CON
MCID: OBS082
MIFTS: 44

Obstructive Nephropathy (CON)

Categories: Nephrological diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Obstructive Nephropathy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Obstructive Nephropathy:

Name: Obstructive Nephropathy 12 15
Con 12 74
Congenital Obstructive Nephropathy 12
Nephropathy Obstructive 54

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0070314

Summaries for Obstructive Nephropathy

Disease Ontology : 12 A kidney disease characterized by kidney damage and dysfunction resulting from urinary tract obstruction.

MalaCards based summary : Obstructive Nephropathy, also known as con, is related to renal fibrosis and congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract 2. An important gene associated with Obstructive Nephropathy is SKIL (SKI Like Proto-Oncogene), and among its related pathways/superpathways are TGF-Beta Pathway and PAK Pathway. The drugs Acetylcysteine and carbamide peroxide have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include kidney, endothelial and bone, and related phenotypes are growth/size/body region and homeostasis/metabolism

Related Diseases for Obstructive Nephropathy

Diseases related to Obstructive Nephropathy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 793)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 renal fibrosis 31.0 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 REN HGF ALB
2 congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract 2 30.9 REN LCN2 HAVCR1 AGTR2
3 end stage renal failure 30.7 TGFB1 REN ALB AGTR2 AGT ACE
4 cardiac arrest 30.7 REN LCN2 ALB ACE
5 hydronephrosis 30.5 TGFB1 REN EGF AMBP ALB AGTR2
6 acute cystitis 30.5 REN LCN2 ALB ACE
7 sleep apnea 30.5 REN ALB AGT ACE
8 posterior urethral valves 30.5 TGFB1 AGTR2 AGT ACE
9 uremia 30.4 REN ALB ACE
10 mitral valve insufficiency 30.4 REN ALB ACE
11 multicystic dysplastic kidney 30.4 REN AGTR2
12 atrial fibrillation 30.3 REN ALB AGT ACE
13 arteries, anomalies of 30.3 REN ALB AGT ACE
14 aortic aneurysm, familial thoracic 1 30.3 SMAD3 SMAD2 ACE
15 chronic kidney disease 30.3 TGFB1 REN LCN2 HGF HAVCR1 ALB
16 microvascular complications of diabetes 3 30.2 TGFB1 REN ALB ACE
17 congestive heart failure 30.2 REN ALB AGT ACE
18 idiopathic interstitial pneumonia 30.2 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
19 pyelonephritis 30.2 LCN2 AMBP ALB ACE
20 keloid disorder 30.2 TGFB1 SMAD3
21 iga glomerulonephritis 30.2 REN ALB ACE
22 renal dysplasia 30.2 REN AGT ACE
23 stroke, ischemic 30.1 REN ALB AGTR2 AGT ACE
24 eclampsia 30.1 REN ALB AGT ACE
25 aortic disease 30.1 SMAD3 REN ACE
26 anuria 30.1 REN LCN2 HAVCR1 ALB AGT ACE
27 hypertrophic scars 30.1 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
28 heart valve disease 30.1 TGFB1 REN ALB ACE
29 patent ductus arteriosus 1 30.1 REN ALB ACE
30 pulmonary hypertension 30.0 SMAD3 SMAD2 REN ALB ACE
31 apnea, obstructive sleep 30.0 REN ALB AGT ACE
32 pre-eclampsia 30.0 REN ALB AGTR2 AGT ACE
33 urinary tract obstruction 30.0 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 REN LCN2 HAVCR1
34 cardiac tamponade 30.0 REN ALB ACE
35 acute kidney failure 30.0 REN LCN2 HGF HAVCR1 EGF ALB
36 intermediate coronary syndrome 30.0 REN ALB ACE
37 obstructive jaundice 30.0 REN HGF ALB
38 renovascular hypertension 29.9 REN LCN2 ACE
39 malignant hypertension 29.9 REN AGT ACE
40 mitral valve disease 29.9 REN AGT ACE
41 glomerulonephritis 29.8 TGFB1 SMAD2 LCN2 ALB ACE
42 vascular disease 29.8 TGFB1 REN ALB AGT ACE
43 pulmonary edema 29.8 REN HGF AGT ACE
44 hypokalemia 29.8 REN ALB ACE
45 kidney disease 29.8 TGFB1 REN LCN2 HGF AMBP ALB
46 heart disease 29.7 TGFB1 REN LCN2 ALB AGTR2 AGT
47 osteoporosis 29.7 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 HGF EGF ALB
48 mucositis 29.6 TGFB1 HGF EGF
49 cystic kidney disease 29.6 REN HAVCR1 EGF ALB ACE
50 nephrolithiasis, calcium oxalate 29.6 REN LCN2 HAVCR1 AMBP ALB ACE

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Obstructive Nephropathy:



Diseases related to Obstructive Nephropathy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Obstructive Nephropathy

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Obstructive Nephropathy:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.25 ACE AGT AGTR2 EGF GFER HGF
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.24 ACE AGT AGTR2 ALB CLU GFER
3 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.23 ACE AGT AGTR2 ALB CLU HGF
4 immune system MP:0005387 10.2 ACE AGT AGTR2 ALB CLU EGF
5 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.17 ACE AGTR2 ALB AMBP EGF LCN2
6 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.91 ACE AGT ALB GFER HGF LCN2
7 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.76 ACE AGTR2 ALB GFER SKIL SMAD2
8 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.61 ACE AGT AGTR2 ALB CLU LCN2
9 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.36 ACE AGT AMBP EGF LCN2 PDGFD

Drugs & Therapeutics for Obstructive Nephropathy

Drugs for Obstructive Nephropathy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 11)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational 616-91-1 12035
2
carbamide peroxide Approved 124-43-6
3 Anti-Infective Agents
4 Respiratory System Agents
5 Protective Agents
6 Free Radical Scavengers
7 N-monoacetylcystine
8 Antidotes
9 Antiviral Agents
10 Expectorants
11 Antioxidants

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Does Ultra-High Dose i.v. N-acetylcysteine Prevent Contrast Nephropathy in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Emergency Contrast Tomography. Completed NCT01467154
2 Measurement of Renal Artery Resistive Index as a Predictor of Severity of Lupus Nephritis and Its Response to Treatment Not yet recruiting NCT03958851
3 Mode of Drainage Of Bilaterally Obstructed Kidneys Due to Benign or Malignant Causes: A Prospective Comparative Study Not yet recruiting NCT04077008

Search NIH Clinical Center for Obstructive Nephropathy

Genetic Tests for Obstructive Nephropathy

Anatomical Context for Obstructive Nephropathy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Obstructive Nephropathy:

40
Kidney, Endothelial, Bone, Monocytes, Prostate, Smooth Muscle, Liver

Publications for Obstructive Nephropathy

Articles related to Obstructive Nephropathy:

(show top 50) (show all 841)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Hepatocyte growth factor exerts its anti-inflammatory action by disrupting nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. 61 54
18502824 2008
2
Species differences in renal Src activity direct EGF receptor regulation in life or death response to EGF. 54 61
17626154 2007
3
Molecular basis for the cell type specific induction of SnoN expression by hepatocyte growth factor. 61 54
17625116 2007
4
Biochemical-molecular markers in unilateral ureteral obstruction. 54 61
17665634 2007
5
Downregulation of SnoN expression in obstructive nephropathy is mediated by an enhanced ubiquitin-dependent degradation. 61 54
16959829 2006
6
Implication of genetic variations in congenital obstructive nephropathy. 61 54
16133060 2005
7
Obstructive nephropathy: insights from genetically engineered animals. 54 61
16105023 2005
8
A novel mechanism by which hepatocyte growth factor blocks tubular epithelial to mesenchymal transition. 61 54
15537870 2005
9
Hepatocyte growth factor gene therapy and angiotensin II blockade synergistically attenuate renal interstitial fibrosis in mice. 54 61
12239235 2002
10
Hepatocyte growth factor suppresses interstitial fibrosis in a mouse model of obstructive nephropathy. 54 61
11260391 2001
11
MCP-1 and EGF renal expression and urine excretion in human congenital obstructive nephropathy. 61 54
10886563 2000
12
Obstructive nephropathy: lessons from cystic kidney disease. 61 54
10644902 2000
13
Increased expression of TGF-beta1 but not of its receptors contributes to human obstructive nephropathy. 54 61
10594789 1999
14
Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease. 61 54
1381383 1992
15
WNT1-inducible signaling protein-1 mediates TGF-β1-induced renal fibrosis in tubular epithelial cells and unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse models via autophagy. 61
31512238 2020
16
Mechanisms of antimicrobial-induced nephrotoxicity in children. 61
31369087 2020
17
miR-130a-3p inhibition protects against renal fibrosis in vitro via the TGF-β1/Smad pathway by targeting SnoN. 61
31836508 2019
18
Effects of Heterozygous TfR1 (Transferrin Receptor 1) Deletion in Pathogenesis of Renal Fibrosis in Mice. 61
31838906 2019
19
Neonatal obstructive nephropathy induces necroptosis and necroinflammation. 61
31819111 2019
20
A preventable cause of transplant hydroureteronephrosis: inguinal herniation of the transplant ureter: case report and review of the literature. 61
31690216 2019
21
Losartan accelerates the repair process of renal fibrosis in UUO mouse after the surgical recanalization by upregulating the expression of Tregs. 61
31401712 2019
22
Endothelial-specific deletion of Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) assuages unilateral ureteral obstruction induced renal injury in mice. 61
31349970 2019
23
Krt5+ urothelial cells are developmental and tissue repair progenitors in the kidney. 61
31322419 2019
24
Diuresis renography in equivocal urinary tract obstruction. A historical perspective. 61
31136948 2019
25
Petchiether A attenuates obstructive nephropathy by suppressing TGF-β/Smad3 and NF-κB signalling. 61
31211499 2019
26
Spectrum of chronic kidney disease in China: A national study based on hospitalized patients from 2010 to 2015. 61
30198082 2019
27
IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) with membranous nephropathy as its initial manifestation: report of one case and literature review. 61
31311519 2019
28
O bladder, where art thou? An unusual cause of obstructive nephropathy. 61
31085624 2019
29
Full age spectrum equation versus CKD-EPI and MDRD equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate in adults with obstructive nephropathy. 61
30991866 2019
30
Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction as a Model to Investigate Fibrosis-Attenuating Treatments. 61
30965656 2019
31
Effect of Quyu Chencuo Formula () on Renal Fibrosis in Obstructive Nephropathy Rats. 61
26142335 2019
32
Obstructive nephropathy: simple yet complicated! 61
30386975 2019
33
Symmetric nephromegaly. 61
30178235 2019
34
Blocking Tyr265 nitration of protein phosphatase 2A attenuates nitrosative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction in renal microvessels. 61
30521379 2019
35
Drug-induced Obstructive and Retrograde Nephropathy Associated with α2u-globulin in Male Rats. 61
30587097 2019
36
A Novel Biomarker for Acute Kidney Injury, Vanin-1, for Obstructive Nephropathy: A Prospective Cohort Pilot Study. 61
30791405 2019
37
Protease-activated receptor-1 contributes to renal injury and interstitial fibrosis during chronic obstructive nephropathy. 61
30485646 2019
38
Elevated urinary lipocalin-2, interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in children with congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction. 61
30420258 2019
39
Tyrphostin AG490 reduces inflammation and fibrosis in neonatal obstructive nephropathy. 61
31846485 2019
40
Renal Fibrosis, Immune Cell Infiltration and Changes of TRPC Channel Expression after Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Trpc6-/- Mice. 61
31099508 2019
41
Protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine attenuates partial unilateral ureteral obstruction induced kidney injury in neonatal rats. 61
30439378 2019
42
Tamoxifen ameliorates obstructive nephropathy through Src and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. 61
30304547 2019
43
Shenkang injection, a modern preparation of Chinese patent medicine, diminishes tubulointerstitial fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy via targeting pericyte-myofibroblast transition. 61
31105812 2019
44
Peritoneal Dialysis Treatment in Small Children with Acute Kidney Injury: Experience in Northwest China. 61
31357204 2019
45
The Effect of Arabic Gum on Renal Function in Reversible Unilateral Ureteric Obstruction. 61
30641998 2019
46
Changes in cell fate determine the regenerative and functional capacity of the developing kidney before and after release of obstruction. 61
30442812 2018
47
Renal expression and urinary excretion of Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter 1 (NaDC1) in obstructive nephropathy: a candidate biomarker for this pathology. 61
30140954 2018
48
Biomarkers of obstructive nephropathy using a metabolomics approach in rat. 61
30339777 2018
49
Dicer deficiency in proximal tubules exacerbates renal injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis and upregulates Smad2/3. 61
30280598 2018
50
Ultrasound and color Doppler applications in chronic kidney disease. 61
30191413 2018

Variations for Obstructive Nephropathy

Expression for Obstructive Nephropathy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Obstructive Nephropathy.

Pathways for Obstructive Nephropathy

Pathways related to Obstructive Nephropathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 38)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.34 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL PDGFD HGF
2
Show member pathways
13.23 TGFB1 SMAD3 PDGFD OSM HGF GFER
3
Show member pathways
12.82 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 PDGFD EGF
4 12.73 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 HGF EGF AGT
5
Show member pathways
12.71 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 HGF EGF
6
Show member pathways
12.63 TGFB1 PDGFD HGF GFER EGF
7
Show member pathways
12.49 TGFB1 REN PDGFD HGF GFER EGF
8
Show member pathways
12.42 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 PDGFD
9
Show member pathways
12.34 TGFB1 PDGFD HGF GFER EGF
10
Show member pathways
12.22 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL
11 12.17 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL
12 12.11 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 EGF
13 11.99 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL
14 11.98 TGFB1 HGF EGF ALB
15 11.97 TGFB1 SMAD3 OSM AGT
16 11.85 TGFB1 OSM LCN2 HGF
17 11.83 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
18 11.82 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
19
Show member pathways
11.81 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
20 11.78 TGFB1 REN HGF
21 11.78 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 AGT
22
Show member pathways
11.72 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
23 11.71 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL
24
Show member pathways
11.66 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
25 11.66 TGFB1 PDGFD HGF GFER EGF
26 11.65 REN AGT ACE
27 11.63 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL
28 11.62 TGFB1 SMAD3 EGF
29 11.59 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL
30
Show member pathways
11.5 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 EGF
31 11.47 TGFB1 SKIL HGF EGF
32
Show member pathways
11.46 TGFB1 REN AGTR2 AGT ACE
33 11.44 TGFB1 HGF EGF
34 11.33 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL
35 11.03 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 HGF
36 10.92 TGFB1 PDGFD OSM HGF GFER EGF
37 10.89 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
38 10.78 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL EGF

GO Terms for Obstructive Nephropathy

Cellular components related to Obstructive Nephropathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.77 TINAG TGFB1 REN PDGFD OSM LCN2
2 blood microparticle GO:0072562 9.65 TGFB1 CLU AMBP ALB AGT
3 platelet alpha granule lumen GO:0031093 9.55 TGFB1 HGF EGF CLU ALB
4 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.5 VNN1 TINAG TGFB1 REN PDGFD OSM
5 SMAD protein complex GO:0071141 9.37 SMAD3 SMAD2
6 heteromeric SMAD protein complex GO:0071144 9.32 SMAD3 SMAD2

Biological processes related to Obstructive Nephropathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 52)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893 10.13 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 EGF AGTR2 AGT
2 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 10.1 TGFB1 PDGFD OSM EGF AGTR2 AGT
3 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 LCN2 EGF CLU
4 positive regulation of cell migration GO:0030335 9.98 TGFB1 SMAD3 PDGFD HGF EGF
5 positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling GO:0051897 9.97 TGFB1 OSM HGF EGF
6 negative regulation of cell growth GO:0030308 9.91 TGFB1 SMAD3 AGTR2 AGT
7 transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway GO:0007179 9.89 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL
8 wound healing GO:0042060 9.88 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
9 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.88 TGFB1 AMBP AGT
10 positive regulation of MAP kinase activity GO:0043406 9.86 TGFB1 PDGFD EGF
11 cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus GO:0071560 9.85 TGFB1 SMAD3 PDGFD
12 SMAD protein signal transduction GO:0060395 9.85 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
13 positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation GO:0048146 9.84 TGFB1 PDGFD AGT
14 positive regulation of cell division GO:0051781 9.82 TGFB1 PDGFD OSM
15 positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition GO:0010718 9.82 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
16 positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity GO:0061098 9.81 EGF AGT ACE
17 ureteric bud development GO:0001657 9.8 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
18 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.8 PDGFD OSM HGF AGT
19 endoderm development GO:0007492 9.78 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
20 blood vessel remodeling GO:0001974 9.77 AGTR2 AGT ACE
21 negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway GO:0030512 9.76 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL
22 regulation of blood pressure GO:0008217 9.73 REN AGTR2 AGT ACE
23 platelet degranulation GO:0002576 9.72 TGFB1 HGF EGF CLU ALB
24 negative regulation of immune response GO:0050777 9.71 TGFB1 AMBP
25 amyloid-beta metabolic process GO:0050435 9.71 REN ACE
26 positive regulation of renal sodium excretion GO:0035815 9.71 AGTR2 AGT
27 angiotensin maturation GO:0002003 9.7 REN ACE
28 response to cholesterol GO:0070723 9.7 TGFB1 SMAD2
29 nodal signaling pathway GO:0038092 9.7 SMAD3 SMAD2
30 pericardium development GO:0060039 9.69 SMAD3 SMAD2
31 embryonic foregut morphogenesis GO:0048617 9.69 SMAD3 SMAD2
32 regulation of protein import into nucleus GO:0042306 9.69 TGFB1 AGTR2
33 regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway GO:0017015 9.69 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
34 primary miRNA processing GO:0031053 9.68 SMAD3 SMAD2
35 common-partner SMAD protein phosphorylation GO:0007182 9.67 TGFB1 SMAD2
36 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin GO:0003081 9.67 AGT ACE
37 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.67 SMAD3 CLU AGTR2 AGT
38 positive regulation of extracellular matrix assembly GO:1901203 9.66 TGFB1 SMAD3
39 regulation of striated muscle tissue development GO:0016202 9.65 TGFB1 SMAD3
40 positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis GO:0090190 9.65 TGFB1 AGTR2 AGT
41 negative regulation of neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway GO:0051387 9.64 AGTR2 AGT
42 regulation of blood volume by renin-angiotensin GO:0002016 9.62 REN AGT
43 paraxial mesoderm morphogenesis GO:0048340 9.58 SMAD3 SMAD2
44 lens fiber cell differentiation GO:0070306 9.58 TGFB1 SMAD3 SKIL
45 mononuclear cell proliferation GO:0032943 9.57 TGFB1 ACE
46 evasion or tolerance of host defenses by virus GO:0019049 9.56 TGFB1 SMAD3
47 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway coupled to cGMP nucleotide second messenger GO:0007199 9.55 AGTR2 AGT
48 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.55 TGFB1 OSM HGF EGF AGT
49 regulation of renal output by angiotensin GO:0002019 9.54 AGT ACE
50 SMAD protein complex assembly GO:0007183 9.43 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2

Molecular functions related to Obstructive Nephropathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 SMAD binding GO:0046332 9.5 SMAD3 SMAD2 SKIL
2 enhancer binding GO:0035326 9.46 SMAD3 SMAD2
3 co-SMAD binding GO:0070410 9.43 SMAD3 SMAD2
4 type I transforming growth factor beta receptor binding GO:0034713 9.4 TGFB1 SMAD2
5 primary miRNA binding GO:0070878 9.37 SMAD3 SMAD2
6 transforming growth factor beta receptor binding GO:0005160 9.33 TGFB1 SMAD3 SMAD2
7 transforming growth factor beta receptor, pathway-specific cytoplasmic mediator activity GO:0030618 9.26 SMAD3 SMAD2
8 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.17 TGFB1 PDGFD OSM HGF GFER EGF
9 enterobactin binding GO:1903981 8.96 LCN2 ALB

Sources for Obstructive Nephropathy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....