions with hyperintense signal on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences: pictorial essay. 61
32336830 2020
22
Imaging of Diffuse Neurosyphilis Affecting the Corticospinal Tracts and Cerebellum. 61
31730295 2020
23
Clinical and laboratory characteristics of ocular syphilis and neurosyphilis among individuals with and without HIV infection. 61
32220852 2020
24
Prevalence of Self-Reported Neurologic and Ocular Symptoms in Early Syphilis Cases. 61
32103243 2020
25
Ocular syphilis: case series (2000-2015) from 2 tertiary care centres in Montreal, Canada. 61
31712031 2020
26
Cerebrospinal fluid treponemal antibody titres: a breakthrough in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. 61
32033979 2020
27
Ocular and neurosyphilis: epidemiology and approach to management. 61
31789673 2020
28
Neurosyphilis: Old Disease, New Implications for Emergency Physicians. 61
32064424 2020
29
Neurosyphilis presenting with myelitis-case series and literature review. 61
31859039 2020
30
Eyes As the Window to Syphilis: A Rare Case of Ocular Syphilis As the Initial Presentation of Syphilis. 61
32206462 2020
31
UNILATERAL OPTIC NEURITIS AND CENTRAL RETINAL VASCULITIS DUE TO OCULAR SYPHILIS. 61
28816862 2020
32
Cerebral Impaludation - An Ignoble Procedure between Two Nobel Prizes: Frontal Lobe Lesions before the Introduction of Leucotomy. 61
32320974 2020
33
[Damage to the inner ear with syphilitic infection]. 61
32476396 2020
34
Molecular diagnostic of syphilis. 61
32111369 2020
35
High HbA1c level is correlated with blood-brain barrier disruption in syphilis patients. 61
31440863 2020
36
Immunoblot and Polymerase Chain Reaction to Diagnose Ocular Syphilis and Neurosyphilis in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Patients. 61
31944129 2020
37
False positives in the ultrasound diagnosis of giant cell arteritis: some diseases can also show the halo sign. 61
31953951 2020
38
Neurosyphilis presenting as acute ischemic stroke. 61
31941739 2020
39
Neurosyphilis vasculitis manifesting as ischemic stroke. 61
32187345 2020
40
Ocular syphilis in an immunocompetent man. 61
32528847 2020
41
Increased CSF Soluble TREM2 Concentration in Patients With Neurosyphilis. 61
32117023 2020
42
Cerebrospinal fluid TPPA titres in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. 61
31959701 2020
43
[Diagnostic problems and treatment of late neurosyphilis in a young patient: a case report]. 61
32307418 2020
44
The great imitator: Mesial temporal alterations in MRI in an atypical case of neurosyphilis. 61
28863830 2020
45
A man in his forties with acute onset of speech impairment and unilateral paresis. 61
31823567 2019
46
Clinical prediction and diagnosis of neurosyphilis in HIV-negative patients: a case-control study. 61
31791265 2019
47
Neurosyphilis Presenting as Intermittent Explosive Disorder and Acute Psychosis. 61
31938625 2019
48
Neurosyphilis presenting as visually asymptomatic bilateral optic perineuritis. 61
31871011 2019
49
Neurosyphilis. Reply. 61
31826358 2019
50
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Mimicking Neurosyphilis: A Complex Presentation, Histopathological Findings, and Special Precautions for Autopsy. 61
31306170 2019

Variations for Neurosyphilis

Expression for Neurosyphilis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Neurosyphilis.

Pathways for Neurosyphilis

Pathways related to Neurosyphilis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 30)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.78 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
2
Show member pathways
13.58 IL17A IL10 CXCR5 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
3
Show member pathways
13.44 IL17A IL10 CXCR5 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
4
Show member pathways
13.08 IL17A IL10 CXCR5 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
5
Show member pathways
12.77 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
6
Show member pathways
12.76 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A IL10 CXCR5
7
Show member pathways
12.68 CXCR5 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
8
Show member pathways
12.6 IL17A IL10 CXCR5 CXCL8 CXCL13
9
Show member pathways
12.53 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 CXCL8
10
Show member pathways
12.16 TLR2 IL17A CXCL8 CXCL10
11 12.13 TLR6 TLR2 CXCL8
12
Show member pathways
12.1 IL10 CXCR5 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
13
Show member pathways
12.06 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 CXCL8
14 12 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
15 11.99 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL10
16
Show member pathways
11.94 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 CXCL8 CXCL10
17
Show member pathways
11.87 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
18 11.82 IL17A IL10 CXCL8
19 11.77 TLR2 IL10 CXCL8
20 11.72 TLR2 IL17A CXCL8
21
Show member pathways
11.68 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A IL10
22 11.68 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A IL10 CXCR5
23 11.67 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
24 11.64 IL17A IL10 CXCR5
25
Show member pathways
11.51 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A CXCR5
26 11.42 TLR2 IL10 CXCL8
27 11.38 IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
28 11.18 CXCL13 CXCL10
29 11.03 TLR2 TLR1
30 10.8 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10

GO Terms for Neurosyphilis

Cellular components related to Neurosyphilis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 membrane raft GO:0045121 9.33 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
2 phagocytic vesicle membrane GO:0030670 9.13 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
3 Toll-like receptor 1-Toll-like receptor 2 protein complex GO:0035354 8.62 TLR2 TLR1

Biological processes related to Neurosyphilis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 34)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.06 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL10 CXCR5 CXCL8
2 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.92 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CXCL10
3 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.86 IL10 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
4 defense response to bacterium GO:0042742 9.84 TLR6 IL10 CXCL13
5 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.83 IL17A CXCL13 CXCL10
6 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.82 TLR2 IL10 CXCL10
7 chemotaxis GO:0006935 9.81 CXCR5 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
8 neutrophil chemotaxis GO:0030593 9.8 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
9 defense response GO:0006952 9.8 TLR1 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
10 antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide GO:0061844 9.78 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
11 toll-like receptor signaling pathway GO:0002224 9.74 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
12 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.7 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A CXCL8 CXCL13
13 chemokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070098 9.67 CXCR5 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
14 microglial cell activation GO:0001774 9.65 TLR6 TLR2
15 positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response GO:1900017 9.65 TLR6 IL17A
16 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process GO:0042535 9.65 TLR1 IL17A
17 MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway GO:0002755 9.65 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
18 positive regulation of macrophage activation GO:0043032 9.64 TLR6 IL10
19 positive regulation of interleukin-8 secretion GO:2000484 9.63 TLR2 TLR1
20 positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process GO:0045410 9.63 TLR6 TLR1
21 cellular response to diacyl bacterial lipopeptide GO:0071726 9.61 TLR6 TLR2
22 cell activation GO:0001775 9.61 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
23 toll-like receptor TLR6:TLR2 signaling pathway GO:0038124 9.6 TLR6 TLR2
24 toll-like receptor TLR1:TLR2 signaling pathway GO:0038123 9.59 TLR2 TLR1
25 cellular response to triacyl bacterial lipopeptide GO:0071727 9.58 TLR2 TLR1
26 nitric oxide metabolic process GO:0046209 9.58 TLR6 TLR2
27 regulation of cytokine secretion GO:0050707 9.58 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
28 detection of diacyl bacterial lipopeptide GO:0042496 9.55 TLR6 TLR2
29 detection of triacyl bacterial lipopeptide GO:0042495 9.54 TLR2 TLR1
30 response to bacterial lipoprotein GO:0032493 9.52 TLR6 TLR2
31 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.5 TLR2 IL10 CXCL8
32 cellular response to bacterial lipopeptide GO:0071221 9.43 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
33 leukocyte chemotaxis GO:0030595 9.35 IL10 CXCR5 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
34 immune response GO:0006955 9.28 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1 IL17A IL10 CXCR5

Molecular functions related to Neurosyphilis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor activity GO:0038023 9.63 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
2 chemokine activity GO:0008009 9.58 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
3 NAD+ nucleotidase, cyclic ADP-ribose generating GO:0061809 9.5 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
4 CXCR3 chemokine receptor binding GO:0048248 9.43 CXCL13 CXCL10
5 NAD(P)+ nucleosidase activity GO:0050135 9.43 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1
6 Toll-like receptor 2 binding GO:0035663 9.37 TLR6 TLR1
7 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.35 IL17A IL10 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
8 CXCR chemokine receptor binding GO:0045236 9.33 CXCL8 CXCL13 CXCL10
9 lipopeptide binding GO:0071723 8.8 TLR6 TLR2 TLR1

Sources for Neurosyphilis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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