MCID: NNF007
MIFTS: 46

Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Rare diseases, Cancer diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

MalaCards integrated aliases for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma:

Name: Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma 59
Non-Functioning Pituitary Gland Neoplasm 73
Nfpa 59

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

59
non-functioning pituitary adenoma
Inheritance: Not applicable; Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (Worldwide),1-9/100000 (Finland),1-9/100000 (Sweden),6-9/10000 (Belgium),6-9/10000 (Switzerland),6-9/10000 (United Kingdom),6-9/10000 (Finland);

Classifications:

Orphanet: 59  
Rare endocrine diseases


Summaries for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

MalaCards based summary : Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma, also known as non-functioning pituitary gland neoplasm, is related to pituitary tumors and hyperprolactinemia. An important gene associated with Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma is SST (Somatostatin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Endochondral Ossification and Growth hormone receptor signaling. The drugs Dopamine and Cabergoline have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, brain and endothelial, and related phenotypes are male hypogonadism and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism

Related Diseases for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Diseases related to Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 91)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pituitary tumors 30.3 GH1 SST
2 hyperprolactinemia 30.1 GH1 SST
3 chordoma 29.7 MUC1 S100B
4 acromegaly 29.0 GH1 GHR SST
5 functioning pituitary adenoma 27.5 GH1 GHR MUC1 PTPN3 S100B SST
6 pituitary adenoma 10.8
7 adenoma 10.8
8 tsh producing pituitary tumor 10.5 GH1 SST
9 pituitary adenoma 1, multiple types 10.5 GH1 SST
10 villous adenoma 10.4 MUC1 SST
11 ampulla of vater neoplasm 10.4 MUC1 SST
12 mccune-albright syndrome 10.3 GH1 SST
13 fibrous dysplasia 10.3 GH1 SST
14 duodenum cancer 10.3 MUC1 SST
15 adrenal gland hyperfunction 10.3 GH1 SST
16 ectopic cushing syndrome 10.3 S100B SST
17 mixed ductal-endocrine carcinoma 10.3 MUC1 SST
18 pituitary gland disease 10.3 GH1 SST
19 localized hypertrophic neuropathy 10.3 MUC1 S100B
20 sclerosing perineurioma 10.3 MUC1 S100B
21 intracranial cysts 10.3 MUC1 S100B
22 reticular perineurioma 10.3 MUC1 S100B
23 epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor 10.3 MUC1 S100B
24 ossifying fibromyxoid tumor 10.3 MUC1 S100B
25 fibrous meningioma 10.3 MUC1 S100B
26 chordoid meningioma 10.3 MUC1 S100B
27 syringocystadenoma papilliferum 10.3 MUC1 S100B
28 eccrine porocarcinoma 10.3 MUC1 S100B
29 spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma 10.3 MUC1 S100B
30 aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
31 myxopapillary ependymoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
32 monophasic synovial sarcoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
33 chordoid glioma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
34 spiradenoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
35 syringoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
36 pleomorphic liposarcoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
37 anaplastic ependymoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
38 perineurioma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
39 spindle cell sarcoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
40 pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting 10.2 GH1 SST
41 papilloma of choroid plexus 10.2 MUC1 S100B
42 meningeal melanocytoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
43 dendritic cell tumor 10.2 MUC1 S100B
44 cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor 10.2 MUC1 S100B
45 hemangiopericytoma, malignant 10.2 MUC1 S100B
46 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
47 intraneural perineurioma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
48 megalencephaly 10.2 S100B SST
49 malignant fibroxanthoma 10.2 MUC1 S100B
50 optic nerve glioma 10.2 MUC1 S100B

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma:



Diseases related to Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Human phenotypes related to Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma:

59 32 (show top 50) (show all 57)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 male hypogonadism 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000026
2 hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000044
3 female hypogonadism 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000134
4 abnormality of the menstrual cycle 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000140
5 ptosis 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000508
6 progressive visual loss 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000529
7 blindness 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000618
8 diplopia 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000651
9 impotence 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000802
10 increased circulating gonadotropin level 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000837
11 panhypopituitarism 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000871
12 central diabetes insipidus 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000863
13 decreased fertility in females 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000868
14 pallor 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000980
15 sudden loss of visual acuity 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001117
16 seizures 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001250
17 vomiting 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002013
18 macroorchidism, postpubertal 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002050
19 headache 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002315
20 vertigo 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002321
21 hypotension 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002615
22 decreased circulating acth level 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002920
23 easy fatigability 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003388
24 cranial nerve vi palsy 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0006897
25 fourth cranial nerve palsy 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0007011
26 internal ophthalmoplegia 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0007942
27 prolactin deficiency 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0008202
28 secondary growth hormone deficiency 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0008240
29 pituitary hypothyroidism 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0008245
30 increased intraabdominal fat 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0008993
31 anemia of inadequate production 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0010972
32 abnormality of hair density 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011357
33 adrenocorticotropin deficient adrenal insufficiency 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011735
34 adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011748
35 decreased fertility in males 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012041
36 oculomotor nerve palsy 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012246
37 fatigue 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012378
38 increased serum testosterone level 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030088
39 decreased female libido 59 32 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0030018
40 bitemporal hemianopia 59 32 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030521
41 macroorchidism 59 Occasional (29-5%)
42 hypogonadism 59 Frequent (79-30%)
43 growth hormone deficiency 59 Frequent (79-30%)
44 anterior hypopituitarism 59 Frequent (79-30%)
45 menstrual irregularities 59 Frequent (79-30%)
46 adrenal insufficiency 59 Frequent (79-30%)
47 diabetes insipidus 59 Occasional (29-5%)
48 cranial nerve paralysis 59 Occasional (29-5%)
49 nausea and vomiting 59 Frequent (79-30%)
50 low gonadotropins (secondary hypogonadism) 59 Frequent (79-30%)

Drugs & Therapeutics for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Drugs for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 25)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 3,Phase 2 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
2
Cabergoline Approved Phase 3,Phase 2 81409-90-7 54746
3
Octreotide Approved, Investigational Phase 3,Phase 1 83150-76-9 383414 6400441
4
Somatostatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1 38916-34-6, 51110-01-1 53481605
5 Dopamine agonists Phase 3,Phase 2
6 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 3,Phase 1
7 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
8 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
9 Hormones Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
10 Dopamine Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
11 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
12 Edotreotide Phase 3,Phase 1
13 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
14 Protective Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
15 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
16 Radiopharmaceuticals Phase 3,Phase 1
17 Autonomic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
18 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 3,Phase 1
19
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 122320-73-4 77999
20
Maleic acid Experimental Phase 2 110-16-7 444266
21 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Phase 2
22 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2
23 Pancreatic Polypeptide Investigational Phase 1 59763-91-6
24
Menthol Approved 2216-51-5 16666
25 Calcium, Dietary

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 19)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Cabergoline in Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas Completed NCT03271918 Phase 3 Cabergoline
2 Response to Cabergoline and Pasireotide in Non-functioning Pituitary Adenomas and Resistant Prolactinomas Completed NCT01620138 Phase 2, Phase 3 Pasireotide;cabergoline
3 Dopamine Agonist Treatment of Non-functioning Pituitary Adenomas Recruiting NCT02288962 Phase 3 cabergoline
4 Ga-68-DOTATOC -PET in the Management of Pituitary Tumours Recruiting NCT02419664 Phase 3
5 Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Pasireotide LAR on the Treatment of Patients With Clinically Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma. Completed NCT01283542 Phase 2 Pasireotide LAR
6 Pasireotide LAR Therapy of Silent Corticotroph Pituitary Tumors Recruiting NCT02749227 Phase 2 Pasireotide LAR
7 Rosiglitazone in Treating Patients With Pituitary Tumors Terminated NCT00616642 Phase 2 rosiglitazone maleate
8 Exploratory Study of Farletuzumab to Treat Resectable, Non-functioning Pituitary Adenomas Withdrawn NCT01203618 Phase 2 Farletuzumab
9 Temozolomide in Treating Patients With Invasive Pituitary Tumors Withdrawn NCT00601289 Phase 2 temozolomide
10 Antineoplaston Therapy in Treating Patients With Neuroendocrine Tumor That Is Metastatic or Unlikely to Respond to Surgery or Radiation Therapy Withdrawn NCT00003514 Phase 2 antineoplaston A10;antineoplaston AS2-1
11 Yttrium Y 90 SMT 487 in Treating Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Cancer Completed NCT00006368 Phase 1
12 Characterization of Receptors in Non-functioning Pituitary Macroadenomas Unknown status NCT00852501
13 Calcium Homeostasis in Acromegaly: Effect of Surgical/Medical Treatment and Comparison With Nonfunctioning Pituitary Tumors Completed NCT01568359
14 Acute Side Effects in Patients Who Are Undergoing Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Tumors or Other Brain Disorders Completed NCT00255671
15 Prospective Study of Clinically Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas Recruiting NCT01556230
16 Predictive Factors of Recurrence of Non Functioning Pituitary Adenomas : a Retrospective Study of 220 Patients in the Reims University Hospital, France Recruiting NCT02803697
17 Comparison of Propofol Requirement Between Patients With Pituitary Somatotroph Tumor and With Nonfunctioning Pituitary Tumor in Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia Recruiting NCT03465423
18 Transsphenoidal Extent of Resection Study Recruiting NCT02357498 Not Applicable
19 Seoul National University Pituitary Disease Cohort Study Recruiting NCT03474601

Search NIH Clinical Center for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Genetic Tests for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Anatomical Context for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma:

41
Pituitary, Brain, Endothelial, Prostate, Thyroid, Lung, Bone

Publications for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Articles related to Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma:

(show top 50) (show all 93)
# Title Authors Year
1
EVALUATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK WITH ARTERIAL STIFFNESS IN PATIENTS WITH NON-FUNCTIONING PITUITARY ADENOMA. ( 29975581 )
2018
2
Data of phosphoproteomic analysis of non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 29900237 )
2018
3
Mortality in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 29344906 )
2018
4
Malignant transformation in non-functioning pituitary adenomas (pituitary carcinoma). ( 29299820 )
2018
5
Incidence of malignant tumours in patients with a non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 28274953 )
2017
6
Non-functioning pituitary adenoma underwent surgery: A multicenter retrospective study over the last four decades (1977-2015). ( 28389053 )
2017
7
Increased I^a89catenin and c-myc expression predict aggressive growth of non-functioning pituitary adenomas: An assessment using a tissue microarray-based approach. ( 28260015 )
2017
8
Integrative proteomics and transcriptomics identify novel invasive-related biomarkers of non-functioning pituitary adenomas. ( 26753958 )
2016
9
Time trends of mortality in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma: a Swedish nationwide study. ( 27743172 )
2016
10
Relationship of each anterior pituitary hormone deficiency to the size of non-functioning pituitary adenoma in the hospitalized patients. ( 27534814 )
2016
11
Higher Incidence of Morbidity in Women than Men with Non-functioning Pituitary Adenoma: a Swedish Nationwide Study. ( 27147638 )
2016
12
SNPs in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene associated with sporadic non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 26998050 )
2016
13
Clinical Concerns about Recurrence of Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma. ( 27195254 )
2016
14
Management of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 26072284 )
2015
15
Biological and radiological exploration and management of non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 26122495 )
2015
16
Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis in Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenomas: Focus on the Prevalence of Isolated Central Hypoadrenalism. ( 25924873 )
2015
17
Post-surgical management of non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 26116412 )
2015
18
Neuro-ophthalmologic exploration in non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 26070465 )
2015
19
Brain abnormalities on MRI in non-functioning pituitary adenoma patients treated with or without postoperative radiotherapy. ( 25596913 )
2015
20
Non-functioning pituitary adenoma: when and how to operate? What pathologic criteria for typing? ( 26070464 )
2015
21
Dopamine 2 and somatostatin 1-5 receptors coexpression in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. ( 25536318 )
2015
22
MORTALITY IN PATIENTS WITH NON-FUNCTIONING PITUITARY ADENOMA IS INCREASED: SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF 546 CASES WITH LONG FOLLOW-UP. ( 26546611 )
2015
23
Candida albicans endophthalmitis in a patient with a non-functioning pituitary adenoma evolving into Cushingx^s disease: A case report. ( 25379398 )
2014
24
Analysis of short- and long-term metabolic effects of growth hormone replacement therapy in adult patients with craniopharyngioma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 25330765 )
2014
25
Cluster headache associated with a clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma: a case report. ( 25526868 )
2014
26
Spontaneous regression of non-functioning pituitary adenoma due to pituitary apoplexy following anticoagulation treatment - a case report and review of the literature. ( 23450448 )
2013
27
ZAC1 and SSTR2 are downregulated in non-functioning pituitary adenomas but not in somatotropinomas. ( 24098585 )
2013
28
Self-perception of cognitive function among patients with active acromegaly, controlled acromegaly, and non-functional pituitary adenoma: a pilot study. ( 24282035 )
2013
29
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in a patient with disabling non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 23740146 )
2013
30
Intraoperative MRI and endocrinological outcome of transsphenoidal surgery for non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 22286656 )
2012
31
Combined gangliocytoma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma of the pituitary gland. ( 22824692 )
2012
32
Treatment with octreotide LAR in clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma: results from a case-control study. ( 22207350 )
2012
33
Dopamine 2 receptor expression in various pathological types of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. ( 21597974 )
2012
34
Expression of genes FOLR1, BAG1 and LAPTM4B in functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenomas. ( 23023342 )
2012
35
Pituitary apoplexy in non-functioning pituitary adenomas: long term follow up is important because of significant numbers of tumour recurrences. ( 21521336 )
2011
36
Can we ever stop imaging in surgically treated and radiotherapy-naive patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma? ( 21900406 )
2011
37
Co-expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes and estrogen receptor-I+ mRNAs by non-functioning pituitary adenomas in young patients. ( 20797424 )
2011
38
Non-functioning pituitary adenoma and concomitant Rathke's cleft cyst. ( 21934255 )
2011
39
Apoplexy in non functioning pituitary adenoma after one dose of leuprolide as treatment for prostate cancer. ( 19842040 )
2010
40
Metabolic, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular outcomes in growth hormone-deficient subjects with previous cushing's disease or non-functioning pituitary adenoma. ( 20022992 )
2010
41
Prevalence of gsp oncogene in somatotropinomas and clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas: our experience. ( 18642089 )
2009
42
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas: clinical feature, laboratorial and imaging assessment, therapeutic management and outcome. ( 19347183 )
2009
43
GH replacement in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) treated solely by surgery is not associated with increased risk of tumour recurrence. ( 19236640 )
2009
44
Comparing progression of non-functioning pituitary adenomas in hypopituitarism patients with and without long-term GH replacement therapy. ( 19734242 )
2009
45
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas infrequently harbor G-protein gene mutations. ( 19169048 )
2008
46
Effects of selective somatostatin analogs and cortistatin on cell viability in cultured human non-functioning pituitary adenomas. ( 18276067 )
2008
47
Efficacy of a dopamine-somatostatin chimeric molecule, BIM-23A760, in the control of cell growth from primary cultures of human non-functioning pituitary adenomas: a multi-center study. ( 18509006 )
2008
48
Medical therapy for clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. ( 18780796 )
2008
49
Quantitative analysis of somatostatin receptor subtype (SSTR1-5) gene expression levels in somatotropinomas and non-functioning pituitary adenomas. ( 17218727 )
2007
50
Non-functioning pituitary adenoma: immunohistochemical analysis of 85 cases. ( 17594597 )
2007

Variations for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Expression for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma.

Pathways for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Pathways related to Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.77 GH1 GHR
2
Show member pathways
10.24 GH1 GHR

GO Terms for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

Cellular components related to Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.55 GH1 GHR MUC1 S100B SST
2 neuronal cell body GO:0043025 9.43 GHR S100B SST
3 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.35 GH1 GHR MUC1 S100B SST
4 growth hormone receptor complex GO:0070195 8.62 GH1 GHR

Biological processes related to Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.4 GH1 GHR
2 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.37 GH1 GHR
3 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051384 9.32 GHR S100B
4 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040018 9.26 GH1 GHR
5 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.16 GH1 GHR
6 JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway GO:0060397 8.96 GH1 GHR
7 growth hormone receptor signaling pathway GO:0060396 8.62 GH1 GHR

Molecular functions related to Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.62 GH1 SST

Sources for Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenoma

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
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30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
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44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
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49 NCI
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51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
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57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
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74 UMLS via Orphanet
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