Opiate Dependence

Categories: Mental diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Opiate Dependence

MalaCards integrated aliases for Opiate Dependence:

Name: Opiate Dependence 11 42 14 33
Opioid Dependence 42 75 53 16 33
Opioid Addiction 42 33
Opiate Addiction 42 71
Opioid-Related Disorders 71
Opioid Type Dependence 11
Intravenous Narcotism 33
Narcotic Dependence 33
Oral Narcotism Nos 33
Opium Dependence 33
Narcotism Nos 33


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Disease Ontology 11 DOID:2559
ICD9CM 34 304.00
MeSH 43 D009293
SNOMED-CT 68 75544000
ICD10 31 F11.2
UMLS 71 C0027412 C0524662

Summaries for Opiate Dependence

MedlinePlus Genetics: 42 Opioid addiction is a long-lasting (chronic) disease that can cause major health, social, and economic problems. Opioids are a class of drugs that act in the nervous system to produce feelings of pleasure and pain relief. Some opioids are legally prescribed by healthcare providers to manage severe and chronic pain. Commonly prescribed opioids include oxycodone, fentanyl, buprenorphine, methadone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, codeine, and morphine. Some other opioids, such as heroin, are illegal drugs of abuse.Opioid addiction is characterized by a powerful, compulsive urge to use opioid drugs, even when they are no longer required medically. Opioids have a high potential for causing addiction in some people, even when the medications are prescribed appropriately and taken as directed. Many prescription opioids are misused or diverted to others. Individuals who become addicted may prioritize getting and using these drugs over other activities in their lives, often negatively impacting their professional and personal relationships. It is unknown why some people are more likely to become addicted than others.Opioids change the chemistry of the brain and lead to drug tolerance, which means that over time the dose needs to be increased to achieve the same effect. Taking opioids over a long period of time produces dependence, such that when people stop taking the drug, they have physical and psychological symptoms of withdrawal (such as muscle cramping, diarrhea, and anxiety). Dependence is not the same thing as addiction; although everyone who takes opioids for an extended period will become dependent, only a small percentage also experience the compulsive, continuing need for the drug that characterizes addiction.Opioid addiction can cause life-threatening health problems, including the risk of overdose. Overdose occurs when high doses of opioids cause breathing to slow or stop, leading to unconsciousness and death if the overdose is not treated immediately. Both legal and illegal opioids carry a risk of overdose if a person takes too much of the drug, or if opioids are combined with other drugs (particularly tranquilizers called benzodiazepines).

MalaCards based summary: Opiate Dependence, also known as opioid dependence, is related to morphine dependence and heroin dependence. An important gene associated with Opiate Dependence is ODS1 (Opioid Dependence, Susceptibility To, 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are GPCR downstream signalling and Signal Transduction. The drugs Cobicistat and Elvitegravir have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and prefrontal cortex, and related phenotypes are nervous system and homeostasis/metabolism

Disease Ontology: 11 A drug dependence that involves the continued use of opiate drugs despite despite problems related to use of the substance.

Wikipedia: 75 Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a substance use disorder characterized by cravings for opioids, continued... more...

Related Diseases for Opiate Dependence

Diseases related to Opiate Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 266)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 morphine dependence 31.5 PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HCRT
2 heroin dependence 31.1 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 OPRD1 DRD4 DRD3
3 polysubstance abuse 30.8 DRD3 DRD2
4 chronic pain 30.2 OPRM1 BDNF
5 cyclothymic disorder 30.2 DRD4 DRD2 BDNF
6 complex regional pain syndrome 30.1 OPRM1 FOS BDNF
7 pertussis 30.1 OPRM1 OPRD1 FOS
8 personality disorder 30.1 SLC6A3 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 BDNF ANKK1
9 toxic encephalopathy 30.1 SLC6A3 CREB1 BDNF
10 borderline personality disorder 30.0 SLC6A3 DRD2 BDNF
11 bowel dysfunction 30.0 SLC6A3 POMC OPRM1 OPRK1
12 acute stress disorder 30.0 POMC BDNF
13 antisocial personality disorder 30.0 SLC6A3 DRD4 DRD2 ANKK1
14 schizoaffective disorder 30.0 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 BDNF
15 dysthymic disorder 30.0 SLC6A3 POMC HCRT DRD4 BDNF
16 somatoform disorder 30.0 POMC OPRM1 FOS BDNF
17 conduct disorder 29.9 SLC6A3 POMC DRD4 DRD2
18 opioid abuse 29.9 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
19 neonatal abstinence syndrome 29.8 PNOC PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
20 postpartum depression 29.8 POMC PNOC BDNF
21 fibromyalgia 29.8 POMC PNOC OPRM1 BDNF
22 alcohol use disorder 29.7 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 DRD4 DRD3
23 pheochromocytoma 29.7 POMC PENK PDYN FOS DRD2 CREB1
24 panic disorder 29.6 SLC6A3 POMC DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
25 cocaine abuse 29.6 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 FOS DRD3
26 paine syndrome 29.6 POMC PNOC OPRM1 FOS BDNF
27 sleep disorder 29.5 SLC6A3 POMC HCRT FOS BDNF
28 tobacco addiction 29.5 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
29 cocaine dependence 29.4 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
30 post-traumatic stress disorder 29.3 SLC6A3 POMC HCRT FOS DRD2 CREB1
31 restless legs syndrome 29.3 SLC6A3 POMC HCRT DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
32 bipolar disorder 29.2 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 FOS DRD4 DRD3
33 obsessive-compulsive disorder 29.2 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
34 withdrawal disorder 29.1 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1
35 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 29.1 SLC6A3 POMC HCRT FOS DRD4 DRD2
36 substance abuse 28.9 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 HCRT
37 psychotic disorder 28.9 SLC6A3 PDYN OPRM1 FOS DRD4 DRD3
38 pain agnosia 28.9 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
39 disease of mental health 28.8 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 HCRT FOS
40 mood disorder 28.8 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN HCRT DRD4 DRD3
41 major depressive disorder 28.7 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 HCRT FOS
42 substance dependence 28.7 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
43 alcohol dependence 28.6 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
44 drug dependence 28.6 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PENK PDYN OPRM1
45 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 28.3 SLC6A3 POMC PDYN OPRM1 HCRT FOS
46 schizophrenia 28.3 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1 HCRT
47 anxiety 27.8 SLC6A3 POMC PNOC PDYN OPRM1 OPRL1
48 opioid dependence 1 11.6
49 pyromania 10.3 DRD2 ANKK1
50 bestiality 10.3 DRD4 DRD3

Comorbidity relations with Opiate Dependence via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Anxiety
Deficiency Anemia Dysthymic Disorder
Heart Disease Hypertension, Essential
Major Depressive Disorder Osteoporosis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Opiate Dependence:

Diseases related to Opiate Dependence

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Opiate Dependence

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Opiate Dependence:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 10.24 BDNF CREB1 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.16 BDNF CREB1 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
3 normal MP:0002873 10.09 BDNF CREB1 DRD1 DRD2 FOS OPRL1
4 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.97 BDNF CREB1 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 FOS
5 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.95 BDNF DRD2 OPRD1 OPRM1 PDYN PENK
6 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.92 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 FOS OPRM1 PDYN
7 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.91 BDNF CREB1 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
8 integument MP:0010771 9.44 BDNF DRD1 DRD2 FOS OPRD1 OPRK1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Opiate Dependence

Drugs for Opiate Dependence (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 330)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Cobicistat Approved Phase 4 1004316-88-4 24950485 25151504
Elvitegravir Approved Phase 4 697761-98-1 23083982 5277135
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 4 15687-27-1 3672
Cathine Approved, Experimental, Illicit, Vet_approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 14838-15-4, 492-39-7 131954576 4786 26934
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 93-14-1 3516
Peginterferon alfa-2b Approved Phase 4 215647-85-1, 99210-65-8
Ribavirin Approved Phase 4 36791-04-5 37542
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-66-5, 1424-27-7 1986
Baclofen Approved Phase 4 1134-47-0 2284
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 249296-44-4 5310966
Isoniazid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54-85-3 3767
Rifapentine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 61379-65-5 5462354
Velpatasvir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1377049-84-7 77335690 67683363
Sofosbuvir Approved Phase 4 1190307-88-0 45375808
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 27203-92-5 33741 5523
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3 3680
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 3003 5743
Meloxicam Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 71125-38-7 54677470 5281106
Acetylsalicylic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
Famotidine Approved Phase 4 76824-35-6 3325 5702160
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
Cefazolin Approved Phase 4 25953-19-9 33255
Ondansetron Approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 99614-02-5 4595
Esomeprazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 73590-58-6, 119141-88-7 9568614 4594
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
Tranexamic acid Approved Phase 4 1197-18-8 5526
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5, 15307-79-6 3033
Oritavancin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 171099-57-3 16136912
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
Menthol Approved, Experimental Phase 4 1490-04-6, 2216-51-5, 15356-60-2 1254 16666 165675
Oxymorphone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 76-41-5 5284604
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
Cholecalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 67-97-0, 1406-16-2 5280795 10883523
Trichostatin A Experimental Phase 4 58880-19-6 5562 444732
41 Integrase Inhibitors Phase 4
42 HIV Integrase Inhibitors Phase 4
43 Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drug Combination Phase 4
44 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors Phase 4
45 Emtricitabine tenofovir alafenamide Phase 4
46 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
47 Antitussive Agents Phase 4
48 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 4
49 diuretics Phase 4
50 Immunologic Factors Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 1056)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Evaluation of Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF) Switch Followed by Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) Antiviral HCV Therapy Followed by Bictegravir/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Alafenamide (B/F/TAF) Simplification in HIV-HCV Co-Infected Subjects on Opioid Substitution Therapy - A Pilot Feasibility Study Unknown status NCT03549312 Phase 4 Genvoya;Epclusa;Biktarvy
2 SPNS Buprenorphine and Integrated HIV Care Evaluation and Support Center: Integration of Buprenorphine and HIV Treatment Using the OASIS Model Unknown status NCT00241930 Phase 4
3 An Evaluation of Innovative Methods for Integrating Buprenorphine Opioid Treatment in HIV Primary Care Settings Unknown status NCT00124358 Phase 4 Buprenorphine
4 A Prospective, Randomized Trial of the Effect of Standard of Care Reduced Dose Versus Full Dose Buprenorphine/Naloxone in the Perioperative Period on Pain Control and Post Operative Opioid Use Disorder Symptoms Unknown status NCT03266445 Phase 4 buprenorphine/naloxone
5 Buprenorphine Maintenance vs. Detoxification in Prescription Opioid Dependence Completed NCT00555425 Phase 4
6 A Multi-center, Open-Label, 24-Week, Follow-Up Study to Assess Safety, Efficacy, and Treatment Adherence For Maintenance Treatment of Opioid Dependence With OX219 Completed NCT01903005 Phase 4 Higher bioavailability BNX sublingual tablets
7 Gabapentin Regimens and Their Effects on Opioid Consumption Completed NCT03334903 Phase 4 Gabapentin
8 A Randomized Clinical Trial of Single Dose Liposomal Bupivacaine Delivered Via VATS Intercostal Nerve Block vs. Continuous Bupivacaine Infusion Delivered Via Indwelling Subscapular Catheter After Surgical Stabilization of Rib Fractures Completed NCT03305666 Phase 4 Liposomal bupivacaine injection;Bupivacaine indwelling catheter
9 Relapse Prevention to Reduce HIV Among Women Prisoners Completed NCT00763958 Phase 4 Placebo;Buprenorphine
10 A Single Center, Randomized, 2 Way Cross-Over, Phase 4 Study Comparing Usability of Zubsolv Sublingual Tablets 5.7/1.4 to Suboxone Sublingual Film 8/2 Including Ease of Use, Taste Preference, Dissolution Time, Desire to Abuse, and Overall Acceptance In Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treated Opioid Dependent Population Completed NCT02038790 Phase 4 Suboxone Sublingual Film;Zubsolv sublingual tablets
11 Buprenorphine Extended-release in Jail and at Re-entry: Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial vs. Daily Sublingual Buprenorphine-naloxone Completed NCT03604159 Phase 4 Buprenorphine Extended Release;Sublingual Buprenorphine (SUBOXONE, Zubsolv, or generic tablets)
12 Buprenorphine/Nx Treatment of Heroin Dependence-A Compassionate Use Study Completed NCT00015340 Phase 4 Buprenorphine/naloxone
13 Biomarkers of Disease and Response to Treatment in Opioid Addiction Completed NCT02324725 Phase 4 Naltrexone
14 Integrating Buprenorphine Into the SFGH AIDS Program (Patient Evaluation Study) Completed NCT00263458 Phase 4
15 An Open-Label Pilot Study of Desvenlafaxine for Opioid-Dependent Patients With Comorbid Depression Completed NCT02200406 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine
16 A Phase 4, Pilot, Open-label Study of VIVITROL in the Prevention of Re-arrest and Re-incarceration Completed NCT01453374 Phase 4 VIVITROL 380mg
17 A Multicenter Safety Trial of Buprenorphine/Naloxone for the Treatment of Opiate Dependence Completed NCT00007527 Phase 4 naloxone;buprenorphine
18 Hepatitis C in a Cohort of Patients With Maintenance Therapy for Opiate Dependence - Prevalence, Severity and Outcome of Antiviral Therapy Completed NCT01045278 Phase 4 Pegylated interferon-alfa-2b and ribavirin
19 Treatment of Polydrug-Using Opiate Dependents During Withdrawal Completed NCT00367874 Phase 4 Buprenorphine;Valproate
20 Evaluation of Preference for a Buprenorphine-based Maintenance Therapy, After a Switch From Buprenorphine Alone (Subutex®) to the Buprenorphine/Naloxone Combination (Suboxone®), in Opioid-dependent Patients With Buprenorphine Maintenance Therapy Completed NCT00684073 Phase 4 buprenorphine;buprenorphine/naloxone
21 A Randomized Acceptability and Safety Study of the Transfer From Subutex to Suboxone in Opioid- Dependent Subjects Completed NCT00605033 Phase 4 Suboxone, Buprenorphine Hydrochloride + Naloxone, SCH 484;Subutex, Buprenorphine Hydrochloride, SCH 28444
22 Bridging Care to HCV Treatment Among Opiate Dependent Patients on Buprenorphine/Naloxone Maintenance Therapy: A Pilot Study of Treating HCV With Epclusa at a Psychiatrist-staffed Outpatient Addiction Clinic Completed NCT03235154 Phase 4 sofosbuvir/velpatasvir
23 A Randomized Acceptability and Safety Study of Suboxone Induction in Heroin Users Completed NCT00604188 Phase 4 Suboxone (SCH 000484);Subutex (SCH 028444)
24 Counseling for Primary Care Office-based Buprenorphine Completed NCT00595764 Phase 4
25 An Open Multi-center Trial of Suboxone® (Buprenorphine/Naloxone) Treatment Among Opiate-Dependent Subjects Completed NCT00901875 Phase 4 Buprenorphine + naloxone (Suboxone)
26 Effects of Ketamine On Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal Under General Anaesthesia Completed NCT00300794 Phase 4 Ketamine
27 Long Acting Naltrexone for Opioid Addiction: the Importance of Mental, Physical and Societal Factors for Sustained Abstinence and Recovery Completed NCT03647774 Phase 4 Extended release naltrexone
28 Integration of Buprenorphine Into HIV Clinical Settings - Primary Care Model (PCM) Completed NCT00798538 Phase 4
29 A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Buprenorphine and Methadone for Opioid Dependent Chronic Pain Patients Completed NCT00879996 Phase 4 Methadone;Buprenorphine/naloxone
30 Intervention of HIV, Drug Use and the Criminal Justice System in Malaysia Completed NCT02396979 Phase 4 Methadone
31 A Feasibility Study for Testing the Effects of Extended-release Naltrexone (Vivitrol) on Recidivism and Other Participant Outcomes in Drug Court Settings Completed NCT02978417 Phase 4 Naltrexone for extended-release injectable suspension;Oral naltrexone
32 Influence of Dexmedetomidine and Lidocaine on Opioid Consumption, Cognitive Function and Incidence of Neuropathic Pain in Laparoscopic Intestine Resection Completed NCT02616523 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine;Lidocaine;Fentanyl
33 Administration of Acetazolamide to Prevent Remifentanil Induced Hyperalgesia: Randomize Double Blind Clinical Trial Completed NCT02992938 Phase 4 Acetazolamide;Placebo Oral Tablet
34 Extended-Release Naltrexone Opioid Treatment at Jail Re-Entry Completed NCT01999946 Phase 4 Extended-Release Naltrexone
35 Feasibility Study of Take-Home LAAM Medication Completed NCT00000300 Phase 4 LAAM
36 Neurocognitive Effects of Opiate Agonist Treatment Completed NCT01733693 Phase 4 Buprenorphine;Methadone
37 A Comparison of PR Oxycodone/Naloxone and PR Oxycodone After Cardiac Surgery Completed NCT01374763 Phase 4 Oxycodone;Prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone
38 Feasibility, Mechanism of Action and Potential Side Effects of Extended Release Depot Naltrexone in Opioid Dependent Patients Completed NCT01471145 Phase 4 Naltrexone
39 Management of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Pregnant Women With Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): the Potential of an Integrated Medical Home Model: Phase IV Trial of Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) in Postpartum Women With Chronic HCV Completed NCT03057847 Phase 4 Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir
40 Multi-institutional, Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Opioid Use and Analgesic Requirements After Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Completed NCT03783702 Phase 4 OxyCODONE 5 Mg (milligram) Oral Tablet;Ibuprofen 600 Mg (milligram) Oral Tablet;Acetaminophen 650 MG (milligram) Oral Tablet
41 Optimizing Patient Centered-Care: A Pragmatic Randomized Control Trial Comparing Models of Care in the Management of Prescription Opioid Misuse (OPTIMA Trial) Completed NCT03033732 Phase 4 Methadone;Buprenorphine-Naloxone
42 CTN-0051: Extended-Release Naltrexone vs. Buprenorphine for Opioid Treatment Completed NCT02032433 Phase 4 Extended-Release Naltrexone;Buprenorphine-Naloxone
43 Buprenorphine in the Emergency Department: Buprenorphine Versus Clonidine for Opioid Withdrawal Completed NCT03174067 Phase 4 Buprenorphine;Clonidine
44 An Open-label, Rapid Initiation Study for Extended-Release Buprenorphine Subcutaneous Injection (SUBLOCADE) Completed NCT03993392 Phase 4 TM buprenorphine;SUBLOCADE
45 An Open-label, Treatment Extension Study for the Rapid Initiation of Extended-Release Buprenorphine Subcutaneous Injection (SUBLOCADE™) Completed NCT04060654 Phase 4 Sublocade
46 A Pilot Implementation Project of Methadone and Suboxone® for Injecting Drug Users in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Completed NCT05368675 Phase 4 medication for opioid use disorder
47 Evaluating the Safety of Acute Baclofen in Methadone-maintained Individuals With Opiate Dependence. An Adaptive, Single-blind, Placebo-controlled Ascending Dose Study of Acute Baclofen on Safety Parameters in Opioid Dependence During Methadone-maintenance Treatment; a Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic Study Recruiting NCT05161351 Phase 4 Baclofen;Vitamin D3
48 Addiction, HIV and Tuberculosis in Malaysian Criminal Justice Settings Recruiting NCT03089983 Phase 4 Buprenorphine Naloxone;Methadone;Isoniazid;Rifapentine
49 Houston Emergency Opioid Engagement System (HEROES) Recruiting NCT03396276 Phase 4 Suboxone
50 Houston Emergency Engagement System for Youths and Adolescents Recruiting NCT04811014 Phase 4 Buprenorphine, Naloxone Drug Combination

Search NIH Clinical Center for Opiate Dependence

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Clonidine Hydrochloride
Levomethadyl Acetate Hydrochloride
Methadone Hydrochloride
Nalmefene hydrochloride
Naloxone Hydrochloride
Naltrexone hydrochloride

Genetic Tests for Opiate Dependence

Anatomical Context for Opiate Dependence

Organs/tissues related to Opiate Dependence:

MalaCards : Brain, Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Bone, Amygdala, Liver, Prostate

Publications for Opiate Dependence

Articles related to Opiate Dependence:

(show top 50) (show all 5994)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Functional impact of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the OPRD1 promoter region. 53 62
20300121 2010
Shared mechanisms for opioid tolerance and a transition to chronic pain. 53 62
20357116 2010
Open-label dose-finding trial of buprenorphine implants (Probuphine) for treatment of heroin dependence. 53 62
19403243 2009
ABCB1 (MDR1) genetic variants are associated with methadone doses required for effective treatment of heroin dependence. 53 62
18424454 2008
Office-based maintenance treatment of opioid dependence: how does it compare with traditional approaches? 53 62
18193922 2008
Evaluation of OPRM1 variants in heroin dependence by family-based association testing and meta-analysis. 53 62
17416470 2007
The opioid system in alcohol and drug dependence: family-based association study. 53 62
17503481 2007
Association between the DRD2 A1 allele and response to methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatments. 53 62
16583408 2006
In-vitro and in-vivo characterization of a buprenorphine delivery system. 53 62
16536895 2006
A functional prodynorphin promoter polymorphism and opioid dependence. 53 62
16314761 2005
Novel exonic mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) polymorphisms not associated with opioid dependence. 53 62
15558714 2005
A genetic association study of the mu opioid receptor and severe opioid dependence. 53 62
12960749 2003
Introducing a new recruitment approach to sample collection for genetic association studies in opioid dependence. 53 62
12648891 2003
D2 dopamine receptor gene in psychiatric and neurologic disorders and its phenotypes. 53 62
12497624 2003
The D(2) dopamine receptor A(1) allele and opioid dependence: association with heroin use and response to methadone treatment. 53 62
11054765 2000
The DRD2 gene in psychiatric and neurological disorders and its phenotypes. 53 62
11256581 2000
Addiction and its reward process through polymorphisms of the D2 dopamine receptor gene: a review. 53 62
10881203 2000
Association of alcohol or other drug dependence with alleles of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1). 53 62
9756053 1998
Dopamine D3 receptor gene variants and substance abuse in schizophrenia. 53 62
9702743 1998
The role of glutamate in physical dependence on opioids. 53 62
9517399 1998
Glutamate in opioid dependence. 53 62
9365966 1997
Human pharmacology of the opioid neuropeptide dynorphin A(1-13). 53 62
9190848 1997
Male and female rats show opiate withdrawal-induced place aversion and extinction in a Y-maze paradigm. 62
36174840 2023
Does slow release oral morphine have impact on craving and impulsivity in heroin dependent individuals? 62
35833289 2023
Normalization of the H3K9me2/H3K14ac-ΔFosB pathway in the nucleus accumbens underlying the reversal of morphine-induced behavioural and synaptic plasticity by Compound 511. 62
36252464 2023
Compound 511 ameliorates MRSA-induced lung injury by attenuating morphine-induced immunosuppression in mice via PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. 62
36252465 2023
Multimodal Pain Management Protocol to Decrease Opioid Use and to Improve Pain Control After Thoracic Surgery. 62
35430217 2022
Lessons from COVID-19 to increase opioid vaccine acceptance. 62
36123169 2022
How Emotional Shifts Effect Youth Perceptions of Opioid Risk and Efficacy: Testing a Know the Truth Campaign Narrative. 62
33977833 2022
Ribosomal DNA transcription is increased in the left nucleus accumbens of heroin-dependent males. 62
35567616 2022
[Substitution Treatment for Opiate Addicts in Forensic Hospitals under the Penal System]. 62
35100637 2022
Aiding the prescriber: developing a machine learning approach to personalized risk modeling for chronic opioid therapy amongst US Army soldiers. 62
35895214 2022
Repeated Use of Morphine Induces Anxiety by Affecting a Proinflammatory Cytokine Signaling Pathway in the Prefrontal Cortex in Rats. 62
36450935 2022
The impact of race, gender, and heroin use on opioid addiction stigma. 62
36115273 2022
Reduced Narcotic Utilization in Total Joint Arthroplasty Patients in an Urban Tertiary Care Center. 62
36325518 2022
Evaluation of the relationship between opioid addiction and metabolic syndrome and its components in the adult population from Rafsanjan city; a cohort study. 62
36103030 2022
Usefulness of Inhaled Sedation in Patients With Severe ARDS Due to COVID-19. 62
36414277 2022
Effect of human mesenchymal stem cell secretome administration on morphine self-administration and relapse in two animal models of opioid dependence. 62
36333316 2022
Probing different paradigms of morphine withdrawal on sleep behavior in male and female C57BL/6J mice. 62
36415467 2022
Nonpharmacological interventions for acute pain management in patients with opioid abuse or opioid tolerance: a scoping review. 62
36065876 2022
A common SNP in Chrna5 enhances morphine reward in female mice. 62
35973602 2022
Current and emerging pharmacotherapies for opioid dependence treatments in adults: a comprehensive update. 62
36278879 2022
Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Gray Matter Volume in Patients with Opioid Dependence. 62
36380634 2022
Diagnosis and treatment of opioid-related disorders in a South African private sector medical insurance scheme: A cohort study. 62
36202041 2022
The intergenerational persistence of opioid dependence: Evidence from administrative data. 62
35969540 2022
Rapastinel accelerates loss of withdrawal signs after repeated morphine and blunts relapse to conditioned place preference. 62
36302442 2022
Sensitivity of a fentanyl-vs.-social interaction choice procedure to environmental and pharmacological manipulations. 62
36228740 2022
Reasons and Risk Factors for Failed Same-Day Discharge After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty. 62
36332890 2022
"I was 15 when I started doing drugs with my dad": Victimization, Social Determinants of Health, and Criminogenic Risk Among Women Opioid Intervention Court Participants. 62
34989645 2022
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Variations for Opiate Dependence

Expression for Opiate Dependence

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Opiate Dependence.

Pathways for Opiate Dependence

Pathways related to Opiate Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 23)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
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7 12.16 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CREB1
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11.8 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
11 11.72 POMC FOS CREB1
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13 11.63 POMC FOS CREB1
14 11.6 OPRK1 CREB1 BDNF
15 11.55 CREB1 FOS PENK
Show member pathways
11.52 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
17 11.36 DRD2 DRD1 CREB1
Show member pathways
11.26 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1 CREB1
Show member pathways
11.02 SLC6A3 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
20 10.86 FOS CREB1
21 10.85 ANKK1 DRD2 POMC
22 10.77 CREB1 BDNF
23 10.43 NPFF HCRT

GO Terms for Opiate Dependence

Cellular components related to Opiate Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.53 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4 OPRD1 OPRK1
2 plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.53 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4 OPRD1 OPRK1
3 neuron projection GO:0043005 10.26 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 FOS
4 perikaryon GO:0043204 10.13 DRD2 NPFF OPRK1 OPRM1 PENK
5 dendrite GO:0030425 10.13 BDNF DRD1 DRD2 DRD4 NPFF OPRK1
6 synapse GO:0045202 10.04 PNOC PDYN OPRK1 HCRT DRD3 DRD2
7 presynaptic membrane GO:0042734 9.87 DRD1 DRD2 OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRM1 SLC6A3
8 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.85 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2 DRD1
9 spine apparatus GO:0097444 9.76 OPRM1 OPRD1
10 obsolete integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.65 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2 DRD1
11 axon terminus GO:0043679 9.53 SLC6A3 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 OPRD1
12 obsolete integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.43 SLC6A3 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2 DRD1

Biological processes related to Opiate Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 62)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.5 BDNF CREB1 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
2 response to xenobiotic stimulus GO:0009410 10.42 SLC6A3 FOS DRD3 DRD2 DRD1 CREB1
3 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 10.42 PNOC PENK PDYN OPRK1 NPFF HCRT
4 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.41 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD4 DRD3
5 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 10.28 DRD2 HCRT NPFF OPRM1
6 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 10.26 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HCRT
7 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 10.25 DRD1 DRD4 OPRD1 OPRM1
8 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 10.23 OPRK1 OPRL1 OPRM1 PENK
9 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration involved in phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled signaling pathway GO:0051482 10.21 OPRL1 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
10 visual learning GO:0008542 10.2 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
11 response to nicotine GO:0035094 10.19 DRD2 PENK SLC6A3
12 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040018 10.18 SLC6A3 DRD2 CREB1
13 response to radiation GO:0009314 10.18 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1
14 response to amphetamine GO:0001975 10.18 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
15 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 10.18 SLC6A3 PENK OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
16 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 10.17 DRD2 DRD3 OPRL1
17 behavioral fear response GO:0001662 10.17 PENK DRD4 DRD1
18 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007193 10.17 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
19 arachidonic acid secretion GO:0050482 10.16 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
20 temperature homeostasis GO:0001659 10.15 HCRT DRD2 DRD1
21 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 10.15 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4 OPRL1
22 negative regulation of protein secretion GO:0050709 10.14 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
23 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 10.14 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
24 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 10.14 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
25 adenylate cyclase-activating adrenergic receptor signaling pathway GO:0071880 10.13 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
26 estrous cycle GO:0044849 10.12 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1
27 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 10.11 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
28 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 10.1 SLC6A3 DRD4 DRD1
29 eating behavior GO:0042755 10.1 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 HCRT
30 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 10.09 DRD2 DRD4 OPRM1
31 phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060158 10.09 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1
32 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 10.07 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
33 dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007212 10.06 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
34 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 10.06 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3
35 response to ethanol GO:0045471 10.06 DRD2 DRD3 FOS OPRK1 OPRM1 PENK
36 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 10.04 DRD1 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
37 negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051481 10.03 DRD3 DRD2
38 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 10.03 SLC6A3 DRD2
39 hyaloid vascular plexus regression GO:1990384 10.03 SLC6A3 DRD2
40 response to histamine GO:0034776 10.03 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
41 G protein-coupled opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0038003 10.03 OPRD1 OPRK1 OPRL1 OPRM1
42 cerebral cortex GABAergic interneuron migration GO:0021853 10.02 DRD1 DRD2
43 dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051583 10.02 DRD2 SLC6A3
44 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0106072 10.02 OPRL1 OPRM1
45 response to morphine GO:0043278 10.02 PENK OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD3 DRD2
46 regulation of potassium ion transport GO:0043266 10.01 DRD3 DRD2
47 dopamine transport GO:0015872 10.01 SLC6A3 DRD1
48 conditioned place preference GO:1990708 10.01 OPRL1 OPRK1
49 positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051586 9.99 DRD4 DRD2
50 acid secretion GO:0046717 9.99 DRD3 DRD2

Molecular functions related to Opiate Dependence according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor activity GO:0004930 10.35 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD4 DRD3
2 peptide binding GO:0042277 10.06 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
3 neuropeptide binding GO:0042923 10.03 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
4 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 10.01 HCRT NPFF PENK PNOC
5 opioid receptor binding GO:0031628 9.85 PNOC PENK PDYN
6 receptor serine/threonine kinase binding GO:0033612 9.8 OPRK1 OPRD1
7 opioid peptide activity GO:0001515 9.8 PNOC PENK PDYN
8 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.76 SLC6A3 DRD4 DRD2 DRD1
9 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.73 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
10 G protein-coupled opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 9.43 OPRM1 OPRL1 OPRK1 OPRD1
11 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.1 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2 DRD1

Sources for Opiate Dependence

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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