Aliases & Classifications for Opioid Abuse

Summaries for Opioid Abuse

Disease Ontology : 12 A substance abuse that involves the recurring use of opioid drugs despite negative consequences.

MalaCards based summary : Opioid Abuse is related to drug dependence and schizophrenia. An important gene associated with Opioid Abuse is OPRM1 (Opioid Receptor Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Circadian entrainment and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. The drugs Morphine and Methadone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, brain and skin, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and growth/size/body region

Related Diseases for Opioid Abuse

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Opioid Abuse:



Diseases related to Opioid Abuse

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Opioid Abuse

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Opioid Abuse:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.02 DRD2 GRIN3B MAPK10 OPRM1 CCK PDYN
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.8 CCKBR DRD2 GRIN3B OPRM1 PDYN CCKAR
3 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.72 CCKBR DRD2 OPRM1 PDYN CCKAR
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.7 CCKBR DRD2 MAPK10 OPRM1 CCK PDYN
5 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.35 DRD2 MAPK10 OPRM1 CCK PDYN
6 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.02 DRD2 CCK CCKAR PGAP3 CCKBR

Drugs & Therapeutics for Opioid Abuse

Drugs for Opioid Abuse (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 127)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable 57-27-2 5288826
2
Methadone Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 76-99-3 4095
3
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
4
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
5
Ketorolac Approved Phase 4 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
6
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1 16590-41-3 5360515
7 Analgesics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
8 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
9 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
10 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
11 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
12 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
13 Narcotics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
14 Opiate Alkaloids Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
15 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4,Phase 2
16 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
17 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
18 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
19 Antipyretics Phase 4
20 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
21 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
22 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 4
23 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
24 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
25 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 4 111974-72-2
26 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4
27
Dextromethorphan Approved Phase 3 125-71-3 5360696 5362449
28
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 93-14-1 3516
29
Heroin Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 561-27-3 5462328
30
Dopamine Approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
31
Cocaine Approved, Illicit Phase 2, Phase 3 50-36-2 5760 446220
32
Buprenorphine Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 52485-79-7 40400 644073
33
Naloxone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 465-65-6 5284596
34
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 19982-08-2 4054
35 Antitussive Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
36 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
37 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 3,Phase 2
38 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 3,Phase 2
39 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
40 Respiratory System Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
41 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
42 Dopamine Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Phase 1
43 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
44 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
45 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
46 Buprenorphine, Naloxone Drug Combination Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3,Not Applicable
47 Charcoal Phase 3
48
Armodafinil Approved, Investigational Phase 2 112111-43-0
49
Citalopram Approved Phase 2 59729-33-8 2771
50
Modafinil Approved, Investigational Phase 2 68693-11-8 4236

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 78)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Multimodal Pain Management for Cesarean Delivery Completed NCT02922985 Phase 4 Intravenous acetominophen;Ketorolac, intramuscular;Bupivacaine, subcutaneous;Normal saline
2 Conversion to Embeda With Rescue Trial Terminated NCT01179191 Phase 4 morphine sulfate and naltrexone hydrochloride (EMBEDA)
3 Anxiety in Recovering Opiate Dependence Terminated NCT00668265 Phase 4 Quetiapine
4 Combined Therapy of Methadone and Dextromethrophan Unknown status NCT01189097 Phase 3 Dextromethorphan;Dextromethorphan
5 Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS) Completed NCT00316277 Phase 3
6 Memantine as a Supplement to Naltrexone in Treating Heroin Dependence Completed NCT00476242 Phase 2, Phase 3 Vivitrol;memantine
7 Cocaine Use Reduction With Buprenorphine Completed NCT01402492 Phase 2, Phase 3 Buprenorphine + Naltrexone;Placebo + Naltrexone
8 Buprenorphine Group Medical Visits in Primary Care Recruiting NCT02526212 Phase 3 Buprenorphine
9 Healthy Adult Male Facial Skin Surface Lipid Pheromone p.o. to Treat Opioid Addiction Not yet recruiting NCT03394911 Phase 3
10 Cell Phone Technology Targeting ART Adherence and Drug Use Unknown status NCT01884233 Phase 2
11 Pharmacotherapy Dosing Regimen in Cocaine and Opiate Dependent Individuals - 8 Unknown status NCT00218036 Phase 2 Modafinil 200mg;Modafinil 400mg;Citalopram 20mg;Citalopram 40mg;Placebo
12 Prescription Opioid Abuse Among Pain Patients: Predictors of Relapse Completed NCT01967641 Phase 2 buprenorphine/naloxone combination
13 Study of the Abuse Liability of Oxycodone HCl/Niacin in Subjects With a History of Opioid Abuse Completed NCT00699010 Phase 2 Niacin;Oxycodone HCL plus Niacin;Placebo;Oxycodone HCL plus Niacin;Oxycodone HCl
14 Effective Treatment for Prescription Opioid Abuse Completed NCT00719095 Phase 2 buprenorphine taper followed by naltrexone maintenance
15 Study to Evaluate the Subjective Effects of PTI-801 in Non-Physically Dependent Subjects With a History of Drug Abuse Completed NCT00734461 Phase 2 oxycodone and naltrexone
16 Effects of Pioglitazone, a PPARgamma Receptor Agonist, on the Abuse Liability of Oxycodone Completed NCT01395784 Phase 2 pioglitazone
17 Study of the Relative Abuse Potential of Acurox Tablets in Non-Dependent Recreational Opioid Users Completed NCT01030406 Phase 2 Drug A;Drug B;Drug C;Drug D;Placebo
18 Effects of Ibudilast on Oxycodone Self-administration in Opioid Abusers Completed NCT01740414 Phase 2 MN-166 (50 mg) First;Placebo First
19 A Within Subject Comparison of Opioid Withdrawal in Opioid Dependent Individuals Completed NCT01136356 Phase 1, Phase 2 buprenorphine;morphine
20 Prescription Opioid Effects in Abusers Versus Non-Abusers Completed NCT00158184 Phase 2 oxycodone 15 mg;oxycodone 30 mg;Placebo 0 mg
21 Medication Adherence Therapy for Opioid Abusing Pain Patients Completed NCT00249587 Phase 1, Phase 2 Methadone
22 Incentive-based Smoking Cessation for Methadone Patients Completed NCT00718835 Phase 2
23 The Discriminative Effects of Tramadol in Humans Completed NCT00499746 Phase 1, Phase 2 tramadol;placebo;Hydromorphone;Methylphenidate
24 Buprenorphine as a Treatment for Individuals Dependent on Analgesic Opioids Completed NCT00218101 Phase 2 Buprenorphine
25 Contingency Management for Smoking in Substance Abusers Completed NCT00683033 Phase 2
26 Buprenorphine's Dose Response Curve Completed NCT00460239 Phase 2 Buprenorphine;Morphine;Placebo
27 Interim Buprenorphine Treatment to Bridge Waitlist Delays: Stage II Evaluation Recruiting NCT03420313 Phase 2 Buprenorphine/naloxone sublingual tablets
28 NT-814: Evaluation of Its Ability to Alter the Abuse Liability of Oxycodone in an Exploratory Clinical Study Recruiting NCT02692157 Phase 1, Phase 2 Placebo;NT-814 50 mg;NT-814 100 mg;NT-814 200 mg
29 Evaluation of Doxazosin to Alter the Abuse of Oxycodone Recruiting NCT03415581 Phase 2 Intranasal Oxycodone
30 A Study to Evaluate the Abuse Potential of Oxymorphone Compared to Other Mu Opioid Agonists. Not yet recruiting NCT03389750 Phase 2 Intravenous Challege Drug
31 Nasal Human Abuse Potential of PTI-821 Completed NCT03475862 Phase 1 PTI-821 capsule Manipulated;PTI-821 Non-manipulated;OxyContin;Oxycodone
32 Abuse Potential of Orally Administered Crushed Embeda Compared to Crushed Controlled-Release Morphine and Placebo in Non-Dependent Recreational Opioid Users Completed NCT01380093 Phase 1 Placebo;MS Contin (morphine sulfate, controlled release);EMBEDA (morphine sulfate / naltrexone hydrochloride)
33 Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Chronic Pain Patients Receiving Opioid Therapy Completed NCT01505101 Phase 1
34 Effects of Posaconazole and Voriconazole on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Sublingual Buprenorphine Completed NCT01367808 Phase 1 Placebo;vorikonazole;posakonazole
35 Effects of Voriconazole on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oral Buprenorphine: A Two-phase Cross-over Study in Healthy Subjects Completed NCT01466803 Phase 1 Placebo;Vorikonazole
36 Abuse Potential Assessment of Intranasally Administered EMBEDA Compared To Morphine Sulfate Controlled Release And Placebo Completed NCT01595867 Phase 1 Placebo;EMBEDA - morphine sulfate/ naltrexone hydrochloride;morphine sulfate CR crushed.
37 Drug Interaction and Subjective Effects of Compounds for Opioid Use Disorder Recruiting NCT03143855 Phase 1 Lorcaserin;Placebo
38 Pain, Opioids and Pro-Inflammatory Immune Responses Terminated NCT01210066 Phase 1 Fentanyl
39 Study of Opioid Immunosuppressive Effects Unknown status NCT01881802
40 Methadone Maintenance Treatment Outcome Study in Taiwan Unknown status NCT01093248
41 Mobile Health Cognitive Stimulation in Heroin Users Unknown status NCT02308878 Not Applicable
42 The CORE Buprenorphine Project - An HIV Primary Care Program Demonstration Completed NCT00227357 On-site - buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone);Off-site - methadone or no agonist
43 Opioid Prescribing After Cesarean Delivery Completed NCT03168425 Not Applicable
44 Pilot Trial of Opioid Taper Support Completed NCT01883882 Not Applicable
45 Blockade Efficacy of Buprenorphine/Naloxone For Opioid Dependence Completed NCT00134888 Not Applicable Buprenorphine/naloxone
46 Aprepitant Effects on Oxycodone Response Completed NCT00999544 Not Applicable Aprepitant 0mg;Aprepitant 40mg;Aprepitant 200mg;Oxycodone 0mg, p.o.;Oxycodone 20mg, p.o.;Oxycodone 40mg, p.o.;Oxycodone 0mg, IN;Oxycodone 15mg, IN;Oxycodone 30mg, IN
47 Pharmacogenomics Study of Sleep Disturbance and Neurocognitive Impairments in the Opioid Addicts Completed NCT01668706
48 Taste Acuity and Caloric Intake After Acute Morphine Administration Completed NCT01763697 Not Applicable
49 Pain Management Using Mobile Technology in Veterans With PTSD and TBI Completed NCT02237885 Not Applicable
50 RESPECT-PLUS: Services for Infants With Prenatal Opiate Exposure Completed NCT02334111 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Opioid Abuse

Genetic Tests for Opioid Abuse

Anatomical Context for Opioid Abuse

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Opioid Abuse:

41
Testes, Brain, Skin, B Cells, Heart

Publications for Opioid Abuse

Articles related to Opioid Abuse:

(show top 50) (show all 256)
# Title Authors Year
1
Long-term opioid users with chronic noncancer pain: Assessment of opioid abuse risk and relationship with healthcare resource use. ( 29733099 )
2018
2
Causal Analysis in Evaluating Complex Health Interventions: Identifying the Optimal Treatment for Opioid Abuse in Pregnancy. ( 29572908 )
2018
3
The prescription opioid abuse crisis and our role in it. ( 29964241 )
2018
4
The Public and the Opioid-Abuse Epidemic. ( 29298128 )
2018
5
Blocking interleukin-4 enhances efficacy of vaccines for treatment of opioid abuse and prevention of opioid overdose. ( 29615715 )
2018
6
The role of managed care professionals and pharmacists in combating opioid abuse. ( 29851451 )
2018
7
Opioid Abuse or Dependence Increases 30-day Readmission Rates after Major Operating Room Procedures: A National Readmissions Database Study. ( 29470180 )
2018
8
Tramadol (opioid) abuse is associated with a dose- and time-dependent poor sperm quality and hyperprolactinaemia in young men. ( 29781510 )
2018
9
The FDA's Latest Response to Opioid Abuse and Overdose. ( 29280800 )
2018
10
Opioid Abuse and Death: Thoughts From Dayton, Ohio. ( 29933441 )
2018
11
Chronic pain and opioid abuse: Factors associated with health-related quality of life. ( 29160596 )
2017
12
Interprofessional prescription opioid abuse communication among prescribers and pharmacists: A qualitative analysis. ( 28799863 )
2017
13
Toolkit aims to make adolescents aware of dangers of opioid abuse. ( 28483935 )
2017
14
The Economic Burden of Opioid Abuse: Updated Findings. ( 28345440 )
2017
15
Screening tools to assess risk of opioid abuse in the Canadian primary healthcare setting. ( 28346282 )
2017
16
Prescription Opioid Abuse in Chronic Pain: An Updated Review of Opioid Abuse Predictors and Strategies to Curb Opioid Abuse (Part 2). ( 28226334 )
2017
17
Review of Factors, Methods, and Outcome Definition in Designing Opioid Abuse Predictive Models. ( 29016966 )
2017
18
The Use of Continuous Ketamine for Analgesia and Sedation in Critically Ill Patients with Opioid Abuse: A Case Series. ( 29967888 )
2017
19
Collaboration Needed: Pain Care and Opioid Abuse. ( 27681886 )
2017
20
Prescription opioid abuse in prison settings: A systematic review of prevalence, practice and treatment responses. ( 28086177 )
2017
21
Medical outcomes associated with prescription opioid abuse via oral and non-oral routes of administration. ( 28414990 )
2017
22
"I am in pain": is it really the magic formula to open the door of opioid abuse? ( 28726366 )
2017
23
Opioid Abuse And Poisoning: Trends In Inpatient And Emergency Department Discharges. ( 28971919 )
2017
24
Epidemiology of Opioid Abuse and Addiction. ( 28372767 )
2017
25
The ALERRT(Ar) instrument: a quantitative measure of the effort required to compromise prescription opioid abuse-deterrent tablets. ( 28448223 )
2017
26
Treating postoperative pain in the patient who is in recovery or remission from opioid abuse: Focus on Tapentadol. ( 29441514 )
2017
27
Prescription Opioid Abuse in Chronic Pain: An Updated Review of Opioid Abuse Predictors and Strategies to Curb Opioid Abuse: Part 1. ( 28226333 )
2017
28
You never know when you'll need a Vicodin: An era of opioid abuse. ( 28400252 )
2017
29
Drivers of excess costs of opioid abuse among a commercially insured population. ( 28738684 )
2017
30
Corrigendum: The effect of an abuse-deterrent opioid formulation (OxyContin) on opioid abuse-related outcomes in the postmarketing setting. ( 28318019 )
2017
31
Macroeconomic conditions and opioid abuse. ( 29128677 )
2017
32
The Opioid Abuse Risk Screener predicts aberrant same-day urine drug tests and 1-year controlled substance database checks: A brief report. ( 29379630 )
2017
33
Identification of Opioid Abuse or Dependence: No Tool Is Perfect. ( 28215952 )
2017
34
An overview of available drugs for management of opioid abuse during pregnancy. ( 28203387 )
2017
35
Opioid Abuse: A Detailed Examination of Cost Drivers over a 24-Month Follow-up Period. ( 29083966 )
2017
36
Educational intervention for physicians to address the risk of opioid abuse. ( 29199396 )
2017
37
Marshaling FDA Benefit-Risk Expertise to Address the Current Opioid Abuse Epidemic. ( 28687816 )
2017
38
Prescription opioid abuse and misuse: gap between primary-care investigator assessment and actual extent of these behaviors among patients with chronic pain. ( 27782769 )
2017
39
Safety and efficacy of an oxycodone vaccine: Addressing some of the unique considerations posed by opioid abuse. ( 29194445 )
2017
40
Opioid abuse in children: an emerging public health crisis in the United States! ( 28767106 )
2017
41
Rural and Appalachian Disparities in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Incidence and Access to Opioid Abuse Treatment. ( 28685864 )
2017
42
Intranasal tissue necrosis associated with opioid abuse: Case report and systematic review. ( 29280484 )
2017
43
Parental Opioid Abuse: Barriers to Care, Policy, and Implications for Primary Care Pediatric Providers. ( 28760315 )
2017
44
Doctors must play a leading role in winning the battle against opioid abuse. ( 27526476 )
2016
45
The Opioid Abuse Blame Game. ( 27007582 )
2016
46
The Effect of an Abuse-Deterrent Opioid Formulation on Opioid Abuse-Related Outcomes in the Post-Marketing Setting. ( 27170195 )
2016
47
Profile of female patients seeking in-patient treatment for prescription opioid abuse from a tertiary care drug dependence treatment centre from India. ( 26997020 )
2016
48
ADA President Calls on Dentists to Help Curb Opioid Abuse. ( 28741919 )
2016
49
A comparison of an opioid abuse screening tool and prescription drug monitoring data in the emergency department. ( 26743334 )
2016
50
Gender difference in prescription opioid abuse: A focus on oxycodone and hydrocodone. ( 27107788 )
2016

Variations for Opioid Abuse

Expression for Opioid Abuse

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Opioid Abuse.

Pathways for Opioid Abuse

Pathways related to Opioid Abuse according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.49 DRD2 GRIN3B MAPK10 OPRM1
2
Show member pathways
12.43 CCK CCKAR CCKBR DRD2 GRIN3B OPRM1
3
Show member pathways
11.92 CCK CCKBR MAPK10
4
Show member pathways
11.74 DRD2 GRIN3B MAPK10
5
Show member pathways
11.2 DRD2 GRIN3B PDYN
6 10.27 CCK CCKBR

GO Terms for Opioid Abuse

Cellular components related to Opioid Abuse according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 axon GO:0030424 9.43 CCK DRD2 OPRM1
2 dendrite GO:0030425 9.26 CCK DRD2 OPRM1 PDYN
3 axon terminus GO:0043679 9.16 DRD2 PDYN
4 perikaryon GO:0043204 8.8 CCK DRD2 OPRM1

Biological processes related to Opioid Abuse according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 9.99 CCK CCKAR CCKBR DRD2 MAPK10 OPRM1
2 feeding behavior GO:0007631 9.55 CCKAR DRD2
3 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.54 DRD2 OPRM1
4 axonogenesis GO:0007409 9.54 CCK CCKAR DRD2
5 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.52 DRD2 OPRM1
6 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 9.49 CCK OPRM1
7 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity GO:0007194 9.48 DRD2 OPRM1
8 response to light stimulus GO:0009416 9.46 DRD2 MAPK10
9 eating behavior GO:0042755 9.43 CCK OPRM1
10 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.43 DRD2 GRIN3B OPRM1
11 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 9.43 CCK CCKAR CCKBR DRD2 OPRM1 PDYN
12 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.4 DRD2 OPRM1
13 phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.33 CCKAR CCKBR OPRM1
14 sensory perception GO:0007600 9.32 OPRM1 PDYN
15 cholecystokinin signaling pathway GO:0038188 8.62 CCKAR CCKBR

Molecular functions related to Opioid Abuse according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G-protein coupled receptor activity GO:0004930 9.62 CCKAR CCKBR DRD2 OPRM1
2 peptide hormone binding GO:0017046 9.26 CCKAR CCKBR
3 obsolete signal transducer activity GO:0004871 9.26 CCKAR CCKBR DRD2 OPRM1
4 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 9.16 CCK PDYN
5 cholecystokinin receptor activity GO:0004951 8.62 CCKAR CCKBR

Sources for Opioid Abuse

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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