MCID: OBS037
MIFTS: 51

Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

Categories: Blood diseases, Metabolic diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome:

Name: Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome 57 55
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome 37 63 73
Pickwickian Syndrome 57

Characteristics:

OMIM:

57
Inheritance:
autosomal recessive


HPO:

32
obesity-hypoventilation syndrome:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance


Classifications:



Summaries for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

PubMed Health : 63 About obesity hypoventilation syndrome: Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih-LA-shun) syndrome (OHS) is a breathing disorder that affects some obese people. In OHS, poor breathing results in too much carbon dioxide (hypoventilation) and too little oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia).OHS sometimes is called Pickwickian syndrome.

MalaCards based summary : Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome, also known as obesity hypoventilation syndrome, is related to sleep apnea and apnea, obstructive sleep, and has symptoms including obesity, metabolically benign An important gene associated with Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome is LEP (Leptin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Common Cytokine Receptor Gamma-Chain Family Signaling Pathways and Circadian rythm related genes. The drugs Acetazolamide and diuretics have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, lung and endothelial, and related phenotypes are obesity and hypoventilation

Wikipedia : 76 Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (also known as Pickwickian syndrome) is a condition in which severely... more...

Description from OMIM: 257500

Related Diseases for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

Diseases related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 111)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 sleep apnea 30.9 ADIPOQ IL6 LEP
2 apnea, obstructive sleep 30.4 ADIPOQ IL6 LEP
3 sleep disorder 30.0 IL6 LEP
4 prader-willi syndrome 29.7 ADIPOQ LEP LEPQTL1 RETN
5 morbid obesity 29.6 ADIPOQ LEP RETN
6 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 29.5 ADIPOQ IL6 LEP LEPQTL1 RETN
7 diabetes mellitus 29.3 ADIPOQ IL6 LEP RETN
8 respiratory failure 10.4
9 pulmonary hypertension 10.4
10 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 10.3
11 body mass index quantitative trait locus 10 10.3
12 body mass index quantitative trait locus 14 10.3
13 body mass index quantitative trait locus 18 10.3
14 body mass index quantitative trait locus 19 10.3
15 hypoxia 10.2
16 autism 6 10.1 LEP LEPQTL1
17 classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency 10.1 LEP LEPQTL1
18 berardinelli-seip congenital lipodystrophy 10.1 LEP LEPQTL1
19 abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 1 10.1 ADIPOQ LEP
20 lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 1 10.1 ADIPOQ LEP
21 nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease 10.1 ADIPOQ LEP
22 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis 10.1 ADIPOQ LEP
23 fetal macrosomia 10.1 LEP LEPQTL1
24 endocrine pancreas disease 10.1 ADIPOQ LEP
25 acanthosis nigricans 10.1 ADIPOQ LEP
26 severe pre-eclampsia 10.1 ADIPOQ LEP
27 scorpion envenomation 10.1 CCL5 IL6
28 pancreas disease 10.1 IL6 LEP
29 protein-energy malnutrition 10.1 IL6 LEP
30 stachybotrys chartarum 10.1 CCL5 IL6
31 autoimmune disease of eyes, ear, nose and throat 10.1 CCL5 IL6
32 viral meningitis 10.1 CCL5 IL6
33 radiculopathy 10.0 CCL5 IL6
34 inherited metabolic disorder 10.0 ADIPOQ LEP
35 viral encephalitis 10.0 CCL5 IL6
36 eating disorder 10.0 ADIPOQ LEP
37 idiopathic neutropenia 10.0 CCL5 IL6
38 chikungunya 10.0 CCL5 IL6
39 meningoencephalitis 10.0 CCL5 IL6
40 yellow fever 10.0 CCL5 IL6
41 temporal arteritis 10.0 CCL5 IL6
42 tropical spastic paraparesis 10.0 CCL5 IL6
43 human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease 10.0 CCL5 IL6
44 mastitis 10.0 CCL5 IL6
45 arteriosclerosis obliterans 10.0 ADIPOQ IL6
46 filariasis 10.0 CCL5 IL6
47 extrinsic allergic alveolitis 10.0 CCL5 IL6
48 nutritional deficiency disease 10.0 IL6 LEP
49 occipital horn syndrome 10.0
50 asthma 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome:



Diseases related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

57
Growth:
obesity

Neuro:
somnolence
muscular twitching

Skin:
cyanosis

Resp:
periodic breathing


Clinical features from OMIM:

257500

Human phenotypes related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome:

32
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 obesity 32 HP:0001513
2 hypoventilation 32 HP:0002791
3 cyanosis 32 HP:0000961
4 excessive daytime somnolence 32 HP:0001262

UMLS symptoms related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome:


obesity, metabolically benign

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.46 ADIPOQ IL6 LEP RETN
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.35 ADIPOQ CCL5 IL6 LEP RETN
3 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 8.92 ADIPOQ IL6 LEP RETN

Drugs & Therapeutics for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

PubMedHealth treatment related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome: 63

Treatments for obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) include breathing support, weight loss, and medicines.The goals of treating OHS may include:Supporting and aiding your breathingAchieving major weight lossTreating underlying and related conditions

Drugs for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 8)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 59-66-5 1986
2 diuretics Phase 3
3 Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Phase 3
4 Natriuretic Agents Phase 3
5 Anticonvulsants Phase 3
6 Anesthetics Not Applicable
7 Calamus Not Applicable
8 Pharmaceutical Solutions Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 46)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment of Metabolic Alkalosis With Acetazolamide. Effect on the Length of Mechanical Ventilation. Completed NCT01499485 Phase 3 Acetazolamide;Placebo
2 Astral VAPS AutoEPAP Clinical Trial Completed NCT02683772 Phase 3
3 Cost Effectiveness of Outpatient Set-up of Automated NIV in Obese Patients With Chronic Respiratory Failure Recruiting NCT02342899 Phase 3
4 Patient -Ventilator Interaction in Chronic Respiratory Failure Completed NCT01371149 Phase 2
5 Telemedicine and Ventilator Titration in Chronic Respiratory Patients Initiating Non-invasive Ventilation Unknown status NCT01560741 Phase 1
6 EIT Study With Healthy Patients Completed NCT02828007 Phase 1
7 Prevalence Rate, and Clinical Characteristics of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Via Screening Patients Admitted to Medical Intensive Care Units Unknown status NCT02934581
8 Use of Polysomnography for Non-Invasive Ventilation Settings' Optimization Unknown status NCT00603096 Not Applicable
9 Response to NonInvasive Mechanical Ventilation According to the Breathing Pattern Unknown status NCT01991535 Not Applicable
10 A Study to Investigate the Effects of Heated Humidification During Non-Invasive Ventilation Unknown status NCT01372072 Not Applicable
11 Autotitrating Versus Standard Non-invasive Ventilation (NIV) in Acute Exacerbation of Respiratory Failure Unknown status NCT01174316 Not Applicable
12 Prevalence of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Completed NCT01903135 Not Applicable
13 PAP Therapy in Patients With Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Completed NCT03449641 Not Applicable
14 The Obesity-hypoventilation Syndrome Study of Clinical Characteristics and Predictive Factors of Response to Treatment Completed NCT00938977 Not Applicable
15 Alternative of Treatment in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Completed NCT01405976 Not Applicable
16 A Trial of Rehabilitation in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) Completed NCT01483716 Not Applicable
17 Target Volume in Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation Completed NCT01748656 Not Applicable
18 Non Invasive Ventilation : Efficacy of a New Ventilatory Mode in Patients With OHS Completed NCT01757444 Not Applicable
19 AVAPS-AE Efficacy Study Completed NCT01368614 Not Applicable
20 Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome and Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) Completed NCT01553227 Not Applicable
21 Impact of Non-intentional Leaks on Noninvasive Ventilation Completed NCT00983411
22 Cardiac and Respiratory Function With Non-invasive Ventilation Completed NCT02699112
23 Factors Associated With Chronic Respiratory Failure in Obesity Completed NCT01380418
24 Efficacy of Average Volume Assured Pressure Support With Bi-Level Pressure Support Nocturnal Ventilation Completed NCT00479284 Not Applicable
25 Patient-ventilator Interactions in Long Term Non-invasive Ventilation: Influence of Back-up Frequency Completed NCT01130090 Not Applicable
26 EIT Study With COPD and OHS Patients (EIT Step 2) Completed NCT02765360 Not Applicable
27 Ventilator Monitoring in Early Exacerbation Detection Completed NCT01644162 Not Applicable
28 Continuous Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation in Sleep Apnoea Completed NCT01661712 Not Applicable
29 Predictive Factors of Obesity-hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) Among Obese Subjects- ETUDE COHYPOB - Recruiting NCT02021448 Not Applicable
30 Postoperative Complications in Patients With Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Recruiting NCT02980770
31 Microbiologic Contamination of Home Non Invasive Ventilators Recruiting NCT03809832
32 Effectiveness Monitoring of Home Non-invasive Mechanical Ventilation by Digital Diagnosis Platform Recruiting NCT03085537
33 Severe Obesity Outcome Network Cohort (SOON) Recruiting NCT02264431
34 Impact of Humidification on Sleep Quality During Home Non Invasive Ventilation Recruiting NCT03561974 Not Applicable
35 Effects of PEEP on Heart and Lungs in Obese Subjects Enrolling by invitation NCT02523352 Not Applicable
36 Usefulness of Transcutaneous Capnography to Assess Residual Hypoventilation in Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrom Treated by Non Invasive Ventilation at Home : a Prospective Study Not yet recruiting NCT03572712
37 The Debated Role of Sleep Studies in Patients Under Established Home Mechanical Ventilation Not yet recruiting NCT03506906
38 Study to Evaluate Effectiveness of a Weight Loss Program in Obese Patients During 3 Months Prior to Bariatric Surgery Not yet recruiting NCT03530566
39 Juno Perth Clinical Trial Suspended NCT02317042 Not Applicable
40 Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Prevalence Study Terminated NCT01964339
41 Simplus and Eson Evaluation in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (NZ) Terminated NCT02486380 Not Applicable
42 Feasibility of a Modified Positive Airway Pressure Device to Treat Sleep Disordered Breathing Terminated NCT02368639 Not Applicable
43 Simplus and Eson Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) Evaluation - Germany Terminated NCT02726048 Not Applicable
44 Telemedicine for Improving Outcome in Inner City Patient Population With Hypercapneic Respiratory Failure Terminated NCT03353064 Not Applicable
45 European Home Mechanical Ventilation Registry Terminated NCT02315339
46 Target Volume Mode Controlled Ventilator in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Withdrawn NCT01104610 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

Genetic Tests for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome:

41
Heart, Lung, Endothelial, Kidney, Liver, Eye, Pancreas

Publications for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

Articles related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 207)
# Title Authors Year
1
NERO: a pilot study but important step towards comprehensive management of obesity hypoventilation syndrome. ( 29074813 )
2018
2
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. ( 29779600 )
2018
3
Ventilation, Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome ( 29493925 )
2018
4
Efficacy of bilevel positive airway pressure and continuous positive airway pressure therapy in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome: protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 29724743 )
2018
5
Neural respiratory drive and cardiac function in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome following initiation of non-invasive ventilation. ( 29445537 )
2018
6
Exosomal Cargo Properties, Endothelial Function and Treatment of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: A Proof of Concept Study. ( 29734990 )
2018
7
Obesity-hypoventilation syndrome and associated factors. ( 28743403 )
2018
8
Hypercapnia Response in Patients with Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome Treated with Non-Invasive Ventilation at Home. ( 29871766 )
2018
9
Nocturnal hypoventilation may have a protective effect for Ischemic heart disease in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. ( 29911492 )
2018
10
Coexistence of asthma and the obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. ( 30176621 )
2018
11
Nutrition and Exercise Rehabilitation in Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (NERO): a pilot randomised controlled trial. ( 28971973 )
2018
12
Prognosis of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome With and Without Concomitant Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. ( 29103673 )
2018
13
Echocardiographic changes with non-invasive ventilation and CPAP in obesity hypoventilation syndrome. ( 29146865 )
2018
14
Knowledge Gaps in the Perioperative Management of Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report. ( 29388810 )
2018
15
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: Early Detection of Nocturnal-Only Hypercapnia in an Obese Population. ( 30176974 )
2018
16
The Association Between Adherence to Positive Airway Pressure Therapy and Long-Term Outcomes in Patients With Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: A Prospective Observational Study. ( 30176976 )
2018
17
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: Will Early Detection and Effective Therapy Improve Long-Term Outcomes? ( 30176983 )
2018
18
Comparison between auto-trilevel and bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation for treatment of patients with concurrent obesity hypoventilation syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. ( 30426457 )
2018
19
Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome. ( 30505482 )
2018
20
Efficacy of bilevel ventilatory support in the treatment of stable patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 30529484 )
2018
21
Prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in ambulatory obese patients attending pathology laboratories. ( 28397994 )
2017
22
Survival of Hypercapnic Patients with COPD and Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Treated with High Intensity Non Invasive Ventilation in the Daily Routine Care. ( 28839495 )
2017
23
A case report of malignant obesity hypoventilation syndrome: A weighty problem in our ICUs. ( 27920974 )
2017
24
Non-invasive Positive Airway Pressure in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Present and Future Perspectives. ( 28485989 )
2017
25
Switch of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a pilot study. ( 28288605 )
2017
26
The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a prospective observational study. ( 28449486 )
2017
27
Relationships between MRI fat distributions and sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome in very obese patients. ( 29197986 )
2017
28
The relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 29190986 )
2017
29
Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Treatment for Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. ( 28326202 )
2017
30
Prevalence of comorbidities in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, overlap syndrome and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. ( 29227046 )
2017
31
Paradoxical worsening of hypoxemia in a patient treated by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for obesity hypoventilation syndrome with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea: a case report. ( 28830548 )
2017
32
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: Choosing the Appropriate Treatment of a Heterogeneous Disorder. ( 29108613 )
2017
33
Using PaCO2 values to grade obesity-hypoventilation syndrome severity: a retrospective study. ( 28533903 )
2017
34
Long-term home mechanical ventilation due to obesity hypoventilation syndrome. ( 27132156 )
2017
35
Noninvasive Ventilation in the Critically Ill Patient With Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: A Review. ( 27530511 )
2017
36
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, sleep apnea, overlap syndrome: perioperative management to prevent complications. ( 27792079 )
2017
37
A randomised controlled trial of CPAP versus non-invasive ventilation for initial treatment of obesity hypoventilation syndrome. ( 27852952 )
2017
38
Spectrum of postoperative complications in pulmonary hypertension and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. ( 27906717 )
2017
39
Monitoring Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: Comparison between Ventilator Built-in Software and Respiratory Polygraphy. ( 28088804 )
2017
40
CPAP or non-invasive ventilation in obesity hypoventilation syndrome: does it matter which one you start with? ( 28130492 )
2017
41
Gender differences in patients starting long-term home mechanical ventilation due to obesity hypoventilation syndrome. ( 28214105 )
2017
42
The Predictors of Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. ( 28251022 )
2017
43
Effects of early administration of acetazolamide on the duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or obesity-hypoventilation syndrome with metabolic alkalosis. A randomized trial. ( 28286047 )
2017
44
Erratum to the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a prospective observational study. ( 28840038 )
2017
45
Modified STOP-BANG questionnaire to predict obesity hypoventilation syndrome in obese subjects with obstructive sleep apnea. ( 26047651 )
2016
46
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: Weighing in on Therapy Options. ( 26292036 )
2016
47
Avoiding Management Errors in Patients with Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. ( 26512908 )
2016
48
Impact of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy on Atrial Electromechanical Delay in Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome Patients. ( 26552735 )
2016
49
Mid- and Long-Term Efficacy of Non-Invasive Ventilation in Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: The Pickwick's Study. ( 26656679 )
2016
50
Gender differences in patients starting long-term home mechanical ventilation due to obesity hypoventilation syndrome. ( 26680503 )
2016

Variations for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

Expression for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome.

Pathways for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

GO Terms for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

Cellular components related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.35 ADIPOQ CCL5 IL6 LEP RETN
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.02 ADIPOQ CCL5 IL6 LEP RETN

Biological processes related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 22)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis GO:0120162 9.61 ADIPOQ LEP
2 circadian rhythm GO:0007623 9.6 ADIPOQ LEP
3 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.59 ADIPOQ IL6
4 response to nutrient GO:0007584 9.58 ADIPOQ LEP
5 response to insulin GO:0032868 9.58 LEP RETN
6 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.57 CCL5 LEP
7 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.56 CCL5 LEP
8 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051384 9.55 ADIPOQ IL6
9 glucose metabolic process GO:0006006 9.54 ADIPOQ LEP
10 response to nutrient levels GO:0031667 9.52 ADIPOQ LEP
11 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:0048661 9.51 CCL5 IL6
12 fatty acid beta-oxidation GO:0006635 9.49 ADIPOQ LEP
13 negative regulation of fat cell differentiation GO:0045599 9.48 ADIPOQ IL6
14 monocyte chemotaxis GO:0002548 9.46 CCL5 IL6
15 response to activity GO:0014823 9.43 ADIPOQ LEP
16 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.43 CCL5 IL6 LEP
17 regulation of angiogenesis GO:0045765 9.4 IL6 LEP
18 response to tumor necrosis factor GO:0034612 9.37 ADIPOQ CCL5
19 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.33 CCL5 IL6 LEP
20 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.32 IL6 LEP
21 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.13 CCL5 IL6 LEP
22 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.02 ADIPOQ CCL5 IL6 LEP RETN

Molecular functions related to Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.13 ADIPOQ CCL5 IL6
2 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.8 ADIPOQ LEP RETN

Sources for Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....