MCID: OPD006
MIFTS: 48

Opioid Addiction

Categories: Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Opioid Addiction

MalaCards integrated aliases for Opioid Addiction:

Name: Opioid Addiction 43
Opiate Addiction 43 70
Opiate Dependence 43
Opioid Dependence 43

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 70 C0524662

Summaries for Opioid Addiction

MedlinePlus Genetics : 43 Opioid addiction is a long-lasting (chronic) disease that can cause major health, social, and economic problems. Opioids are a class of drugs that act in the nervous system to produce feelings of pleasure and pain relief. Some opioids are legally prescribed by healthcare providers to manage severe and chronic pain. Commonly prescribed opioids include oxycodone, fentanyl, buprenorphine, methadone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, codeine, and morphine. Some other opioids, such as heroin, are illegal drugs of abuse.Opioid addiction is characterized by a powerful, compulsive urge to use opioid drugs, even when they are no longer required medically. Opioids have a high potential for causing addiction in some people, even when the medications are prescribed appropriately and taken as directed. Many prescription opioids are misused or diverted to others. Individuals who become addicted may prioritize getting and using these drugs over other activities in their lives, often negatively impacting their professional and personal relationships. It is unknown why some people are more likely to become addicted than others.Opioids change the chemistry of the brain and lead to drug tolerance, which means that over time the dose needs to be increased to achieve the same effect. Taking opioids over a long period of time produces dependence, such that when people stop taking the drug, they have physical and psychological symptoms of withdrawal (such as muscle cramping, diarrhea, and anxiety). Dependence is not the same thing as addiction; although everyone who takes opioids for an extended period will become dependent, only a small percentage also experience the compulsive, continuing need for the drug that characterizes addiction.Opioid addiction can cause life-threatening health problems, including the risk of overdose. Overdose occurs when high doses of opioids cause breathing to slow or stop, leading to unconsciousness and death if the overdose is not treated immediately. Both legal and illegal opioids carry a risk of overdose if a person takes too much of the drug, or if opioids are combined with other drugs (particularly tranquilizers called benzodiazepines).

MalaCards based summary : Opioid Addiction, also known as opiate addiction, is related to opiate dependence and substance abuse. An important gene associated with Opioid Addiction is OPRM1 (Opioid Receptor Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signaling by GPCR and Circadian entrainment. The drugs Lofexidine and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include cortex, brain and prefrontal cortex, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and endocrine/exocrine gland

Related Diseases for Opioid Addiction

Diseases related to Opioid Addiction via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 168)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 opiate dependence 31.0 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2
2 substance abuse 30.9 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT
3 chronic pain 30.8 PNOC OPRM1 COMT
4 withdrawal disorder 30.4 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1
5 polysubstance abuse 30.3 DRD2 COMT
6 cyclothymic disorder 30.3 DRD2 COMT
7 tobacco addiction 30.2 OPRM1 DRD2 CYP2B6 COMT
8 headache 30.1 COMT CCK ABCB1
9 alcohol use disorder 30.1 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT
10 panic disorder 29.9 DRD2 COMT CCKBR CCKAR CCK
11 opioid abuse 29.9 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2 CCK
12 obsessive-compulsive disorder 29.9 GRIN2A DRD2 COMT CCK
13 cocaine dependence 29.8 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2 COMT
14 heroin dependence 29.7 OPRM1 OPRD1 DRD2 COMT
15 morphine dependence 29.7 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CCK
16 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 29.7 OPRM1 GRIN2A DRD2 COMT ABCB1
17 substance dependence 29.6 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2 COMT
18 major depressive disorder 29.5 OPRM1 GRIN2A DRD2 CYP2B6 CRHBP COMT
19 drug dependence 29.4 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2
20 fibromyalgia 29.4 PNOC OPRM1 GRIN2D COMT
21 pertussis 29.2 OPRM1 MAPK3 MAPK1
22 neonatal abstinence syndrome 29.2 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CYP2B6 COMT
23 pain agnosia 29.1 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 COMT CCK
24 anxiety 28.7 PNOC OPRM1 GRIN2A DRD2 CRHBP COMT
25 alcohol dependence 28.5 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 GRIN2A DRD2
26 autism 28.3 VIPR2 OPRM1 MAPK3 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A
27 schizophrenia 27.7 VIPR2 PNOC OPRM1 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A
28 disease of mental health 25.6 VIPR2 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 MAPK3
29 opioid dependence 1 11.6
30 kleptomania 10.3 DRD2 COMT
31 acalculous cholecystitis 10.3 CCKAR CCK
32 tardive dyskinesia 10.3 DRD2 COMT
33 sexual disorder 10.2
34 impulse control disorder 10.2 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT
35 pathological gambling 10.2 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT
36 drug psychosis 10.2 DRD2 COMT
37 drug-induced mental disorder 10.2 DRD2 COMT
38 social phobia 10.2 DRD2 COMT CCK
39 personality disorder 10.2
40 gastroparesis 10.2 DRD2 CCK ABCB1
41 high pressure neurological syndrome 10.2 GRIN2D GRIN2A
42 bulimia nervosa 10.2 DRD2 COMT CCK
43 functionless pituitary adenoma 10.2 CCKBR CCKAR CCK
44 bestiality 10.2 DRD2 COMT
45 hepatitis c 10.1
46 substance-induced psychosis 10.1 DRD2 COMT
47 eating disorder 10.1 OPRM1 DRD2 COMT CCK
48 pedophilia 10.1
49 major affective disorder 8 10.1
50 major affective disorder 9 10.1

Comorbidity relations with Opioid Addiction via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Acute Cystitis Anxiety
Deficiency Anemia Dysthymic Disorder
Heart Disease Hypertension, Essential
Major Depressive Disorder Osteoporosis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Opioid Addiction:



Diseases related to Opioid Addiction

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Opioid Addiction

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Opioid Addiction:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.3 ABCB1 CCK CCKAR CCKBR COMT CRHBP
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10 ABCB1 CCK CCKAR CCKBR COMT DRD2
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10 ABCB1 CCK CCKAR CCKBR COMT DRD2
4 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.92 ABCB1 CCKAR CCKBR DRD2 MAPK1 MAPK3
5 integument MP:0010771 9.65 CCKBR DRD2 GRIN2A GRIN2D MAPK1 MAPK3
6 nervous system MP:0003631 9.44 ABCB1 CCK CCKAR CCKBR COMT DRD2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Opioid Addiction

Drugs for Opioid Addiction (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 192)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Lofexidine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 31036-80-3 30668
2
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
3
Hydromorphone Approved, Illicit Phase 4 466-99-9 5284570
4
Ribavirin Approved Phase 4 36791-04-5 37542
5
Peginterferon alfa-2b Approved Phase 4 215647-85-1, 99210-65-8
6
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 6740-88-1 3821
7
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
8
Diazepam Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 439-14-5 3016
9
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
10
Nevirapine Approved Phase 4 129618-40-2 4463
11
Ondansetron Approved Phase 4 99614-02-5 4595
12
Sufentanil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56030-54-7 41693
13
Isoniazid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54-85-3 3767
14
Rifapentine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 61379-65-5 6323497
15
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
16
Parathyroid hormone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9002-64-6
17
Codeine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 76-57-3 5284371
18
Velpatasvir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1377049-84-7 67683363
19
Sofosbuvir Approved Phase 4 1190307-88-0 45375808
20
Methadone Approved Phase 4 76-99-3 4095
21
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
22
Trichostatin A Experimental Phase 4 58880-19-6
23 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
24 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
25 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
26 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
27 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
28 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
29 Antiemetics Phase 4
30 GABA Modulators Phase 4
31 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
32 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
33 Anesthetics Phase 4
34 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
35 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
36 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 4
37 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 4
38 interferons Phase 4
39 Interferon alpha-2 Phase 4
40 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
41 Interferon-alpha Phase 4
42 Anesthetics, Dissociative Phase 4
43 Desvenlafaxine Succinate Phase 4 386750-22-7
44 Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors Phase 4
45 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Phase 4
46 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
47 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4
48 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4
49 Antipyretics Phase 4
50 Antiviral Agents Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 366)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 SPNS Buprenorphine and Integrated HIV Care Evaluation and Support Center: Integration of Buprenorphine and HIV Treatment Using the OASIS Model Unknown status NCT00241930 Phase 4
2 A Multicenter Safety Trial of Buprenorphine/Naloxone for the Treatment of Opiate Dependence Completed NCT00007527 Phase 4 naloxone;buprenorphine
3 A Phase 4, Pilot, Open-label Study of VIVITROL in the Prevention of Re-arrest and Re-incarceration Completed NCT01453374 Phase 4 VIVITROL 380mg
4 A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Buprenorphine and Methadone for Treatment in Opioid Dependent Chronic Back Pain Patients Completed NCT01559454 Phase 4 Methadone;Buprenorphine/naloxone
5 Integrating Buprenorphine Into the SFGH AIDS Program (Patient Evaluation Study) Completed NCT00263458 Phase 4
6 A Single Center, Randomized, 2 Way Cross-Over, Phase 4 Study Comparing Usability of Zubsolv Sublingual Tablets 5.7/1.4 to Suboxone Sublingual Film 8/2 Including Ease of Use, Taste Preference, Dissolution Time, Desire to Abuse, and Overall Acceptance In Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treated Opioid Dependent Population Completed NCT02038790 Phase 4 Suboxone Sublingual Film;Zubsolv sublingual tablets
7 Health Services Research: Extended Release Naltrexone for Opioid-Dependent Youth Completed NCT01843023 Phase 4 Extended Release Naltrexone;Buprenorphine
8 Feasibility, Mechanism of Action and Potential Side Effects of Extended Release Depot Naltrexone in Opioid Dependent Patients Completed NCT01471145 Phase 4 Naltrexone
9 A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Buprenorphine and Methadone for Opioid Dependent Chronic Pain Patients Completed NCT00879996 Phase 4 Methadone;Buprenorphine/naloxone
10 Buprenorphine Maintenance vs. Detoxification in Prescription Opioid Dependence Completed NCT00555425 Phase 4
11 A Randomized Acceptability and Safety Study of the Transfer From Subutex to Suboxone in Opioid- Dependent Subjects Completed NCT00605033 Phase 4 Suboxone, Buprenorphine Hydrochloride + Naloxone, SCH 484;Subutex, Buprenorphine Hydrochloride, SCH 28444
12 A Feasibility Study for Testing the Effects of Extended-release Naltrexone (Vivitrol) on Recidivism and Other Participant Outcomes in Drug Court Settings Completed NCT02978417 Phase 4 Naltrexone for extended-release injectable suspension;Oral naltrexone
13 Hepatitis C in a Cohort of Patients With Maintenance Therapy for Opiate Dependence - Prevalence, Severity and Outcome of Antiviral Therapy Completed NCT01045278 Phase 4 Pegylated interferon-alfa-2b and ribavirin
14 Naltrexone: Consummatory Behaviors in Alcoholic Women Completed NCT00000448 Phase 4 naltrexone;Placebo
15 A Randomized Acceptability and Safety Study of Suboxone Induction in Heroin Users Completed NCT00604188 Phase 4 Suboxone (SCH 000484);Subutex (SCH 028444)
16 An Open Multi-center Trial of Suboxone® (Buprenorphine/Naloxone) Treatment Among Opiate-Dependent Subjects Completed NCT00901875 Phase 4 Buprenorphine + naloxone (Suboxone);Buprenorphine + naloxone (Suboxone)
17 Counseling for Primary Care Office-based Buprenorphine Completed NCT00595764 Phase 4
18 Effects of Ketamine On Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal Under General Anaesthesia Completed NCT00300794 Phase 4 Ketamine
19 Treatment of Polydrug-Using Opiate Dependents During Withdrawal Completed NCT00367874 Phase 4 Buprenorphine;Valproate
20 A Double-blind Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial of Lofexidine Versus Diazepam in the Management of the Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome During Inpatient Detoxification in Singapore Completed NCT01675648 Phase 4 Lofexidine;Diazepam;Placebo for Lofexidine;Placebo for Diazepam
21 Buprenorphine Extended-release in Jail and at Re-entry: Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial vs. Daily Sublingual Buprenorphine-naloxone Completed NCT03604159 Phase 4 Buprenorphine Extended Release;Sublingual Buprenorphine (SUBOXONE, Zubsolv, or generic tablets)
22 Relapse Prevention to Reduce HIV Among Women Prisoners Completed NCT00763958 Phase 4 Placebo;Buprenorphine
23 Buprenorphine/Nx Treatment of Heroin Dependence-A Compassionate Use Study Completed NCT00015340 Phase 4 Buprenorphine/naloxone
24 A Multi-center, Open-Label, 24-Week, Follow-Up Study to Assess Safety, Efficacy, and Treatment Adherence For Maintenance Treatment of Opioid Dependence With OX219 Completed NCT01903005 Phase 4 Higher bioavailability BNX sublingual tablets
25 A Multicentre, Randomised, Open-label, Active-controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Buprenorphine/Naloxone in Reducing Intravenous Buprenorphine Misuse in France Completed NCT00955162 Phase 4 Buprenorphine (Subutex);Buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone)
26 VIVITROL® (Naltrexone for Extended Release Injectable Suspension (XR-NTX)) for Opioid Dependent Inmates Released From Prison Completed NCT01563718 Phase 4 naltrexone for extended release injectable suspension
27 Evaluation of Preference for a Buprenorphine-based Maintenance Therapy, After a Switch From Buprenorphine Alone (Subutex®) to the Buprenorphine/Naloxone Combination (Suboxone®), in Opioid-dependent Patients With Buprenorphine Maintenance Therapy Completed NCT00684073 Phase 4 buprenorphine;buprenorphine/naloxone
28 Hydromorphone PCA or Hydromorphone PCA With Ketamine for Acute Postoperative Pain Relief in Opioid-Dependent Chronic Pain Patients Completed NCT01591382 Phase 4 Ketamine;Placebo;Hydromorphone PCA
29 An Open-Label Pilot Study of Desvenlafaxine for Opioid-Dependent Patients With Comorbid Depression Completed NCT02200406 Phase 4 Desvenlafaxine
30 A Pharmacokinetic Study to Evaluate the Interaction Between Nevirapine (Viramune®) and Methadone in HIV-1 Infected, Opioid-dependent Adults on Stable Methadone Maintenance Therapy Completed NCT00273988 Phase 4 nevirapine
31 The Effect of Intraoperative Ketamine on Opioid Consumption and Pain After Spine Surgery in Opioid-dependent Patients Completed NCT02085577 Phase 4 (S)-(+)-Ketamine Hydrochloride Solution 25 mg/ml;Isotonic sodium chloride 0.9 percent;Paracetamol 1 g;Morphine Sulphate 1 mg/ml;Morphine Sulphate 1 mg/ml;Ondansetron 2 mg/ml;Usual daily opioids;Morphine Sulphate 1 mg/ml;Sufentanil 5 microgram/ml
32 Neurocomputational Mechanisms of Mood Improvement Recruiting NCT04276259 Phase 4 Buprenorphine;Naltrexone;Oral Placebo;IM Placebo
33 Long Acting Naltrexone for Opioid Addiction: the Importance of Mental, Physical and Societal Factors for Sustained Abstinence and Recovery Recruiting NCT03647774 Phase 4 Extended release naltrexone
34 Houston Emergency Opioid Engagement System (HEROES) Recruiting NCT03396276 Phase 4 Suboxone
35 Addiction, HIV and Tuberculosis in Malaysian Criminal Justice Settings Recruiting NCT03089983 Phase 4 Buprenorphine Naloxone;Methadone;Isoniazid;Rifapentine
36 Minimizing Narcotic Analgesics After Thyroid or Parathyroid Surgery Active, not recruiting NCT03469310 Phase 4 Acetaminophen 500Mg Cap;Tylenol #3 Oral Tablet;Tramadol
37 Bridging Care to HCV Treatment Among Opiate Dependent Patients on Buprenorphine/Naloxone Maintenance Therapy: A Pilot Study of Treating HCV With Epclusa at a Psychiatrist-staffed Outpatient Addiction Clinic Active, not recruiting NCT03235154 Phase 4 sofosbuvir/velpatasvir
38 Biomarkers of Disease and Response to Treatment in Opioid Addiction Active, not recruiting NCT02324725 Phase 4 Naltrexone
39 Overlapping Buprenorphine Initiation and Full Agonist Opioid Discontinuation Among Patients on High-dose Long-term Full Agonist Opioid Therapy Who Have Opioid Physical Dependence Not yet recruiting NCT04228250 Phase 4 Stepwise increase in buprenorphine while continuing full agonist opioid until buprenorphine reaches therapeutic dose
40 A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing Buprenorphine as a Treatment in Opiate Dependent Pain Patients Terminated NCT00552578 Phase 4 buprenorphine/naloxone;buprenorphine/naloxone
41 A Prospective, Sixteen-Week, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Seroquel in Combination With Treatment as Usual in Patients With GAD and Remitted Comorbid Opiate Dependence Terminated NCT00668265 Phase 4 Quetiapine
42 A Single-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Two-Way Crossover Study to Evaluate Whether a Single-Dose Administration of Crushed and Whole EMBEDA Induces Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Signs and Symptoms in Opioid-Dependent Patients With Chronic, Non-Cancer Pain Who Are Stabilized on EMBEDA¿ Terminated NCT01100437 Phase 4 EMBEDA™ (morphine sulfate/naltrexone hydrochloride) crush;EMBEDA™ (morphine sulfate/naltrexone hydrochloride) whole
43 A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Buprenorphine/Naloxone With Naltrexone for Treatment in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults Withdrawn NCT01015066 Phase 4 Buprenorphine/naloxone;Naltrexone
44 An Open-Label, Single-Center Study to Evaluate the Exposure-Response Relationship Between the Plasma Drug Concentrations and the Change From Baseline in QTc at Steady State Following Once-daily Administration of CASSIPA® in Opioid Dependent Subjects. Withdrawn NCT04088266 Phase 4
45 Advances in Opiate Detoxification Using the Combined Hemoperfusion-hemodialysis: A Comparison Study With Conventional Methadone Treatment (HPDMT) Unknown status NCT01021566 Phase 3 Methadone
46 Combined Therapy of Methadone and Dextromethrophan: A Novel Strategy for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence Unknown status NCT01189097 Phase 3 Dextromethorphan;Dextromethorphan
47 Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research Completed NCT00271219 Phase 3 Methadone;Buprenorphine
48 A Randomized, Placebo and Active-Controlled, Multi-Center Study of Probuphine in Patients With Opioid Dependence Completed NCT01114308 Phase 3 Probuphine (buprenorphine implant);placebo implant;Buprenorphine
49 An Open-Label, Multi-Center Extension Study Of Probuphine in Patients With Opioid Dependence Completed NCT00630201 Phase 3 Probuphine (buprenorphine implant)
50 A Phase 3, Six-Month, Open-Label, Re-Treatment Study of Probuphine in Opioid Addiction Completed NCT01262261 Phase 3 Probuphine (buprenorphine implant)

Search NIH Clinical Center for Opioid Addiction

Genetic Tests for Opioid Addiction

Anatomical Context for Opioid Addiction

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Opioid Addiction:

40
Cortex, Brain, Prefrontal Cortex, Amygdala, Cerebellum, Adrenal Gland, Pituitary

Publications for Opioid Addiction

Articles related to Opioid Addiction:

(show top 50) (show all 2077)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Co-administration of nalbuphine attenuates the morphine-induced anxiety and dopaminergic alterations in morphine-withdrawn rats. 61
33655408 2021
2
Looking to the empirical literature on the potential for financial incentives to enhance adherence with COVID-19 vaccination. 61
33422575 2021
3
A review of the existing literature on buprenorphine pharmacogenomics. 61
33154520 2021
4
Stigma and policy preference toward individuals who transition from prescription opioids to heroin. 61
33360280 2021
5
California Poison Control System Implementation of a Novel Hotline to Treat Patients with Opioid Use Disorder. 61
33078365 2021
6
Opioid Use Disorder ECHO: A Program Evaluation of a Project That Provides Knowledge and Builds Capacity for Community Health Workers in Medically Underserved Areas of South Texas. 61
32926794 2021
7
Understanding Opioid Addiction in The Chaldean Community: A Brief Report. 61
33074404 2021
8
Glutamatergic Systems and Memory Mechanisms Underlying Opioid Addiction. 61
32341068 2021
9
Determining the Best Time to Integrate Opioid Use Disorder Training into the Curriculum Based on Student Perceptions. 61
33605687 2021
10
Alterations in neurotransmitter levels and transcription factor expression following intranasal buprenorphine administration. 61
33752062 2021
11
Lack of effect of different pain-related manipulations on opioid self-administration, reinstatement of opioid seeking, and opioid choice in rats. 61
33765177 2021
12
Relative addictive potential of opioid analgesic agents. 61
33300384 2021
13
Impact of three-month morphine withdrawal on rat brain cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum: proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies. 61
33508371 2021
14
The Role of Social Isolation in Opioid Addiction. 61
33681992 2021
15
Preoperative patient opioid education, standardization of prescriptions, and their impact on overall patient satisfaction. 61
33127093 2021
16
Quality of Life in Opioid Replacement Therapy: A Naturalistic Cross-Sectional Comparison of Methadone/Levomethadone, Buprenorphine, and Diamorphine Patients. 61
33784698 2021
17
Methadone-mediated sensitization of glioblastoma cells is drug and cell line dependent. 61
33315125 2021
18
Risk of Chronic Opioid Use After Radiation for Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 61
33728386 2021
19
We Need to Talk About Codeine: an Implementation Study to reduce the number of Emergency Department patients discharged on high-strength co-codamol using the Behaviour Change Wheel. 61
33658270 2021
20
Can a Neighborhood Fall Sick? Opioid Addiction, Collective Violence and Currents of Death in Contemporary India. 61
33715229 2021
21
The Manchurian Plague and COVID-19: China, the United States, and the "Sick Man," Then and Now. 61
33476233 2021
22
Adaptive changes in local field potential oscillation associated with morphine conditioned place preference in mice. 61
33757777 2021
23
Cost-effectiveness of syringe service programs, medications for opioid use disorder, and combination programs in hepatitis C harm reduction among opioid injection drug users: a public payer perspective using a decision tree. 61
33506729 2021
24
Should Patients With Opioid Addiction Have a Second Valve Replacement for Endocarditis? 61
33157057 2021
25
Kappa Opioid Signaling at the Crossroads of Chronic Pain and Opioid Addiction. 61
33547588 2021
26
Identification of a sex-stratified genetic algorithm for opioid addiction risk. 61
33589790 2021
27
The Raphe Dopamine System: Roles in Salience Encoding, Memory Expression, and Addiction. 61
33568331 2021
28
Biotechnologies and the future of opioid addiction treatments. 61
33246267 2021
29
Opium Effect in Pregnancy on the Dynamics of Maternal Behavior: Testing a Neurochemical Model. 61
33611320 2021
30
The North American Opioid Epidemic. 61
33337587 2021
31
Early life adversity promotes resilience to opioid addiction-related phenotypes in male rats and sex-specific transcriptional changes. 61
33593913 2021
32
Potential for Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonists to Engineer Nonaddictive Analgesics: A Narrative Review. 61
33332902 2021
33
Forensic pathological study of methadone-related deaths in the Genoa (Italy) district: A six-year study. 61
33667794 2021
34
Women, opioid use and addiction. 61
33433026 2021
35
Investigating the CYP2B6 rs3745274 and rs3211371 polymorphisms in Methadone-Responder and Non-Responder Addicts in Iran. 61
33546554 2021
36
Activation of trace amine-associated receptor 1 selectively attenuates the reinforcing effects of morphine. 61
33247948 2021
37
Novel circuit biomarker of impulsivity and craving in male heroin-dependent individuals. 61
33360853 2021
38
Pharmacokinetic neuroimaging to study the dose-related brain kinetics and target engagement of buprenorphine in vivo. 61
33603137 2021
39
Opioid prescribing trends: Changes after focused hospital resident education and after subsequent adoption of new state regulations. 61
33735428 2021
40
A vapor exposure method for delivering heroin alters nociception, body temperature and spontaneous activity in female and male rats. 61
33130050 2021
41
Double dissociation of inhibitory effects between the hippocampal TET1 and TET3 in the acquisition of morphine self-administration in rats. 61
32031744 2021
42
Stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial of a novel opioid court to improve identification of need and linkage to medications for opioid use disorder treatment for court-involved adults. 61
33487516 2021
43
The Genomics of Opioid Addiction Longitudinal Study (GOALS): study design for a prospective evaluation of genetic and non-genetic factors for development of and recovery from opioid use disorder. 61
33413350 2021
44
Unilateral transcranial photobiomodulation for opioid addiction in a clinical practice: A clinical overview and case series. 61
33340792 2021
45
Can Extended-release Injectable Medications Help Curb United States and Canada's Opioid Overdose Epidemic? 61
32604134 2021
46
Buprenorphine implants: a model for expedited development and approval of new drugs. 61
33089724 2021
47
Pain Alleviation and Opioid Weaning in an 80-Year-Old with Chronic Foot Pain Following Injection Therapy with Perineural Dexmedetomidine and Dexamethasone. 61
33437869 2021
48
Behavioral predictors of individual differences in opioid addiction vulnerability as measured using i.v. self-administration in rats. 61
33588371 2021
49
Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) in Rats: From Conditioning to Reinstatement Test. 61
32975803 2021
50
Chronic developmental lead exposure increases μ-opiate receptor levels in the adolescent rat brain. 61
33248188 2021

Variations for Opioid Addiction

Expression for Opioid Addiction

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Opioid Addiction.

Pathways for Opioid Addiction

Pathways related to Opioid Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 24)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.86 VIPR2 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 MAPK3
2
Show member pathways
12.77 MAPK3 MAPK1 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A DRD2
3
Show member pathways
12.72 VIPR2 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 GRIN3B
4
Show member pathways
12.63 MAPK3 MAPK1 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A DRD2
5
Show member pathways
12.28 MAPK3 MAPK1 CCKBR CCK
6 12.23 GRIN2D GRIN2A CCKBR CCKAR
7 12.2 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A DRD2
8 11.98 MAPK3 MAPK1 GRIN2D GRIN2A
9
Show member pathways
11.83 CYP2B6 COMT ABCB1
10
Show member pathways
11.83 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A DRD2
11 11.83 VIPR2 MAPK3 MAPK1 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A
12 11.72 MAPK3 MAPK1 CRHBP
13 11.68 MAPK3 MAPK1 DRD2
14
Show member pathways
11.59 MAPK3 MAPK1 GRIN2D GRIN2A DRD2
15
Show member pathways
11.51 CYP2B6 COMT ABCB1
16 11.43 MAPK3 MAPK1 GRIN2D GRIN2A
17 11.27 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A
18 11.23 MAPK3 MAPK1 ABCB1
19 10.98 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A
20
Show member pathways
10.82 MAPK3 MAPK1
21 10.77 MAPK3 MAPK1
22 10.71 CCKBR CCK
23 10.7 MAPK3 MAPK1
24 10.65 MAPK3 MAPK1

GO Terms for Opioid Addiction

Cellular components related to Opioid Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 13)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 membrane GO:0016020 10.4 VIPR2 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 MAPK3 MAPK1
2 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.13 VIPR2 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 MAPK3
3 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.06 VIPR2 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 GRIN2D GRIN2A
4 synapse GO:0045202 9.99 PNOC OPRK1 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A DRD2
5 axon GO:0030424 9.89 OPRM1 MAPK1 DRD2 COMT CCK
6 postsynaptic membrane GO:0045211 9.8 OPRD1 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A COMT
7 dendrite GO:0030425 9.7 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2 CRHBP COMT
8 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.65 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
9 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.62 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2
10 NMDA selective glutamate receptor complex GO:0017146 9.54 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A
11 spine apparatus GO:0097444 9.43 OPRM1 OPRD1
12 perikaryon GO:0043204 9.43 OPRM1 OPRK1 MAPK1 DRD2 CRHBP CCK
13 axon terminus GO:0043679 9.02 PNOC OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2 CRHBP

Biological processes related to Opioid Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 50)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.11 VIPR2 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 MAPK1
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.06 VIPR2 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2
3 response to drug GO:0042493 10.01 GRIN2A DRD2 COMT ABCB1
4 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.99 PNOC OPRK1 MAPK1 GRIN2A
5 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.93 OPRM1 MAPK3 MAPK1 COMT
6 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.88 OPRM1 OPRK1 GRIN2A DRD2
7 axonogenesis GO:0007409 9.87 DRD2 CCKAR CCK
8 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.87 PNOC CRHBP COMT
9 response to toxic substance GO:0009636 9.87 MAPK3 MAPK1 DRD2
10 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.86 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
11 learning or memory GO:0007611 9.84 MAPK1 GRIN2A CRHBP
12 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007193 9.84 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
13 response to estrogen GO:0043627 9.83 OPRK1 MAPK1 COMT
14 long-term synaptic potentiation GO:0060291 9.8 MAPK1 GRIN2D GRIN2A
15 visual learning GO:0008542 9.79 GRIN2A DRD2 CCK
16 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.79 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
17 excitatory postsynaptic potential GO:0060079 9.78 OPRM1 GRIN2D GRIN2A DRD2
18 regulation of NMDA receptor activity GO:2000310 9.75 OPRM1 GRIN2A CRHBP
19 response to morphine GO:0043278 9.74 OPRM1 OPRK1 DRD2
20 cellular response to dopamine GO:1903351 9.71 MAPK3 MAPK1
21 negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051481 9.7 OPRM1 DRD2
22 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.7 OPRK1 DRD2
23 regulation of ossification GO:0030278 9.7 MAPK3 MAPK1
24 ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway GO:0035235 9.7 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A
25 synaptic transmission, dopaminergic GO:0001963 9.69 DRD2 CRHBP
26 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 9.69 GRIN2A DRD2 COMT
27 regulation of stress-activated MAPK cascade GO:0032872 9.68 MAPK3 MAPK1
28 excitatory chemical synaptic transmission GO:0098976 9.68 GRIN2D GRIN2A
29 Bergmann glial cell differentiation GO:0060020 9.68 MAPK3 MAPK1
30 regulation of early endosome to late endosome transport GO:2000641 9.67 MAPK3 MAPK1
31 regulation of cellular pH GO:0030641 9.67 MAPK3 MAPK1
32 startle response GO:0001964 9.67 GRIN2D GRIN2A DRD2
33 positive regulation of macrophage proliferation GO:0120041 9.65 MAPK3 MAPK1
34 calcium ion transmembrane import into cytosol GO:0097553 9.65 GRIN2D GRIN2A
35 regulation of cellular response to stress GO:0080135 9.65 OPRM1 CRHBP
36 outer ear morphogenesis GO:0042473 9.64 MAPK3 MAPK1
37 trachea formation GO:0060440 9.64 MAPK3 MAPK1
38 caveolin-mediated endocytosis GO:0072584 9.63 MAPK3 MAPK1
39 sensory perception GO:0007600 9.63 PNOC OPRM1 OPRK1
40 regulation of Golgi inheritance GO:0090170 9.61 MAPK3 MAPK1
41 opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0038003 9.61 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
42 response to epidermal growth factor GO:0070849 9.6 MAPK3 MAPK1
43 cardiac neural crest cell development involved in heart development GO:0061308 9.59 MAPK3 MAPK1
44 eating behavior GO:0042755 9.56 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CCK
45 cholecystokinin signaling pathway GO:0038188 9.55 CCKBR CCKAR
46 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.55 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CCKBR CCKAR
47 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting opioid receptor signaling pathway GO:0031635 9.54 OPRM1 OPRK1
48 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 9.5 OPRM1 DRD2 CRHBP
49 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.35 OPRM1 OPRK1 MAPK3 MAPK1 GRIN2A
50 regulation of sensory perception of pain GO:0051930 9.1 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 GRIN2D COMT CCK

Molecular functions related to Opioid Addiction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor activity GO:0004930 9.95 VIPR2 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 DRD2 CCKBR
2 peptide hormone binding GO:0017046 9.63 VIPR2 CCKBR CCKAR
3 ligand-gated ion channel activity GO:0015276 9.61 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A
4 neuropeptide binding GO:0042923 9.5 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
5 receptor serine/threonine kinase binding GO:0033612 9.49 OPRK1 OPRD1
6 glutamate-gated calcium ion channel activity GO:0022849 9.48 GRIN2D GRIN2A
7 peptide binding GO:0042277 9.46 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1 CRHBP
8 ionotropic glutamate receptor activity GO:0004970 9.43 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A
9 cholecystokinin receptor activity GO:0004951 9.37 CCKBR CCKAR
10 opioid receptor activity GO:0004985 9.13 OPRM1 OPRK1 OPRD1
11 NMDA glutamate receptor activity GO:0004972 8.8 GRIN3B GRIN2D GRIN2A

Sources for Opioid Addiction

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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