Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

Name: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 56 12 74 25 36 29 54 42 43 15 62 17 71 32
Ocd 56 74 25
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Susceptibility to 56 6
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 12 39
Anancastic Neurosis 12 25
Obsessive-Compulsive Neurosis 25
Obsessive Compulsive Behavior 71
Anankastic Neurosis 25



autosomal dominant form


obsessive-compulsive disorder:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10933
OMIM 56 164230
KEGG 36 H01450
ICD9CM 34 300.3
MeSH 43 D009771
NCIt 49 C88411
SNOMED-CT 67 71478004
ICD10 32 F42 F42.8 F42.9
MedGen 41 C0028768
UMLS 71 C0028768 C0600104

Summaries for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental health condition characterized by features called obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are intrusive thoughts, mental images, or urges to perform specific actions. While the particular obsessions vary widely, they often include fear of illness or contamination; a desire for symmetry or getting things "just right;" or intrusive thoughts involving religion, sex, or aggression. Compulsions consist of the repetitive performance of certain actions, such as checking or verifying, washing, counting, arranging, acting out specific routines, or seeking assurance. These behaviors are performed to relieve anxiety, rather than to seek pleasure as in other compulsive behaviors like gambling, eating, or sex. While almost everyone experiences obsessive feelings and compulsive behaviors occasionally or in particular contexts, in OCD they take up more than an hour a day and cause problems with work, school, or social life. People with OCD generally experience anxiety and other distress around their need to accommodate their obsessions or compulsions. About half the time, OCD becomes evident in childhood or adolescence, and most other cases appear in early adulthood. It is unusual for OCD to start after age 40. It tends to appear earlier in males, but by adulthood it is slightly more common in females. Affected individuals can experience periods when their symptoms increase or decrease in severity, but the condition usually does not go away completely. Some people with OCD have additional mental health disorders such as generalized anxiety, depression, phobias, panic disorders, or schizophrenia. OCD can also occur in people with other neurological conditions such as Tourette syndrome and similar disorders, traumatic brain injury, stroke, or dementia.

MalaCards based summary : Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, also known as ocd, is related to trichotillomania and body dysmorphic disorder, and has symptoms including photophobia, restlessness and personality changes. An important gene associated with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is SLC6A4 (Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Serotonergic synapse and Dopaminergic synapse. The drugs Ethanol and Methylphenidate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and cortex, and related phenotypes are obsessive-compulsive behavior and depressivity

Disease Ontology : 12 An anxiety disorder that involves unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions).

OMIM : 56 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurring obsessions and/or compulsions and has been estimated to affect nearly 5 million people in the United States (Karno et al., 1988). Evidence for a strong genetic component in OCD comes from twin studies, family genetics studies, and segregation analyses, as reviewed by Alsobrook et al. (2002). Zhang et al. (2002) suggested that hoarding is likely to be an evolutionarily conserved trait that, in times of adversity, was associated with increased survival and reproductive fitness. However, extreme forms of this trait are associated with marked disability and poor response to treatment (Black et al., 1998; Mataix-Cols et al., 1999). (164230)

MedlinePlus : 42 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder. If you have OCD, you have frequent, upsetting thoughts called obsessions. To try to control the thoughts, you feel an overwhelming urge to repeat certain rituals or behaviors. These are called compulsions. Examples of obsessions are a fear of germs or a fear of being hurt. Compulsions include washing your hands, counting, checking on things, or cleaning. With OCD, the thoughts and rituals cause distress and get in the way of your daily life. Researchers think brain circuits may not work properly in people who have OCD. It tends to run in families. The symptoms often begin in children or teens. Treatments include therapy, medicines, or both. One type of therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, is useful for treating OCD. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

KEGG : 36 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent, intrusive and disturbing thoughts as well as by repetitive stereotypic behaviors. OCD is a complex disorder and its pathogenesis is most likely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although more than 140 candidate gene studies have been conducted, the findings have been inconclusive due to small sample size and few study replications. Many studies suggest that abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission is one of the most consistent biological findings in OCD. Studies have also reported dopaminergic abnormalities in the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens, as well as altered glutamate transmission. First line treatments for this disorder are cognitive behavioral therapy (exposure and response prevention) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In recent years, one of the promising novel treatment strategies developed to improve the efficacy of treatment for patients with OCD is acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Recent studies have suggested that age of onset is an important factor in subtyping OCD. Early-onset OCD has been proposed to be associated with greater symptom severity, a higher prevalence of tic-related disorders, a more familial form of the condition, and a greater prevalence of psychiatry disorders in first-degree relatives as compared to late-onset OCD.

PubMed Health : 62 About obsessive-compulsive disorder: We all know the worrying feeling that we have forgotten to do something, like turning off the oven or locking the door. And it might be a good idea to double-check if you aren't absolutely sure. But some people are so worried about forgetting to do something that they feel the urge to check over and over again. Compulsive urges like this may gradually come to dominate their whole life. There are different types of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Some people are so afraid of germs that they constantly wash their hands. Others can't stop counting things, cleaning their surroundings or obsessing over the same repetitive thoughts. Regardless of the kind of ritual they may have developed, people who have OCD just can't stop doing these things.

Wikipedia : 74 Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder in which a person feels the need to perform... more...

Related Diseases for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Diseases related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 420)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 trichotillomania 33.9 SLITRK1 SLC1A1 DRD4
2 body dysmorphic disorder 33.9 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 SLC1A1 MAOA HTR2A
3 neurotic disorder 33.8 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
4 gilles de la tourette syndrome 33.7 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SGCE MAOA HTR3A
5 anxiety 33.7 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 OXT MAOA
6 fibromyalgia 33.6 SLC6A4 HTR3A HTR2A DRD2 COMT BDNF
7 autism spectrum disorder 33.5 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 OXT MAOA
8 depression 32.9 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
9 tic disorder 32.8 TPH2 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A
10 eating disorder 32.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 COMT
11 generalized anxiety disorder 32.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
12 avoidant personality disorder 32.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR1B DRD4 DRD3
13 personality disorder 32.6 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A
14 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder 32.6 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 HTR2A DRD3
15 social phobia 32.6 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR3A HTR1A DRD2
16 mental depression 32.5 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT MAOA HTR3A
17 anorexia nervosa 32.5 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A DRD4
18 panic disorder 32.5 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A
19 agoraphobia 32.5 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A COMT
20 major depressive disorder 32.4 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXT MAOA HTR3A
21 bipolar disorder 32.4 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 MAOA HTR3A
22 schizotypal personality disorder 32.3 DRD4 DRD2 COMT
23 post-traumatic stress disorder 32.3 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A DRD2 COMT BDNF
24 hypochondriasis 32.3 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
25 mood disorder 32.3 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A
26 chronic tic disorder 32.2 SLITRK1 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
27 bulimia nervosa 32.2 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR3A HTR2A HTR1B
28 alexithymia 32.2 SLC6A4 OXT HTR1A DRD2 COMT
29 pathological gambling 32.2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A DRD4 DRD3
30 movement disease 32.2 SLC6A3 SGCE DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
31 dysthymic disorder 32.2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
32 choreatic disease 32.2 SGCE DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 BDNF
33 autism 32.1 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 OXT MAOA
34 separation anxiety disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD4
35 kleptomania 32.1 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A DRD2
36 schizophrenia 32.1 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 OXT MAOA
37 somatization disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 OXT HTR2A HTR1A
38 phobia, specific 32.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A COMT
39 schizoaffective disorder 32.0 SLC6A4 SLC1A1 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD3
40 traumatic brain injury 32.0 DRD2 COMT BDNF
41 brain injury 32.0 DRD2 COMT BDNF
42 psychotic disorder 32.0 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 OXT MAOA
43 oppositional defiant disorder 32.0 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD4 DRD2
44 phobic disorder 32.0 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A COMT
45 substance abuse 31.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A
46 dystonia 31.9 SLC6A3 SGCE HTR2A DRD3 DRD2 COMT
47 sexual disorder 31.9 SLC6A4 OXT HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A DRD2
48 conduct disorder 31.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD4 DRD2 COMT
49 endogenous depression 31.9 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
50 intermittent explosive disorder 31.8 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A

Comorbidity relations with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Anxiety Dependent Personality Disorder
Dysthymic Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Hypothyroidism Major Depressive Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

Diseases related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Human phenotypes related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 obsessive-compulsive behavior 31 very rare (1%) HP:0000722
2 depressivity 31 HP:0000716
3 anxiety 31 HP:0000739
4 collectionism 31 HP:0030212
5 skin-picking 31 HP:0012166

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

photophobia, restlessness, personality changes, pseudobulbar behavioral symptoms, sleep disturbances, mental and behavioral signs and symptoms, psychiatric symptom

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 9.28 HTR1A HTR3A SLC6A4
2 Decreased viability GR00381-A-3 9.28 HTR1A HTR3A SLC6A4
3 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.28 HTR1A HTR3A SLC6A4

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.36 BDNF COMT DRD2 DRD3 DRD4 HTR1A
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.1 COMT DRD2 DRD3 HTR1A HTR1B MAOA
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.03 BDNF CDK20 DRD2 DRD3 HTR1B HTR3A
4 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.03 BDNF COMT DRD2 DRD3 DRD4 HTR1A
5 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.02 BDNF COMT DRD2 HTR1B HTR2A HTR3A
6 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.91 BDNF CDK20 DRD2 DRD3 HTR2A OXT
7 nervous system MP:0003631 9.86 BDNF CDK20 COMT DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
8 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 8.92 BDNF DRD2 SLC6A3 TPH2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

PubMed Health treatment related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: 62

Although there's no “cure” for OCD, with good professional help the symptoms can be reduced to a tolerable level, enabling people with OCD to start leading normal lives again. People with OCD are usually advised to have psychological treatment . Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in particular has been proven to be an effective treatment for OCD. In Germany, it is offered by behavioral therapists (in German: Verhaltenstherapeuten ). Medication for depression (antidepressants) may be considered in addition to CBT, or if psychological treatment isn't an option (yet). Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used for this purpose. Apart from these treatments , self-help is an option, for example by talking to other people with OCD in a support group. Some people like to use books or websites to learn about their obsessive-compulsive behaviors and deal with them. Others may try to manage their OCD using relaxation techniques like meditation or autogenic training.

Drugs for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 260)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 132539-06-1 4585
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
Galantamine Approved Phase 4 357-70-0 9651
Ondansetron Approved Phase 4 99614-02-5 4595
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
Remifentanil Approved Phase 4 132875-61-7 60815
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 68602 5311068
Cycloserine Approved Phase 4 68-41-7 401 6234
Naproxen Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 22204-53-1 1302 156391
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 525-66-6 4946
Fluvoxamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54739-18-3 3404 5324346
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
Calcium Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 7440-70-2 271
Cysteine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 52-90-4 5862
Maleic acid Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 110-17-8, 110-16-7 444972
25 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
26 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 4 111974-72-2
27 Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic Phase 4
28 Protective Agents Phase 4
29 Antidotes Phase 4
30 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
31 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
32 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
33 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 4
34 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
35 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 4
36 Parasympatholytics Phase 4
37 N-monoacetylcystine Phase 4
38 Free Radical Scavengers Phase 4
39 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
40 Antioxidants Phase 4
41 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
42 Expectorants Phase 4
43 Haloperidol decanoate Phase 4
44 Hormones Phase 4
45 Nootropic Agents Phase 4
46 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
47 calcium channel blockers Phase 4
48 Cholinesterase Inhibitors Phase 4
49 Narcotics Phase 4
50 Anesthetics Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 497)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Study of Topiramate Augmentation in Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SRI) -Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Unknown status NCT00182520 Phase 4 Topiramate;placebo
2 Fear Conditioning, Extinction and Recall in Healthy Subjects and in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Patients Pre and Post Treatment With Sertraline. Unknown status NCT03068429 Phase 4 Sertraline Hydrochloride
3 Efficacy of Exposure and Response Prevention(ERP) and SSRIs, and Its Predictors in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Unknown status NCT02022709 Phase 4 Fluoxetine;Sertraline;Paroxetine;Citalopram;Fluvoxamine
4 Treatment With Escitalopram (Cipralex®) for Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Efficacy, Safety, and Changes in Executive Functions, Metacognition, and Regional Brain Activations. Unknown status NCT00708240 Phase 4 Escitalopram
5 Cost-Effectiveness of Adding Web-Based CBT to Luvox CR for OCD Unknown status NCT00743834 Phase 4 Luvox CR
6 Tolerability And Efficacy Of High Dose Escitalopram In The Treatment Of Patients Suffering From Schizophrenia And Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - An Open Label Study Unknown status NCT00708396 Phase 4 Escitalopram
7 Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Controlled-Release Tablets Augmentation Strategy for Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT02194075 Phase 4 Fluvoxamine+Methylphenidate hydrochloride;Fluvoxamine+sugar pill
8 Ondansetron Augmentation in Treatment Resistant Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Single-Blind Prospective Study Completed NCT00796497 Phase 4 ondansetron
9 Comparison of Effects Between Conventional Dose and High Dose Escitalopram on Clinical Improvement in Patients With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (Randomized, Double-blind, Multi-center Study) Completed NCT00723060 Phase 4 escitalopram
10 Escitalopram for the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00116532 Phase 4 Escitalopram
11 Topiramate Augmentation in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00211744 Phase 4 topiramate
12 Quetiapine Augmentation Versus Clomipramine Augmentation of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Patients That do Not Respond to a SSRI Trial: a Randomized Open-trial. Completed NCT00564564 Phase 4 Quetiapine;Clomipramine
13 Pharmacological Augmentation Strategies for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients Non-respondent to First Line Medication Treatment: a Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study Completed NCT00466609 Phase 4 Clomipramine (fluoxetine plus clomipramine);Quetiapine (fluoxetine plus quetiapine);Placebo (fluoxetine plus placebo)
14 Ondansetron Augmentation in Treatment-resistant OCD Completed NCT01303536 Phase 4 Ondansetron
15 Neurobiology/Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00000373 Phase 4 olanzapine + fluoxetine;placebo + fluoxetine
16 Escitalopram in the Treatment of Patient Suffering From Scizophrenia and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder- an Open Label Study Completed NCT00456937 Phase 4 Escitalopram
17 Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Combination With D-Cycloserine for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Double Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT01649895 Phase 4 D-Cycloserine;Placebo
18 Reclaim® Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Post-Market Clinical Follow-up Study (OCD PMCF) Completed NCT01135745 Phase 4
19 An Long Term Trial on Effectiveness and Safety of Atypical Antipsychotic Agents in Augmenting SSRI-Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00854919 Phase 4 atypical antipsychotic drug
20 A Study of Pregabalin (Lyrica) Augmentation in Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00994786 Phase 4 pregabalin;Placebo
21 Duloxetine for the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00464698 Phase 4 Duloxetine
22 A 12-Week, Double-Blind Trial of Olanzapine and Placebo in the Treatment of Trichotillomania Completed NCT00182507 Phase 4 Olanzapine
23 SSRI-Induced Activation Syndrome in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00382291 Phase 4 Regular Titration;Placebo;Slow Titration
24 Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Fluoxetine for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Randomized Open Trial for Any Patient. Completed NCT00680602 Phase 4 SSRI (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram)
25 A Placebo Controlled Trial of Amoxicillin for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infections Completed NCT00001658 Phase 4 Amoxicillin
26 Riluzole in Fragile X Syndrome: A Pilot Study Incorporating Biomarker Assay Completed NCT00895752 Phase 4 Riluzole
27 The Efficacy and Safety of Galantamine for Dysfunction in Bipolar Disorder Completed NCT00741598 Phase 4 Galantamine-ER;Galantamine placebo
28 12 Week Prospective Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Seroquel SR for Alcohol Dependence and Comorbid Anxiety Completed NCT00352469 Phase 4 Seroquel XR
29 The Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine on Cortical Erosion in Early Stage Schizophrenia Completed NCT01339858 Phase 4 N-Acetyl Cysteine
30 D-Cycloserine Enhancement of Exposure in Social Phobia Completed NCT00633984 Phase 4 D-Cycloserine;Placebo
31 Effects of Ondansetron in Obsessive-compulsive and Tic Disorders Recruiting NCT03239210 Phase 4 Ondansetron;Placebo
32 Clinical, Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Variables Associated With Response to Treatment in Patients With OCD Recruiting NCT03993535 Phase 4 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
33 A 12-week Randomized Controlled Trial of Probiotic Treatment (Lactobacillus Helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium Longum R0175) vs Placebo in Adult Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Recruiting NCT02334644 Phase 4
34 Impact of Duloxetine on Male Fertility Recruiting NCT03038867 Phase 4 Duloxetine
35 Effects of Anesthesia Drugs on Neuronal Activity in the Basal Ganglia and Thalamus During Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode Implantation Surgery Recruiting NCT03283150 Phase 4 Remifentanil;Propofol;Dexmedetomidine
36 A Multi-site, Open-Label, Pilot Study to Evaluate the Benefit of Octagam 5%® in Subjects With Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) Active, not recruiting NCT03348618 Phase 4
37 Controlled Trial of Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Active, not recruiting NCT00640133 Phase 4
38 Translational Approach to the Understanding and Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Can D-Cycloserine Enhance and Stabilize the Treatment-response in Relapsed and Non-responding OCD-patients? A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled National Study Active, not recruiting NCT02656342 Phase 4 D-Cycloserine;Placebo
39 Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Naproxen Sodium for the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated With Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) Not yet recruiting NCT04015596 Phase 4 Naproxen Sodium
40 Brief Intervention for OCD Fears Suspended NCT02790710 Phase 4 Propanolol;Placebo
41 SME3110 (Fluvoxamine Maleate) in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Post-marketing Clinical Study in Children and Adolescents (8 Through 18 Years of Age) -A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study Terminated NCT00352768 Phase 4 Fluvoxamine maleate;Placebo
42 Sertraline in the Treatment of Generalized Social Phobia With Comorbidity Terminated NCT00182533 Phase 4 Sertraline;Placebo
43 A Pilot Treatment Study of Fluoxetine for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder Terminated NCT00592852 Phase 4 fluoxetine
44 Safety and Effectiveness of Capsulotomy in Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Unknown status NCT02375152 Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Novel Deep Brain Stimulation in Ventral Capsule and Stratum for Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02590445 Phase 2, Phase 3
46 Pharmacogenetics in Primary Care Psychotropics Unknown status NCT03232502 Phase 3
47 A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) for PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infections) Unknown status NCT01281969 Phase 3 Gamunex Intravenous Immunoglobulin;Placebo
48 Leuprolide Acetate Suppresses Pedophilic Urges and Arousability Unknown status NCT00220350 Phase 2, Phase 3 leuprolide acetate
49 A Prospective Multicenter Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial to Explore the Tolerability, Safety and Efficacy of the H1-Coil Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in Subjects With Schizophrenia Experiencing Auditory Hallucinations Unknown status NCT00564096 Phase 2, Phase 3
50 Quetiapine Augmentation in Severe Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - Pilot Study Completed NCT00254735 Phase 3 quetiapine fumarate;SSRI/Clomipramine

Search NIH Clinical Center for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Citalopram hydrobromide
Clomipramine Hydrochloride
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride
Fluvoxamine Maleate
Paroxetine Hydrochloride
Sertraline Hydrochloride
Venlafaxine hydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: obsessive-compulsive disorder

Genetic Tests for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Genetic tests related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 29 HTR2A SLC6A4

Anatomical Context for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

Brain, Testes, Cortex, Skin, Subthalamic Nucleus, Prefrontal Cortex, Eye

Publications for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Articles related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 12121)
# Title Authors PMID Year
5-HT2A promoter polymorphism -1438G/A in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorders. 54 61 56 6
12476319 2002
Serotonin transporter missense mutation associated with a complex neuropsychiatric phenotype. 56 6
14593431 2003
Serotonin transporter promoter gain-of-function genotypes are linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61 56
16642437 2006
Association between the COMT locus and obsessive-compulsive disorder in females but not males. 54 61 56
11840516 2002
Family-based association studies support a sexually dimorphic effect of COMT and MAOA on genetic susceptibility to obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61 56
10331110 1999
5-HT2A promoter polymorphism -1438G/A, anorexia nervosa, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61 6
9635956 1998
Genotype determining low catechol-O-methyltransferase activity as a risk factor for obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61 56
9114031 1997
Elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of oxytocin in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comparison with Tourette's syndrome and healthy controls. 54 61 56
7524462 1994
Genomewide linkage analysis in Costa Rican families implicates chromosome 15q14 as a candidate region for OCD. 61 56
21691774 2011
Slitrk5 deficiency impairs corticostriatal circuitry and leads to obsessive-compulsive-like behaviors in mice. 61 56
20418887 2010
Cortico-striatal synaptic defects and OCD-like behaviours in Sapap3-mutant mice. 61 56
17713528 2007
Familial and sporadic subtypes of early-onset Obsessive-Compulsive disorder. 61 56
15820710 2005
Replication study supports evidence for linkage to 9p24 in obsessive-compulsive disorder. 61 56
15272418 2004
Genome-wide linkage analysis of families with obsessive-compulsive disorder ascertained through pediatric probands. 61 56
12116192 2002
Genomewide scan of hoarding in sib pairs in which both sibs have Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. 61 56
11840360 2002
Complex segregation analysis provides compelling evidence for a major gene underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder and for heterogeneity by sex. 61 56
11058433 2000
Use of factor-analyzed symptom dimensions to predict outcome with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and placebo in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. 61 56
10484953 1999
Hoarding and treatment response in 38 nondepressed subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 61 56
9721822 1998
The epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder in five US communities. 61 56
3264144 1988
Computational modelling reveals contrasting effects on reinforcement learning and cognitive flexibility in stimulant use disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: remediating effects of dopaminergic D2/3 receptor agents. 61 42
31324936 2019
The -1438A/G polymorphism in the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A receptor gene affects promoter activity. 6
15364038 2004
A human serotonin transporter mutation causes constitutive activation of transport activity. 6
12869649 2003
Effect of Fluoxetine on Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial. 42
31638682 2019
PANDAS: What nurses need to know. 42
31343533 2019
Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in drug-naïve obsessive-compulsive patients: a case-control study. 54 61
19664825 2010
Reduced 3-O-methyl-dopa levels in OCD patients and their unaffected parents is associated with the low activity M158 COMT allele. 54 61
19676096 2010
Reduced serotonin transporter binding in the insular cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a [11C]DASB PET study. 54 61
19660554 2010
The role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met variant in the phenotypic expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). 54 61
19219856 2009
The drug-naïve OCD patients imaging genetics, cognitive and treatment response study: methods and sample description. 54 61
20098825 2009
In vivo imaging of synaptic function in the central nervous system: II. Mental and affective disorders. 54 61
19523495 2009
Diencephalic serotonin transporter availability predicts both transporter occupancy and treatment response to sertraline in obsessive-compulsive checkers. 54 61
19717141 2009
Dopamine D1 receptor binding in the striatum of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61
18706700 2009
Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes. 54 61
19179283 2009
Enhanced activity of human serotonin transporter variants associated with autism. 54 61
18957375 2009
Changes in thalamus-hypothalamus serotonin transporter availability during clomipramine administration in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61
18354388 2008
Decision-making impairment is related to serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism in a sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61
18603313 2008
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): a gene contributing to sex differences in brain function, and to sexual dimorphism in the predisposition to psychiatric disorders. 54 61
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The role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61
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Association of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and obsessive-compulsive disorder: systematic review. 54 61
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Polymorphism C in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) in questionable dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 54 61
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Association between a common haplotype in the COMT gene region and psychiatric disorders in individuals with 22q11.2DS. 54 61
17949513 2008
A novel, putative gain-of-function haplotype at SLC6A4 associates with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61
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Extensive genotyping of the BDNF and NTRK2 genes define protective haplotypes against obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61
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Design of electrochemical biosensor systems for the detection of specific DNA sequences in PCR-amplified nucleic acids related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val108/158Met polymorphism based on intrinsic guanine signal. 54 61
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SERT Ileu425Val in autism, Asperger syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61
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The role of oxytocin in neuropsychiatric disorders. 54 61
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A large case-control study of common functional SLC6A4 and BDNF variants in obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61
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Serotonin transporter phosphorylation by cGMP-dependent protein kinase is altered by a mutation associated with obsessive compulsive disorder. 54 61
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The met(158) allele of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder in men: case-control study and meta-analysis. 54 61
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Reduced midbrain-pons serotonin transporter binding in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. 54 61
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Variations for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

6 ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 HIVEP1 NM_002114.4(HIVEP1):c.4089G>C (p.Met1363Ile)SNV Pathogenic 375377 rs776300630 6:12124117-12124117 6:12123884-12123884
2 CDK20 NM_001039803.2(CDK20):c.564G>A (p.Trp188Ter)SNV Pathogenic 375376 rs1057519438 9:90584834-90584834 9:87969919-87969919
3 SLC6A4 NM_001045.6(SLC6A4):c.1273A>G (p.Ile425Val)SNV risk factor 12935 rs28914832 17:28538374-28538374 17:30211356-30211356
4 HTR2A HTR2A, -1438G-ASNV risk factor 12937
5 46;XY;t(1;2)(q31.2;p15)Translocation Likely pathogenic 267880
6 46;XX;t(2;5)(q33;p15.3)Translocation Uncertain significance 267966
7 46;XY;t(2;11)(q31;q13.5)patTranslocation Uncertain significance 267865

Copy number variations for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder from CNVD:

# CNVD ID Chromosome Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 77765 13 47471310 47471410 Deletion Obsessive-compulsive disorder
2 160222 22 11800000 24300000 Deletion Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Expression for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

Pathways for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Pathways related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to KEGG:

# Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Serotonergic synapse hsa04726
2 Dopaminergic synapse hsa04728
3 Glutamatergic synapse hsa04724

Pathways related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.73 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
9 11.72 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
15 10.66 MAOA COMT

GO Terms for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Cellular components related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.31 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 SGCE HTR3A
2 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 10.3 SLITRK1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 SGCE MAOA
3 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 SGCE HTR3A HTR2A
4 neuron projection GO:0043005 9.88 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1 HTR3A
5 axon GO:0030424 9.88 SLC6A3 HTR3A HTR2A DRD2 COMT BDNF
6 glutamatergic synapse GO:0098978 9.85 SLITRK1 HTR3A HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
7 dendrite GO:0030425 9.76 SGCE HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4 DRD2
8 GABA-ergic synapse GO:0098982 9.69 SLITRK1 DRD3 DRD2
9 dopaminergic synapse GO:0098691 9.5 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2
10 serotonergic synapse GO:0099154 9.43 SLC6A4 HTR1B
11 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.35 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR3A HTR2A DRD2
12 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1B DRD2

Biological processes related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 61)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.34 OXT HTR3A HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.24 OXT HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4 DRD3
3 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.97 SLC1A1 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
4 memory GO:0007613 9.94 SLC6A4 OXT HTR2A BDNF
5 response to drug GO:0042493 9.91 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
6 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 9.9 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3
7 response to toxic substance GO:0009636 9.9 SLC6A4 DRD3 DRD2
8 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 9.9 HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
9 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 9.89 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2
10 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.88 SLC6A3 HTR3A HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
11 synapse assembly GO:0007416 9.87 SLITRK1 DRD2 BDNF
12 social behavior GO:0035176 9.87 SLC6A4 OXT DRD4 DRD3
13 positive regulation of synapse assembly GO:0051965 9.86 SLITRK1 OXT BDNF
14 regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis GO:2000300 9.86 HTR2A HTR1B DRD2
15 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 9.83 OXT DRD3 DRD2
16 arachidonic acid secretion GO:0050482 9.82 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
17 negative regulation of protein secretion GO:0050709 9.82 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
18 dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007212 9.81 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
19 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.8 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
20 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.8 SLC6A4 HTR1B HTR1A
21 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 9.79 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
22 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 9.79 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2
23 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.78 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
24 positive regulation of renal sodium excretion GO:0035815 9.77 OXT DRD3 DRD2
25 G protein-coupled receptor internalization GO:0002031 9.76 HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
26 response to amphetamine GO:0001975 9.76 OXT DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
27 behavior GO:0007610 9.75 HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A
28 positive regulation of kinase activity GO:0033674 9.73 HTR2A DRD4
29 response to iron ion GO:0010039 9.73 SLC6A3 DRD2
30 negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051481 9.73 DRD3 DRD2
31 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 9.73 SLC6A3 HTR1A DRD4
32 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 9.73 HTR2A HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
33 phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060158 9.72 DRD3 DRD2
34 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process GO:0042136 9.72 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
35 grooming behavior GO:0007625 9.72 OXT DRD2
36 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 9.72 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
37 regulation of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor internalization GO:0099149 9.71 DRD4 DRD3
38 sleep GO:0030431 9.71 OXT HTR2A
39 regulation of potassium ion transport GO:0043266 9.71 DRD3 DRD2
40 regulation of behavior GO:0050795 9.71 HTR1B HTR1A
41 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 9.71 SLC6A3 MAOA COMT
42 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0098664 9.71 HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
43 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 9.7 MAOA COMT
44 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 9.7 MAOA COMT
45 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 9.7 SLC6A3 DRD2
46 monoamine transport GO:0015844 9.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
47 serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007210 9.7 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
48 drinking behavior GO:0042756 9.69 OXT HTR1B DRD2
49 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 9.68 DRD3 DRD2
50 sperm ejaculation GO:0042713 9.68 SLC6A4 OXT

Molecular functions related to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor activity GO:0004930 9.93 HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
2 symporter activity GO:0015293 9.67 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 SLC1A1
3 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 9.67 HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
4 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0004993 9.62 HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
5 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.58 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
6 adrenergic receptor activity GO:0004935 9.51 DRD3 DRD2
7 neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity GO:0005328 9.48 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
8 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.46 SLC6A3 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
9 monoamine transmembrane transporter activity GO:0008504 9.43 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
10 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.43 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
11 drug binding GO:0008144 9.43 SLC6A3 HTR2A HTR1B DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
12 serotonin binding GO:0051378 9.02 SLC6A4 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A

Sources for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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