Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

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Aliases & Classifications for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

Name: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 57 11 42 75 28 53 5 41 43 14 63 16 71 31 33
Ocd 57 42 75
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Susceptibility to 57 5
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 11 38
Obsessive-Compulsive Neurosis 42 33
Anancastic Neurosis 11 42
Anankastic Neurosis 42 33
Obsessive Compulsive Behavior 71



Autosomal dominant form 57


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:10933
OMIM® 57 164230
ICD9CM 34 300.3
MeSH 43 D009771
NCIt 49 C88411
SNOMED-CT 68 71478004
ICD10 31 F42 F42.9
MedGen 40 C0028768
UMLS 71 C0028768 C0600104

Summaries for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

MedlinePlus: 41 What is obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder in which you have thoughts (obsessions) and rituals (compulsions) over and over. They interfere with your life, but you cannot control or stop them. What causes obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? The cause of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown. Factors such as genetics, brain biology and chemistry, and your environment may play a role. Who is at risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) usually begins when you are a teen or young adult. Boys often develop OCD at a younger age than girls. Risk factors for OCD include: Family history. People with a first-degree relative (such as a parent, sibling, or child) who has OCD are at higher risk. This is especially true if the relative developed OCD as a child or teen. Brain structure and functioning. Imaging studies have shown that people with OCD have differences in certain parts of the brain. Researchers need to do more studies to understand the connection between the brain differences and OCD. Childhood trauma, such as child abuse. Some studies have found a link between trauma in childhood and OCD. More research is needed to understand this relationship better. In some cases, children may develop OCD or OCD symptoms following a streptococcal infection. This is called Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). What are the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? People with OCD may have symptoms of obsessions, compulsions, or both: Obsessions are repeated thoughts, urges, or mental images that cause anxiety. They may involve things such as Fear of germs or contamination Fear of losing or misplacing something Worries about harm coming towards yourself or others Unwanted forbidden thoughts involving sex or religion Aggressive thoughts towards yourself or others Needing things lined up exactly or arranged in a particular, precise way Compulsions are behaviors that you feel like you need to do over and over to try to reduce your anxiety or stop the obsessive thoughts. Some common compulsions include Excessive cleaning and/or handwashing Repeatedly checking on things, such as whether the door is locked or the oven is off Compulsive counting Ordering and arranging things in a particular, precise way Some people with OCD also have a Tourette syndrome or another tic disorder. Tics are sudden twitches, movements, or sounds that people do repeatedly. People who have tics cannot stop their body from doing these things. How is obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) diagnosed? The first step is to talk with your health care provider about your symptoms. Your provider should do an exam and ask you about your medical history. He or she needs to make sure that a physical problem is not causing your symptoms. If it seems to be a mental problem, your provider may refer you to a mental health specialist for further evaluation or treatment. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) can sometimes be hard to diagnose. Its symptoms are like those of other mental disorders, such as anxiety disorders. It is also possible to have both OCD and another mental disorder. Not everyone who has obsessions or compulsions has OCD. Your symptoms would usually be considered OCD when you: Can't control your thoughts or behaviors, even when you know that they are excessive Spend at least 1 hour a day on these thoughts or behaviors Don't get pleasure when performing the behaviors. But doing them may briefly give you relief from the anxiety that your thoughts cause. Have significant problems in your daily life because of these thoughts or behaviors What are the treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? The main treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are cognitive behavioral therapy, medicines, or both: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapy. It teaches you different ways of thinking, behaving, and reacting to the obsessions and compulsions. One specific type of CBT that can treat OCD is called Exposure and Response Prevention (EX/RP). EX/RP involves gradually exposing you to your fears or obsessions. You learn healthy ways to deal with the anxiety they cause. Medicines for OCD include certain types of antidepressants. If those don't work for you, your provider may suggest taking some other type of psychiatric medicine. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

MalaCards based summary: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, also known as ocd, is related to trichotillomania and gilles de la tourette syndrome, and has symptoms including photophobia, personality changes and restlessness. An important gene associated with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is SLC6A4 (Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signal Transduction and Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors). The drugs Ethanol and Ondansetron have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, subthalamic nucleus and caudate nucleus, and related phenotypes are depression and anxiety

MedlinePlus Genetics: 42 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental health condition characterized by features called obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are intrusive thoughts, mental images, or urges to perform specific actions. While the particular obsessions vary widely, they often include fear of illness or contamination; a desire for symmetry or getting things "just right;" or intrusive thoughts involving religion, sex, or aggression. Compulsions consist of the repetitive performance of certain actions, such as checking or verifying, washing, counting, arranging, acting out specific routines, or seeking assurance. These behaviors are performed to relieve anxiety, rather than to seek pleasure as in other compulsive behaviors like gambling, eating, or sex.While almost everyone experiences obsessive feelings and compulsive behaviors occasionally or in particular contexts, in OCD they take up more than an hour a day and cause problems with work, school, or social life. People with OCD generally experience anxiety and other distress around their need to accommodate their obsessions or compulsions.About half the time, OCD becomes evident in childhood or adolescence, and most other cases appear in early adulthood. It is unusual for OCD to start after age 40. It tends to appear earlier in males, but by adulthood it is slightly more common in females. Affected individuals can experience periods when their symptoms increase or decrease in severity, but the condition usually does not go away completely.Some people with OCD have additional mental health disorders such as generalized anxiety, depression, phobias, panic disorders, or schizophrenia. OCD can also occur in people with other neurological conditions such as Tourette syndrome and similar disorders, traumatic brain injury, stroke, or dementia.

PubMed Health : 63 Obsessive-compulsive disorder: We all know the worrying feeling that we have forgotten to do something, like turning off the oven or locking the door. And it might be a good idea to double-check if you aren't absolutely sure. But some people are so worried about forgetting to do something that they feel the urge to check over and over again. Compulsive urges like this may gradually come to dominate their whole life. There are different types of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some people are so afraid of germs that they constantly wash their hands. Others can't stop counting things, cleaning their surroundings or obsessing over the same repetitive thoughts. Regardless of the kind of ritual they may have developed, people who have OCD just can't stop doing these things.

OMIM®: 57 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurring obsessions and/or compulsions and has been estimated to affect nearly 5 million people in the United States (Karno et al., 1988). Evidence for a strong genetic component in OCD comes from twin studies, family genetics studies, and segregation analyses, as reviewed by Alsobrook et al. (2002). Zhang et al. (2002) suggested that hoarding is likely to be an evolutionarily conserved trait that, in times of adversity, was associated with increased survival and reproductive fitness. However, extreme forms of this trait are associated with marked disability and poor response to treatment (Black et al., 1998; Mataix-Cols et al., 1999). (164230) (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

Disease Ontology: 11 An anxiety disorder that involves unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions).

Wikipedia: 75 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental and behavioral disorder in which an individual has... more...

Related Diseases for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Diseases related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 565)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 trichotillomania 32.8 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 SLC1A1 MAOA DLGAP3 BDNF
2 gilles de la tourette syndrome 32.4 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 SGCE MAOA
3 autism spectrum disorder 32.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT MAOA HTR1A DRD2
4 fibromyalgia 32.3 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
5 chronic tic disorder 32.3 SLITRK1 DRD2 DLGAP3
6 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 SLC1A1 HTR2A DLGAP3 COMT
7 anxiety 32.1 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 OXT
8 eating disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
9 body dysmorphic disorder 32.0 SLC6A4 SLC1A1 OXT MAOA HTR2A DLGAP3
10 tic disorder 32.0 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 MAOA HTR2A
11 schizophrenia 32.0 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 OXT
12 personality disorder 32.0 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR3A
13 schizotypal personality disorder 32.0 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
14 post-traumatic stress disorder 31.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
15 generalized anxiety disorder 31.9 TPH1 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR3A HTR2A
16 acute stress disorder 31.9 SLC6A4 OXT HTR2A BDNF
17 agoraphobia 31.9 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A COMT BDNF
18 social phobia 31.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT MAOA HTR3A HTR2A
19 anorexia nervosa 31.8 TPH1 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
20 hypochondriasis 31.8 SLC6A4 SLC1A1 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
21 panic disorder 31.8 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR3A
22 major depressive disorder 31.7 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT MAOA
23 alexithymia 31.7 SLC6A4 OXT HTR2A DRD2 COMT BDNF
24 neurotic disorder 31.7 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A COMT
25 autism 31.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
26 bulimia nervosa 31.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT MAOA HTR3A HTR2A
27 alcohol use disorder 31.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD4 DRD2 COMT
28 bipolar disorder 31.6 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 MAOA
29 movement disease 31.6 SLC6A3 SGCE HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 DRD1
30 separation anxiety disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR1A DRD4 COMT
31 phobia, specific 31.5 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR1A COMT BDNF
32 choreatic disease 31.5 SLC6A3 SGCE DRD2 DRD1 BDNF
33 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 31.5 TPH2 TPH1 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1
34 somatization disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 OXT
35 psychotic disorder 31.5 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 OXT
36 schizoaffective disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 SLC1A1 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD2
37 pathological gambling 31.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
38 dysthymic disorder 31.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
39 mood disorder 31.4 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT MAOA
40 kleptomania 31.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR1A DRD2 DLGAP3
41 avoidant personality disorder 31.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD4
42 dissociative disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 OXT HTR2A COMT BDNF
43 asperger syndrome 31.3 SLC6A4 SGCE OXT COMT BDNF
44 learning disability 31.3 DRD4 COMT BDNF
45 dystonia 31.3 TPH1 SLC6A3 SGCE DRD2 DRD1 COMT
46 pervasive developmental disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 OXT HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 BDNF
47 bipolar i disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 COMT BDNF
48 somatoform disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A COMT BDNF
49 intermittent explosive disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A DRD2
50 pyromania 31.3 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1B DRD2

Comorbidity relations with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Anxiety Dependent Personality Disorder
Dysthymic Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Hypothyroidism Major Depressive Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

Diseases related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Human phenotypes related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 depression 30 HP:0000716
2 anxiety 30 HP:0000739
3 obsessive-compulsive behavior 30 HP:0000722
4 collectionism 30 HP:0030212
5 skin-picking 30 HP:0012166

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM®:

57 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
obsessive-compulsive disorder

Clinical features from OMIM®:

164230 (Updated 08-Dec-2022)

UMLS symptoms related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

photophobia; personality changes; restlessness; pseudobulbar behavioral symptoms; sleep disturbances; mental and behavioral signs and symptoms; psychiatric symptom

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.28 SLC6A4
2 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 9.28 HTR1A HTR3A SLC6A4
3 Decreased viability GR00381-A-3 9.28 HTR1A HTR3A SLC6A4
4 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.28 HTR1A HTR3A

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 10.34 BDNF COMT DLGAP3 DRD1 DRD2 DRD4
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.27 BDNF COMT DRD1 DRD2 DRD4 HTR1A
3 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.13 BDNF COMT DLGAP3 DRD1 DRD2 DRD4
4 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.1 BDNF COMT DRD2 HTR1B HTR2A HTR3A
5 muscle MP:0005369 10.06 DRD1 DRD2 HTR1B HTR2A HTR3A SGCE
6 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.03 COMT DRD1 DRD2 HTR1A HTR1B MAOA
7 integument MP:0010771 9.32 BDNF DLGAP3 DRD1 DRD2 HTR3A OXT
8 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 9.26 BDNF DRD2 SLC6A3 TPH2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

PubMed Health treatment related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: 63

Although there's no “cure” for OCD, with good professional help the symptoms can be reduced to a tolerable level, enabling people with OCD to start leading normal lives again. People with OCD are usually advised to have psychological treatment . Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in particular has been proven to be an effective treatment for OCD. In Germany, it is offered by behavioral therapists (in German: Verhaltenstherapeuten ). Medication for depression (antidepressants) may be considered in addition to CBT, or if psychological treatment isn't an option (yet). Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used for this purpose. Apart from these treatments , self-help is an option, for example by talking to other people with OCD in a support group. Some people like to use books or websites to learn about their obsessive-compulsive behaviors and deal with them. Others may try to manage their OCD using relaxation techniques like meditation or autogenic training.

Drugs for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 197)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
Ondansetron Approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 99614-02-5 4595
Duloxetine Approved Phase 4 136434-34-9, 116539-59-4 60835
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 132539-06-1 135398745 4585
Clomipramine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 17321-77-6, 303-49-1 2801
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
Naproxen Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 22204-53-1 156391 1302
Paroxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 61869-08-7 43815
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-32-7, 59729-33-8 2771
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 318-98-9, 525-66-6 62882 4946
Fluvoxamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54739-18-3 5324346 3404
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
Tryptophan Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn Phase 4 73-22-3 6305
Dexetimide Withdrawn Phase 4 21888-98-2 30843
Maleic acid Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 110-16-7, 110-17-8 444266 444972
22 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
23 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
24 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
25 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4
26 Antiemetics Phase 4
27 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
28 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 4 111974-72-2
30 Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic Phase 4
31 Hormones Phase 4
32 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
33 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
34 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
Haloperidol decanoate Phase 4 52919
36 calcium channel blockers Phase 4
37 Analgesics Phase 4
38 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
39 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
40 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
41 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
42 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
43 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
44 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
45 Parasympatholytics Phase 4
46 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4
47 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4
48 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
49 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
50 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 466)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment With Escitalopram (Cipralex®) for Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Efficacy, Safety, and Changes in Executive Functions, Metacognition, and Regional Brain Activations. Unknown status NCT00708240 Phase 4 Escitalopram
2 Tolerability And Efficacy Of High Dose Escitalopram In The Treatment Of Patients Suffering From Schizophrenia And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - An Open Label Study Unknown status NCT00708396 Phase 4 Escitalopram
3 Cost-Effectiveness of Adding Web-Based CBT to Luvox CR for OCD Unknown status NCT00743834 Phase 4 Luvox CR
4 Comparison of Effects Between Conventional Dose and High Dose Escitalopram on Clinical Improvement in Patients With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (Randomized, Double-blind, Multi-center Study) Completed NCT00723060 Phase 4 escitalopram
5 Efficacy of Exposure and Response Prevention(ERP) and SSRIs, and Its Predictors in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT02022709 Phase 4 Fluoxetine;Sertraline;Paroxetine;Citalopram;Fluvoxamine
6 Escitalopram in the Treatment of Patient Suffering From Scizophrenia and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder- an Open Label Study Completed NCT00456937 Phase 4 Escitalopram
7 SSRI-Induced Activation Syndrome in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00382291 Phase 4 Regular Titration;Placebo;Slow Titration
8 Ondansetron Augmentation in Treatment Resistant Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Single-Blind Prospective Study Completed NCT00796497 Phase 4 ondansetron
9 Duloxetine for the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00464698 Phase 4 Duloxetine
10 Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Fluoxetine for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Randomized Open Trial for Any Patient. Completed NCT00680602 Phase 4 SSRI (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram)
11 Fear Conditioning, Extinction and Recall in Healthy Subjects and in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Patients Pre and Post Treatment With Sertraline. Completed NCT03068429 Phase 4 Sertraline Hydrochloride
12 Translational Approach to the Understanding and Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Can D-Cycloserine Enhance and Stabilize the Treatment-response in Relapsed and Non-responding OCD-patients? A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled National Study Completed NCT02656342 Phase 4 D-Cycloserine;Placebo
13 An Long Term Trial on Effectiveness and Safety of Atypical Antipsychotic Agents in Augmenting SSRI-Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00854919 Phase 4 atypical antipsychotic drug
14 Pharmacological Augmentation Strategies for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients Non-respondent to First Line Medication Treatment: a Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study Completed NCT00466609 Phase 4 Clomipramine (fluoxetine plus clomipramine);Quetiapine (fluoxetine plus quetiapine);Placebo (fluoxetine plus placebo)
15 Escitalopram for the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00116532 Phase 4 Escitalopram
16 A Study of Topiramate Augmentation in Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SRI) -Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00182520 Phase 4 Topiramate;placebo
17 Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Combination With D-Cycloserine for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Double Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT01649895 Phase 4 D-Cycloserine;Placebo
18 Quetiapine Augmentation Versus Clomipramine Augmentation of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Patients That do Not Respond to a SSRI Trial: a Randomized Open-trial. Completed NCT00564564 Phase 4 Quetiapine;Clomipramine
19 Topiramate Augmentation in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00211744 Phase 4 topiramate
20 Neurobiology/Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00000373 Phase 4 olanzapine + fluoxetine;placebo + fluoxetine
21 A Study of Pregabalin (Lyrica) Augmentation in Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00994786 Phase 4 pregabalin;Placebo
22 Reclaim® Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Post-Market Clinical Follow-up Study (OCD PMCF) Completed NCT01135745 Phase 4
23 Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Controlled-Release Tablets Augmentation Strategy for Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT02194075 Phase 4 Fluvoxamine+Methylphenidate hydrochloride;Fluvoxamine+sugar pill
24 12 Week Prospective Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Seroquel SR for Alcohol Dependence and Comorbid Anxiety Completed NCT00352469 Phase 4 Seroquel XR
25 A Placebo Controlled Trial of Amoxicillin for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infections Completed NCT00001658 Phase 4 Amoxicillin
26 Effects of Ondansetron in Obsessive-compulsive and Tic Disorders Completed NCT03239210 Phase 4 Ondansetron;Placebo
27 Ondansetron Augmentation in Treatment-resistant OCD Completed NCT01303536 Phase 4 Ondansetron
28 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Sertraline Combined With Fluvoxamine in the Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Recruiting NCT04963257 Phase 4 sertraline fluvoxamine;sertraline
29 The Role of Serotonin in Compulsive Behavior in Humans: Underlying Brain Mechanisms Recruiting NCT04336228 Phase 4 Escitalopram;Placebo oral tablet
30 Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Naproxen Sodium for the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated With Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) Recruiting NCT04015596 Phase 4 Naproxen Sodium
31 Controlled Trial of Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Active, not recruiting NCT00640133 Phase 4
32 Clinical, Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Variables Associated With Response to Treatment in Patients With OCD Active, not recruiting NCT03993535 Phase 4 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
33 Brief Intervention for OCD Fears Suspended NCT02790710 Phase 4 Propanolol;Placebo
34 A Pilot Treatment Study of Fluoxetine for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder Terminated NCT00592852 Phase 4 fluoxetine
35 SME3110 (Fluvoxamine Maleate) in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Post-marketing Clinical Study in Children and Adolescents (8 Through 18 Years of Age) -A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study Terminated NCT00352768 Phase 4 Fluvoxamine maleate;Placebo
36 A 12-week Randomized Controlled Trial of Probiotic Treatment (Lactobacillus Helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium Longum R0175) vs Placebo in Adult Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Terminated NCT02334644 Phase 4
37 Sertraline in the Treatment of Generalized Social Phobia With Comorbidity Terminated NCT00182533 Phase 4 Sertraline;Placebo
38 Novel Deep Brain Stimulation in Ventral Capsule and Stratum for Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02590445 Phase 2, Phase 3
39 Safety and Effectiveness of Capsulotomy in Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Unknown status NCT02375152 Phase 2, Phase 3
40 Pharmacogenetics in Primary Care Psychotropics Unknown status NCT03232502 Phase 3
41 A Phase 3 Study of SME3110 (Fluvoxamine Maleate) in Pediatric/Adolescent Subjects With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT01933919 Phase 3 Fluvoxamine maleate;Placebo
42 A Controlled Trial of Daily Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00369642 Phase 3
43 Differential Efficacy of Memantine for Obsessive-compulsive Disorder vs. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: an Open-label Trial Completed NCT00674219 Phase 3 Memantine
44 Tolcapone Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Pilot Study Completed NCT03348930 Phase 2, Phase 3 Tolcapone 200 MG
45 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Study to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of Adjunctive Topiramate in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00187928 Phase 3 Topiramate
46 Treatment of Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00000384 Phase 3 Sertraline
47 Quetiapine Augmentation in Severe Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - Pilot Study Completed NCT00254735 Phase 3 quetiapine fumarate;SSRI/Clomipramine
48 Phase III Open Study of High Dose Escitalopram for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults Completed NCT00305500 Phase 3 escitalopram
49 Treatment of Severe and Resistant Obsessive-compulsive Disorder by High-frequency Stimulation of the Ventral Striatum and the Subthalamic Nucleus Completed NCT01329133 Phase 3
50 Comparison of the Efficacy of Subthalamic Nucleus, Caudate Nucleus and Nucleus Accumbens Electric Stimulation in Severe and Resistant Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Completed NCT01807403 Phase 3

Search NIH Clinical Center for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Citalopram hydrobromide
Clomipramine Hydrochloride
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride
Fluvoxamine Maleate
Paroxetine Hydrochloride
Sertraline Hydrochloride
Venlafaxine hydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: obsessive-compulsive disorder

Genetic Tests for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Genetic tests related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 28 HTR2A SLC6A4

Anatomical Context for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Organs/tissues related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

MalaCards : Brain, Subthalamic Nucleus, Caudate Nucleus, Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Skin, Cingulate Cortex

Publications for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Articles related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 14779)
# Title Authors PMID Year
5-HT2A promoter polymorphism -1438G/A in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorders. 53 62 57 5
12476319 2002
Serotonin transporter missense mutation associated with a complex neuropsychiatric phenotype. 57 5
14593431 2003
Serotonin transporter promoter gain-of-function genotypes are linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62 57
16642437 2006
Association between the COMT locus and obsessive-compulsive disorder in females but not males. 53 62 57
11840516 2002
Family-based association studies support a sexually dimorphic effect of COMT and MAOA on genetic susceptibility to obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62 57
10331110 1999
5-HT2A promoter polymorphism -1438G/A, anorexia nervosa, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62 5
9635956 1998
Genotype determining low catechol-O-methyltransferase activity as a risk factor for obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62 57
9114031 1997
Elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of oxytocin in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comparison with Tourette's syndrome and healthy controls. 53 62 57
7524462 1994
Genomewide linkage analysis in Costa Rican families implicates chromosome 15q14 as a candidate region for OCD. 62 57
21691774 2011
Slitrk5 deficiency impairs corticostriatal circuitry and leads to obsessive-compulsive-like behaviors in mice. 62 57
20418887 2010
Cortico-striatal synaptic defects and OCD-like behaviours in Sapap3-mutant mice. 62 57
17713528 2007
Familial and sporadic subtypes of early-onset Obsessive-Compulsive disorder. 62 57
15820710 2005
Replication study supports evidence for linkage to 9p24 in obsessive-compulsive disorder. 62 57
15272418 2004
Genome-wide linkage analysis of families with obsessive-compulsive disorder ascertained through pediatric probands. 62 57
12116192 2002
Genomewide scan of hoarding in sib pairs in which both sibs have Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. 62 57
11840360 2002
Complex segregation analysis provides compelling evidence for a major gene underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder and for heterogeneity by sex. 62 57
11058433 2000
Use of factor-analyzed symptom dimensions to predict outcome with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and placebo in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. 62 57
10484953 1999
Hoarding and treatment response in 38 nondepressed subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 62 57
9721822 1998
The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in five US communities. 62 57
3264144 1988
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tic Disorder: A Quick Review. 62 41
36424736 2022
Virtual reality exposure and response prevention in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in patients with contamination subtype in comparison with in vivo exposure therapy: a randomized clinical controlled trial. 62 41
36443695 2022
Medical status of outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder in psychiatric department and its influencing factors. 62 41
36411693 2022
The -1438A/G polymorphism in the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A receptor gene affects promoter activity. 5
15364038 2004
A human serotonin transporter mutation causes constitutive activation of transport activity. 5
12869649 2003
Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in drug-naïve obsessive-compulsive patients: a case-control study. 53 62
19664825 2010
Reduced 3-O-methyl-dopa levels in OCD patients and their unaffected parents is associated with the low activity M158 COMT allele. 53 62
19676096 2010
Reduced serotonin transporter binding in the insular cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a [11C]DASB PET study. 53 62
19660554 2010
The role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met variant in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). 53 62
19219856 2009
In vivo imaging of synaptic function in the central nervous system: II. Mental and affective disorders. 53 62
19523495 2009
Diencephalic serotonin transporter availability predicts both transporter occupancy and treatment response to sertraline in obsessive-compulsive checkers. 53 62
19717141 2009
The drug-naïve OCD patients imaging genetics, cognitive and treatment response study: methods and sample description. 53 62
20098825 2009
Dopamine D1 receptor binding in the striatum of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62
18706700 2009
Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes. 53 62
19179283 2009
Enhanced activity of human serotonin transporter variants associated with autism. 53 62
18957375 2009
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): a gene contributing to sex differences in brain function, and to sexual dimorphism in the predisposition to psychiatric disorders. 53 62
17805313 2008
Decision-making impairment is related to serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism in a sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62
18603313 2008
Changes in thalamus-hypothalamus serotonin transporter availability during clomipramine administration in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62
18354388 2008
The role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62
18339223 2008
Association of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and obsessive-compulsive disorder: systematic review. 53 62
18186076 2008
Polymorphism C in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) in questionable dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 53 62
18490109 2008
Association between a common haplotype in the COMT gene region and psychiatric disorders in individuals with 22q11.2DS. 53 62
17949513 2008
A novel, putative gain-of-function haplotype at SLC6A4 associates with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62
18055562 2008
Extensive genotyping of the BDNF and NTRK2 genes define protective haplotypes against obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62
17884018 2008
SERT Ileu425Val in autism, Asperger syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62
18197083 2008
Design of electrochemical biosensor systems for the detection of specific DNA sequences in PCR-amplified nucleic acids related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val108/158Met polymorphism based on intrinsic guanine signal. 53 62
18181582 2008
The role of oxytocin in neuropsychiatric disorders. 53 62
18336283 2008
A large case-control study of common functional SLC6A4 and BDNF variants in obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62
17375136 2007
Serotonin transporter phosphorylation by cGMP-dependent protein kinase is altered by a mutation associated with obsessive compulsive disorder. 53 62
17913921 2007
The met(158) allele of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder in men: case-control study and meta-analysis. 53 62
17264842 2007
Reduced midbrain-pons serotonin transporter binding in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 53 62
17430417 2007

Variations for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 SLC6A4 NM_001045.6(SLC6A4):c.1745dup (p.Thr583fs) DUP Likely Pathogenic
1300132 GRCh37: 17:28530262-28530263
GRCh38: 17:30203244-30203245
2 SLC6A4 NM_001045.6(SLC6A4):c.1273A>G (p.Ile425Val) SNV Risk Factor
12935 rs28914832 GRCh37: 17:28538374-28538374
GRCh38: 17:30211356-30211356
3 HTR2A NM_001378924.1(HTR2A):c.-329+609G>A SNV Risk Factor
511090 rs6311 GRCh37: 13:47471478-47471478
GRCh38: 13:46897343-46897343
4 SLC6A4 NM_001045.6(SLC6A4):c.837+2T>C SNV Uncertain Significance
1031015 rs1315158539 GRCh37: 17:28544182-28544182
GRCh38: 17:30217164-30217164

Copy number variations for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder from CNVD:

# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 77765 13 47471310 47471410 Deletion Obsessive-compulsive disorder
2 160222 22 11800000 24300000 Deletion Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Expression for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Pathways for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Pathways related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.29 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12 10.81 MAOA COMT
Show member pathways
14 10.66 MAOA COMT
15 10.52 TPH2 TPH1
16 10.19 MAOA COMT

GO Terms for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Cellular components related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 membrane GO:0016021 10.64 COMT DRD1 DRD2 DRD4 HTR1A HTR1B
2 membrane GO:0016020 10.64 COMT DRD1 DRD2 DRD4 HTR1A HTR1B
3 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.47 DRD1 DRD2 DRD4 HTR1A HTR1B HTR2A
4 plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.47 DRD1 DRD2 DRD4 HTR1A HTR1B HTR2A
5 axon GO:0030424 10.27 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 HTR2A DRD2 COMT BDNF
6 glutamatergic synapse GO:0098978 10.26 DLGAP3 DRD1 DRD2 DRD4 HTR2A SLITRK1
7 neuron projection GO:0043005 10.25 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 HTR3A
8 synapse GO:0045202 10.18 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 SLC1A1 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
9 axon terminus GO:0043679 10.01 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 DRD2
10 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.95 DRD1 DRD2 HTR2A HTR3A SLC6A3 SLC6A4
11 dendrite GO:0030425 9.91 BDNF COMT DRD1 DRD2 DRD4 HTR1A
12 presynaptic membrane GO:0042734 9.87 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A HTR1B DRD2 DRD1
13 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor complex GO:0098666 9.83 HTR2A HTR1B
14 serotonergic synapse GO:0099154 9.76 SLC6A4 HTR1B
15 obsolete integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.55 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A DRD2 DRD1
16 obsolete integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A HTR1B DRD2 DRD1

Biological processes related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 53)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to xenobiotic stimulus GO:0009410 10.38 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 HTR2A DRD2 DRD1
2 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 10.38 DRD4 HTR1A HTR1B HTR2A HTR3A SLC1A1
3 synapse assembly GO:0007416 10.21 BDNF DRD1 DRD2 SLITRK1
4 positive regulation of synapse assembly GO:0051965 10.18 SLITRK1 OXT BDNF
5 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 10.18 HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4 DRD1
6 social behavior GO:0035176 10.17 DRD4 OXT SLC6A4
7 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 10.17 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 DRD2 DRD1
8 neurotransmitter transport GO:0006836 10.16 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1
9 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 10.12 HTR2A HTR1B DRD2
10 behavioral fear response GO:0001662 10.1 SLC1A1 HTR1A DRD4 DRD1
11 memory GO:0007613 10.1 BDNF DRD1 HTR2A OXT SLC1A1 SLC6A4
12 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 10.09 HTR2A DRD2 DRD1
13 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 10.07 SLC6A3 DRD2 DRD1
14 regulation of heart rate GO:0002027 10.06 SLC1A1 OXT DRD2
15 adult behavior GO:0030534 10.05 SLITRK1 SLC1A1 DRD2
16 negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic GO:0051967 10.04 HTR2A HTR1B DRD2
17 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0098664 10.03 DRD4 HTR1A HTR2A
18 drinking behavior GO:0042756 10.02 DRD2 HTR1B OXT
19 peristalsis GO:0030432 10.01 DRD2 DRD1
20 regulation of behavior GO:0050795 10.01 HTR1B HTR1A
21 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 10.01 DRD4 DRD2
22 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 10.01 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT
23 grooming behavior GO:0007625 10.01 SLC1A1 OXT DRD2 DRD1
24 monoamine transport GO:0015844 10 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
25 phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060158 10 DRD2 DRD1
26 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 10 MAOA COMT
27 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 10 SLC6A3 DRD2
28 hyaloid vascular plexus regression GO:1990384 9.99 SLC6A3 DRD2
29 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007198 9.99 HTR1B HTR1A
30 serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007210 9.99 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
31 dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051583 9.98 SLC6A3 DRD2
32 sperm ejaculation GO:0042713 9.98 SLC6A4 OXT
33 cerebral cortex GABAergic interneuron migration GO:0021853 9.98 DRD2 DRD1
34 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.98 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
35 dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007212 9.98 SLC1A1 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
36 aromatic amino acid metabolic process GO:0009072 9.97 TPH2 TPH1
37 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 9.97 DRD2 DRD4
38 dopamine transport GO:0015872 9.97 DRD1 SLC6A3
39 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.97 HTR2A DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
40 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 9.96 DRD1 DRD2
41 regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis GO:2000300 9.96 HTR2A HTR1B DRD2 DRD1
42 positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051586 9.94 DRD4 DRD2
43 serotonin biosynthetic process GO:0042427 9.94 TPH2 TPH1
44 response to histamine GO:0034776 9.93 DRD4 DRD2
45 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 9.86 SLC6A3 HTR1A DRD4 DRD1
46 presynaptic modulation of chemical synaptic transmission GO:0099171 9.85 DRD1 DRD2 HTR1B HTR2A
47 response to amphetamine GO:0001975 9.85 DRD1 DRD2 DRD4 OXT SLC1A1
48 feeding behavior GO:0007631 9.83 HTR1B DRD2 DRD1
49 regulation of biological quality GO:0065008 9.75 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
50 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 9.71 MAOA COMT

Molecular functions related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 9.96 DRD4 HTR1A HTR1B HTR2A HTR3A
2 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0004993 9.92 HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
3 monoamine transmembrane transporter activity GO:0008504 9.78 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
4 heterocyclic compound binding GO:1901363 9.77 SLC6A3 HTR1B DRD2
5 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.76 DRD4 DRD2
6 tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activity GO:0004510 9.71 TPH2 TPH1
7 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.56 SLC6A3 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
8 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.55 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
9 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced pteridine as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016714 9.43 TPH2 TPH1
10 serotonin binding GO:0051378 9.32 SLC6A4 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A

Sources for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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