MCID: NCR004
MIFTS: 54

Nocardiosis

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Nocardiosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Nocardiosis:

Name: Nocardiosis 12 74 52 58 3 15 17 32
Nocardia Infections 43 71
Nocardia Infectious Disease 12
Nocardia Infection 52
Lung Nocardiosis 52

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
nocardiosis
Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


Summaries for Nocardiosis

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Nocardiosis is a rare infectious disorder, that affects the brain, skin, and/or lungs. It occurs mainly in people with a weakened immune system but can affect anyone, and about one-third of infected people do not have any immune problems. . This condition usually starts in the lungs and can spread to other body organs . Affected individuals usually experience problems with their lungs (chest pain, coughing up blood, fevers), brain (headaches and seizures ), and skin (skin infections, ulcers, and abscesses ). Nocardiosis is caused by a bacteria of the family (genus) known as Nocardia which have different species (types). Nocardia bacteria are able to cause localized or systemic disease in humans and animals. The Nocordia bacteria are able to spread to any organ, specially the central nervous system (brain and spine), and have a tendency to recur or progress despite appropriate treatment. The nocardia bacteria are found in soil around the world. People contract this disease by either inhaling contaminated dust or if soil containing nocardia bacteria get into an open wound. People with nocardiosis may need to take multiple antibiotics given for several months-or even up to a year or more.

MalaCards based summary : Nocardiosis, also known as nocardia infections, is related to pleural empyema and chronic graft versus host disease, and has symptoms including cellulitis, pneumonia and lesions in the brain. An important gene associated with Nocardiosis is IL12RB1 (Interleukin 12 Receptor Subunit Beta 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cytokine Signaling in Immune system and 4-1BB Pathway. The drugs Edetic Acid and Pentetic acid have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, brain and skin, and related phenotypes are fever and fatigue

Disease Ontology : 12 An opportunistic bacterial infectious disease that results in disseminated infection in immunocompromised hosts, has material basis in Nocardia asteroides. The infection has symptom pneumonia, has symptom cellulitis, has symptom lesions in the brain or meninges, and has symptom ascending regional lymphadenopathy.

CDC : 3 Nocardiosis is a disease caused by bacteria found in soil and water. It can affect the lungs, brain, and skin. It is most common in people with weakened immune systems who have difficulty fighting off infections (for example, people with cancer or those taking certain medications such as steroids). Antibiotic treatment might be given for several months to get rid of the infection.

Wikipedia : 74 Nocardiosis is an infectious disease affecting either the lungs (pulmonary nocardiosis) or the whole... more...

Related Diseases for Nocardiosis

Diseases related to Nocardiosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 566)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pleural empyema 30.5 CRP CD4
2 chronic graft versus host disease 30.5 IFNG CD4
3 neuroretinitis 30.4 CRP CD4
4 bronchopneumonia 30.3 TNF CRP CD4
5 pulmonary tuberculosis 30.3 TNF IL12RB1 IFNG CRP
6 sporotrichosis 30.3 IFNG CD4
7 endophthalmitis 30.2 TNF CRP CD4
8 breast abscess 30.1 CRP CD4
9 purpura 30.1 TNF IFNG CRP
10 klebsiella pneumonia 30.1 LACTB CRP
11 immune deficiency disease 30.1 TNF IL12RB1 IFNG CD4
12 blastomycosis 30.1 TNF CD4
13 mycobacterium fortuitum 30.1 LACTB IL12RB1 HSPD1
14 panophthalmitis 30.0 IFNG CD4
15 orchitis 29.9 TNF CRP CD4
16 cellulitis 29.9 TNF IFNG CRP CD4
17 epidemic typhus 29.8 HSPD1 CRP CD4
18 coccidioidomycosis 29.8 TNF IL12RB1 CD4
19 bronchiolitis obliterans 29.8 TNF IFNG CRP
20 bronchiolitis 29.8 TNF IFNG CRP
21 vasculitis 29.8 TNFRSF1B TNF HSPD1 CRP
22 paracoccidioidomycosis 29.8 TNF IL12RB1 IFNG
23 bacterial pneumonia 29.8 TNF LACTB CRP CD4
24 pancytopenia 29.7 IFNG CRP CD4
25 relapsing fever 29.7 TNF HSPD1 CRP
26 cerebritis 29.7 TNF CRP CD4
27 pyoderma 29.7 TNFRSF1B TNF CRP
28 meningoencephalitis 29.7 TNF CRP CD4
29 leprosy 3 29.6 TNF IFNG HSPD1 CD4
30 lepromatous leprosy 29.6 TNF IL12RB1 IFNG HSPD1
31 bronchitis 29.6 TNF LACTB CRP
32 peritonitis 29.6 TNF IFNG CRP
33 tuberculous meningitis 29.6 TNF LYZ
34 aspergillosis 29.6 TNFRSF1B TNF IFNG CABIN1
35 invasive aspergillosis 29.6 IFNG CD4 CABIN1
36 neutropenia 29.6 TNF LACTB IFNG CRP
37 pulmonary sarcoidosis 29.6 TNF IL12RB1 IFNG
38 toxic shock syndrome 29.5 TNF IFNG HSPD1 CRP
39 pleural tuberculosis 29.5 TNF IFNG CD4
40 cytomegalovirus retinitis 29.5 TNF IFNG CD4
41 mixed connective tissue disease 29.5 TNF IFNG HSPD1
42 arthropathy 29.5 TNF IFNG CRP
43 cryptococcosis 29.5 TNF IFNG CD4
44 optic nerve disease 29.5 TNF CRP CD4
45 mucormycosis 29.5 IFNG CRP CD4 CABIN1
46 scrub typhus 29.5 TNF IFNG CRP
47 pustulosis of palm and sole 29.5 TNFRSF1B TNF CRP
48 septic arthritis 29.5 TNF IFNG CRP
49 pleurisy 29.5 TNF IFNG CRP
50 lymphadenitis 29.4 TNF IL12RB1 IFNG CRP CD4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Nocardiosis:



Diseases related to Nocardiosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Nocardiosis

Human phenotypes related to Nocardiosis:

58 31 (show top 50) (show all 53)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 fever 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001945
2 fatigue 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012378
3 immunodeficiency 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002721
4 chest pain 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0100749
5 pneumonia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002090
6 productive cough 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0031245
7 bacteremia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0031864
8 reduced consciousness/confusion 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0004372
9 vomiting 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002013
10 emphysema 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002097
11 weight loss 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001824
12 subcutaneous nodule 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001482
13 pericarditis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001701
14 osteomyelitis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002754
15 anorexia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002039
16 hemoptysis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002105
17 conjunctivitis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000509
18 sepsis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100806
19 headache 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002315
20 liver abscess 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100523
21 respiratory failure 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002878
22 respiratory distress 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002098
23 pleural effusion 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002202
24 pneumothorax 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002107
25 pleuritis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002102
26 dacryocystitis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000620
27 night sweats 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030166
28 ocular pain 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0200026
29 chills 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0025143
30 brain abscess 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030049
31 lymphadenitis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002840
32 nonproductive cough 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0031246
33 severe infection 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0032169
34 cutaneous abscess 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0031292
35 abnormal heart valve morphology 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001654
36 thyroiditis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100646
37 abnormality of the adrenal glands 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000834
38 cellulitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100658
39 endocarditis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100584
40 meningitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001287
41 keratitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000491
42 encephalitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002383
43 scotoma 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000575
44 peritonitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002586
45 functional motor deficit 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0004302
46 abnormality of the mediastinum 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0045026
47 scleritis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100532
48 chorioretinitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0012424
49 seizure 31 very rare (1%) HP:0001250
50 seizures 58 Very rare (<4-1%)

Symptoms:

12
  • cellulitis
  • pneumonia
  • lesions in the brain
  • ascending regional lymphadenopathy

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Nocardiosis:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.81 CABIN1 CD4 HSPD1 IFNG IFNGR2 IL12RB1
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.65 CD4 CRP IFNG IFNGR2 IL12RB1 LACTB
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.28 CABIN1 CD4 CRP IFNG IFNGR2 IL12RB1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Nocardiosis

Drugs for Nocardiosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 10)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Edetic Acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 60-00-4, 62-33-9 6049
2
Pentetic acid Approved Phase 2 67-43-6
3
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Phase 2 10118-90-8 5281021
4
Ethanol Approved Phase 2 64-17-5 702
5 Chelating Agents Phase 2
6 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2
7 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
8 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2
9 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2
10
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 2 7440-70-2 271

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Phase II Pilot Study to Estimate the Adverse Events Associated With the Lock Solution When Used to Salvage Central Venous Catheter (CVC) in the Setting of a Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSI) Completed NCT01539343 Phase 2 Antimicrobial Solution

Search NIH Clinical Center for Nocardiosis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


acetyl sulfisoxazole
Sulfisoxazole
Sulfisoxazole Diolamine

Cochrane evidence based reviews: nocardia infections

Genetic Tests for Nocardiosis

Anatomical Context for Nocardiosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Nocardiosis:

40
Lung, Brain, Skin, Heart, Kidney, Liver, Bone

Publications for Nocardiosis

Articles related to Nocardiosis:

(show top 50) (show all 1739)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Systemic nocardiosis in acquired aplastic anaemia: Report of 2 cases. 61
32534743 2020
2
Diffuse primary cutaneous infection by Alternaria alternata in a liver transplant recipient with pulmonary nocardiosis: Importance of prompt identification for clinical resolution. 61
32420014 2020
3
Nocardia colli sp. nov., a new pathogen isolated from a patient with primary cutaneous nocardiosis. 61
32375925 2020
4
NOCARDIOSIS: A NEGLECTED DISEASE. 61
32422637 2020
5
Nocardia Infections: Ten Years Experience from a Tertiary Health Care Center in North India (2007-2016). 61
32416708 2020
6
Nocardia Bloodstream Infection: A Retrospective Clinical Analysis of Seven Cases in a Single Centre. 61
32528749 2020
7
Brain abscess in patients with chronic kidney disease: A case-based approach to management in resource-limited settings. 61
32321877 2020
8
Identification of a cell-wall peptidase (NlpC/P60) from Nocardia seriolae which induces apoptosis in fathead minnow cells. 61
32196698 2020
9
Recent Trends of Infectious Complications Following Heart Transplantation. 61
32413012 2020
10
Intracranial peripherally enhancing lesions in cardiac transplant recipients: A rare case series and literature review. 61
32331940 2020
11
Nocardiosis in patients with nephrotic syndrome: a retrospective analysis of 11 cases and a literature review. 61
32124233 2020
12
Cutaneous nocardiosis in a liver transplant recipient - case report. 61
32352943 2020
13
Complete Reconstitution and Deorphanization of the 3 MDa Nocardiosis-Associated Polyketide Synthase. 61
32182063 2020
14
Nocardia colonization in contrast to nocardiosis: a comparison of patients' clinical characteristics. 61
31863237 2020
15
Safety and Outcomes of Linezolid Use for Nocardiosis. 61
32258209 2020
16
Targeting novel genes for simultaneous detection of five fungal and bacterial agents from BAL samples using multiplex PCR assay. 61
32253622 2020
17
High Rate of Imipenem Non-Susceptibility among Clinical Nocardia spp. Isolated from Lung Transplant Recipients. 61
32465092 2020
18
Multiloculated cerebral lesion in an immunocompromised patient heralding cerebral nocardiosis. 61
31543361 2020
19
Pulmonary Nocardiosis in Suspected Tuberculosis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cross-Sectional Studies. 61
32165819 2020
20
Cutaneous nocardiosis: A great imitator. 61
32513396 2020
21
Interleukin 34 Serves as a Novel Molecular Adjuvant against Nocardia Seriolae Infection in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides). 61
32231137 2020
22
Pulmonary Nocardia ignorata Infection in Gardener, Iran, 2017. 61
32091362 2020
23
The protective efficacy of recombinant hypoxic response protein 1 of Nocardia seriolae in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). 61
32115295 2020
24
Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and species distribution of medically relevant Nocardia species: Results from a large tertiary laboratory in Australia. 61
31400449 2020
25
Pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia caused by Nocardia asiatica in a dog coinfected with canine morbillivirus (canine distemper virus). 61
31573747 2020
26
Isolated cerebellar abscess by Norcardia asiatica: A case report with review of literature. 61
32318503 2020
27
Fatal pulmonary infection by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant Nocardia otitidiscaviarum: report of two cases and review. 61
32146457 2020
28
Disseminated infection with Nocardia otitidiscaviarum in a patient under steroid therapy. 61
32128191 2020
29
Pulmonary Nocardiosis with Aspergillosis in a patient with COPD: A rare co-infection. 61
32368494 2020
30
Spectrum of 18F-FDG Uptake in Bilateral Lung Parenchymal Diseases on PET/CT. 61
31524673 2020
31
Challenges in treatment of disseminated nocardiosis in an elderly patient with renal failure on corticosteroids: a case report. 61
32373466 2020
32
Nocardiosis mimicking lung cancer in a heart transplant patient with end-stage renal disease. 61
32528841 2020
33
Nocardia farcinica as a cause of chronic meningitis - case report. 61
31952512 2020
34
Systemic nocardiosis presenting with subretinal abscess in patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma. 61
31581361 2020
35
Pulmonary nocardiosis in an elderly man. 61
31980471 2020
36
Lymphocutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report. 61
31948315 2020
37
Pulmonary nocardiosis in patient with pulmonary tuberculosis in an immunocompetent male: A rare case report. 61
32192606 2020
38
Pulmonary nocardiosis caused by Nocardia blacklokiae in an immunocompetent patient. 61
32025483 2020
39
18F-FDG Imaging of a Case of Disseminated Nocardiosis. 61
31789913 2020
40
Rapid Detection of Nocardia by Next-Generation Sequencing. 61
32133300 2020
41
Incidental Finding of Nocardia: A Case Series from a Tertiary Care Centre in Uttarakhand. 61
32328325 2020
42
Miliary cerebrospinal lesions caused by Nocardia beijingensis in an immunocompetent patient. 61
32154108 2020
43
Inhibition Activity of Avibactam against Nocardia farcinica β-Lactamase FARIFM10152. 61
31712200 2020
44
Epitope-Based Vaccine Designing of Nocardia asteroides Targeting the Virulence Factor Mce-Family Protein by Immunoinformatics Approach. 61
32435172 2020
45
Development of DNA vaccines encoding ribosomal proteins (RplL and RpsA) against Nocardia seriolae infection in fish. 61
31830563 2020
46
A Rare Case of Drug-Resistant Nocardia transvalensis Infection in a Renal Transplant Patient. 61
32108507 2020
47
Case of localized cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica. 61
31556135 2019
48
Comparison of protective efficacy between two DNA vaccines encoding DnaK and GroEL against fish nocardiosis. 61
31629062 2019
49
Gardener with primary lymphocutaneous nocardiosis. 61
31843784 2019
50
Uncommon burn complication: skin nocardiosis. 61
32431579 2019

Variations for Nocardiosis

Expression for Nocardiosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Nocardiosis.

Pathways for Nocardiosis

Pathways related to Nocardiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.11 TNFRSF1B TNF IL12RB1 IFNGR2 IFNG CD4
2
Show member pathways
12.47 TNFRSF1B TNF IFNG CD4
3
Show member pathways
12.39 TNF IFNGR2 IFNG CD4
4
Show member pathways
12.37 TNF IL12RB1 IFNG CD4
5 12.33 TNFRSF1B TNF IFNG CABIN1
6
Show member pathways
12.3 TNF IL12RB1 IFNGR2 IFNG CD4
7
Show member pathways
12.19 TNFRSF1B TNF IL12RB1 IFNGR2 IFNG CD4
8 11.99 TNF IFNGR2 IFNG HSPD1
9 11.87 TNF IFNGR2 IFNG
10 11.82 TNF IFNG CD4
11
Show member pathways
11.79 IL12RB1 IFNG CD4
12
Show member pathways
11.63 IL12RB1 IFNG CD4
13
Show member pathways
11.53 TNF IFNG CABIN1
14 11.5 TNF IFNG CD4
15 11.46 TNF IL12RB1 IFNG CD4
16
Show member pathways
11.14 TNFRSF1B TNF IFNG
17
Show member pathways
11.05 TNF IL12RB1 IFNGR2 IFNG CD4
18 10.96 TNF IFNG CD4
19
Show member pathways
10.96 TNFRSF1B TNF IFNGR2 IFNG
20 10.87 TNF CRP

GO Terms for Nocardiosis

Cellular components related to Nocardiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 membrane raft GO:0045121 8.92 TNFRSF1B TNF HSPD1 CD4

Biological processes related to Nocardiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 23)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.9 TNFRSF1B TNF LYZ CRP
2 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 9.76 TNF LYZ CRP
3 response to virus GO:0009615 9.75 TNF IFNGR2 IFNG
4 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 9.72 TNF IFNG HSPD1
5 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032729 9.65 TNF IL12RB1 HSPD1
6 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097191 9.63 TNFRSF1B TNF IFNG
7 macrophage differentiation GO:0030225 9.61 IFNG CD4
8 positive regulation of amyloid-beta formation GO:1902004 9.61 TNF IFNG
9 positive regulation of interleukin-6 secretion GO:2000778 9.61 TNF IFNG HSPD1
10 astrocyte activation GO:0048143 9.59 TNF IFNG
11 regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway GO:0060334 9.57 IFNGR2 IFNG
12 positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process GO:0045080 9.56 TNF IFNG
13 cell surface receptor signaling pathway GO:0007166 9.55 TNFRSF1B IFNGR2 IFNG CD4 CABIN1
14 negative regulation of amyloid-beta clearance GO:1900222 9.54 TNF IFNG
15 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.52 TNF CRP
16 positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta biosynthetic process GO:0050725 9.51 TNF IFNG
17 positive regulation of NMDA glutamate receptor activity GO:1904783 9.49 IFNGR2 IFNG
18 microglial cell activation GO:0001774 9.43 TNF IFNGR2 IFNG
19 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.4 TNF IFNG
20 positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process GO:0060557 9.37 TNF IFNG
21 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.35 TNFRSF1B TNF IL12RB1 IFNGR2 CD4
22 positive regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process GO:0051173 9.32 TNF IFNG
23 positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis GO:0051044 8.8 TNFRSF1B TNF IFNG

Molecular functions related to Nocardiosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 identical protein binding GO:0042802 9.1 TNF RIDA LYZ LACTB CRP CD4

Sources for Nocardiosis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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