MCID: ORL012
MIFTS: 35

Oral Leukoplakia

Categories: Oral diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Oral Leukoplakia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Oral Leukoplakia:

Name: Oral Leukoplakia 20
Leukoplakia, Oral 70
Leukoplakia Oral 54

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 70 C0023532

Summaries for Oral Leukoplakia

GARD : 20 Oral leukoplakia describes a white plaque that does not rub off and cannot be characterized as any other condition. Though it may occur in any part of the mouth, it generally affects the tongue, gums, and inner cheek. Physicians will usually biopsy oral leukoplakia lesions as 20-40% of cases are precancerous or cancerous at the time of biopsy and another 8-15% become cancerous over time. The exact cause of oral leukoplakia is not known. Factors that may increase the risk of developing oral leukoplakia include smoking, alcohol use, vitamin deficiencies, malocclusion, and a weakened immune system. Treatment depends on the biopsy results and the size, appearance, and location of the oral leukoplakia. Removal or ablation of the lesion by surgery, laser, or cryotherapy (use of low temperature) may be recommended.

MalaCards based summary : Oral Leukoplakia, also known as leukoplakia, oral, is related to leukoplakia and oral cancer. An important gene associated with Oral Leukoplakia is GSTM1 (Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Immune response IFN alpha/beta signaling pathway and DNA Damage. The drugs Celecoxib and Trioxsalen have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, breast and bone marrow.

Related Diseases for Oral Leukoplakia

Diseases related to Oral Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 118)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 leukoplakia 31.4 PCNA MKI67 GSTT1 GSTM1
2 oral cancer 31.1 PCNA GSTT1 GSTM1
3 squamous cell carcinoma 30.6 XRCC1 TP63 TGFA MKI67
4 papilloma 30.1 TP63 TGFA PCNA
5 tobacco addiction 29.8 XRCC1 GSTT1 GSTM1
6 larynx cancer 29.8 XRCC1 GSTT1 GSTM1
7 esophageal cancer 29.3 XRCC1 TGFA IFI27 GSTM1
8 basal cell carcinoma 29.3 XRCC1 TP63 MKI67 GSTT1 GSTM1
9 proliferative verrucous leukoplakia 11.4
10 dyskeratosis congenita 11.2
11 revesz syndrome 11.2
12 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 5 11.1
13 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 6 11.1
14 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 6 11.1
15 oral squamous cell carcinoma 10.9
16 keratosis 10.7
17 lichen planus 10.7
18 oral lichen planus 10.6
19 oral mucosa leukoplakia 10.5
20 oral submucous fibrosis 10.5
21 in situ carcinoma 10.4
22 squamous cell papilloma 10.4
23 erythroplakia 10.4
24 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 10.3
25 oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy 10.3
26 hearing loss, noise-induced 10.2 GSTT1 GSTM1
27 thyroid tumor 10.2 GSTT1 GSTM1
28 yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 10.2
29 candidiasis 10.2
30 verrucous carcinoma 10.2
31 periodontitis 10.2
32 beta-thalassemia major 10.1 GSTT1 GSTM1
33 xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group d 10.1 XRCC1 GSTM1
34 asbestosis 10.1 GSTT1 GSTM1
35 cheilitis 10.1
36 diffuse gastric cancer 10.1 GSTT1 GSTM1
37 ameloblastic carcinoma 10.0 TP63 MKI67
38 necrotizing sialometaplasia 10.0 TP63 MKI67
39 sister chromatid exchange, frequency of 10.0 XRCC1 GSTT1 GSTM1
40 mutagen sensitivity 10.0 XRCC1 GSTT1 GSTM1
41 benign breast phyllodes tumor 10.0 TP63 MKI67
42 gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma 10.0 XRCC1 GSTT1 GSTM1
43 papillary thyroid microcarcinoma 10.0 TP63 MKI67
44 cardia cancer 10.0 XRCC1 GSTT1 GSTM1
45 senile cataract 10.0 XRCC1 GSTT1 GSTM1
46 hypertriglyceridemia, familial 10.0
47 angular cheilitis 10.0
48 oral hairy leukoplakia 10.0
49 gastric cardia carcinoma 10.0
50 oropharynx cancer 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Oral Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to Oral Leukoplakia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Oral Leukoplakia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Oral Leukoplakia

Drugs for Oral Leukoplakia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 56)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 2 169590-42-5 2662
2
Trioxsalen Approved Phase 2 3902-71-4 5585
3
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 122320-73-4 77999
4
nivolumab Approved Phase 2 946414-94-4
5
Pembrolizumab Approved Phase 2 1374853-91-4
6
Metformin Approved Phase 2 657-24-9 14219 4091
7
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 111025-46-8 4829
8
Maleic acid Experimental Phase 2 110-16-7 444266
9
Fenretinide Investigational Phase 2 65646-68-6
10 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2
11 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 2
12 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2
13 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 2
14 Analgesics Phase 2
15 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 2
16 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2
17 Ether Phase 2
18 Dihematoporphyrin Ether Phase 2
19 Hematoporphyrin Derivative Phase 2
20 Protective Agents Phase 2
21 Retinamide Phase 2
22 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 2
23 Tea Phase 2
24 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2
25
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 50-78-2 2244
26
Isotretinoin Approved Phase 1 4759-48-2 5538 5282379
27
Erythromycin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1 114-07-8 12560
28
Aminolevulinic acid Approved Phase 1 106-60-5 137
29 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 1
30 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 1
31 Antipyretics Phase 1
32 Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate Phase 1
33 Erythromycin Estolate Phase 1
34 Erythromycin stearate Phase 1
35 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 1
36 Dermatologic Agents Phase 1
37
Fluconazole Approved, Investigational 86386-73-4 3365
38
Clotrimazole Approved, Vet_approved 23593-75-1 2812
39
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 22916-47-8 4189
40
Heparin Approved, Investigational 9005-49-6 772 9812414
41
Nitric Oxide Approved 10102-43-9 145068
42
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved 10024-97-2 948
43
Sulindac Approved, Investigational 38194-50-2 5352 1548887
44
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
45
Melatonin Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 73-31-4 896
46 Hormones
47 Hormone Antagonists
48 Antifungal Agents
49 Anti-Infective Agents
50 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 31)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Leukoplakia and Erythroleukoplakia Completed NCT00155337 Phase 4
2 A Phase IIb Cancer Prevention Trial of Celecoxib, a Selective COX-2 Inhibitor, in Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00101335 Phase 2 celecoxib
3 A Phase II Clinical Trial on the Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy With Porfimer Sodium (Photofrin®) for Malignant and Pre-Malignant Lesions and Condemned Mucosa Syndrome in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract Completed NCT00453336 Phase 2 Porfimer Sodium
4 Phase IIA Trial of Rosiglitazone (Avandia) for Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00369174 Phase 2 rosiglitazone maleate
5 Bowman Birk Inhibitor Concentrate and Oral Leukoplakia: A Randomized Phase IIb Trial Completed NCT00330382 Phase 2 Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate
6 A Phase IIa Cancer Prevention Trial of the PPAR Gamma Agonist Pioglitazone in Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00099021 Phase 2 pioglitazone hydrochloride
7 A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Clinical Trial of N(4-Hydroxy-phenyl)Retinamide (Fenretinide, 4HPR) in Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00004161 Phase 2 fenretinide;Placebo
8 Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab in Treating Oral Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia Recruiting NCT03692325 Phase 2 Nivolumab
9 A Phase II Open Label, Single Arm Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Pembrolizumab for Leukoplakia Recruiting NCT03603223 Phase 2
10 M4OC-Prevent: Metformin for Oral Cancer Prevention Active, not recruiting NCT02581137 Phase 2 Metformin Hydrochloride
11 A Phase II Trial to Assess the Effects of Green Tea in Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00176566 Phase 2 Lozenge Intake
12 Phase IIB Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial of Pioglitazone for Oral Premalignant Lesions an Inter-consortium Collaborative Study Terminated NCT00951379 Phase 2 Pioglitazone hydrochloride
13 Oral Topical Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor (Aspirin) Mouthwash for Treatment of Oral Dysplasia Completed NCT01238185 Phase 1 acetylsalicylic acid
14 A Phase 1, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled, Dose Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of SBS-101 After Intraoral Application in Patients With Oral Premalignant Lesions (OPL) Not yet recruiting NCT03939364 Phase 1 SBS-101;Placebo
15 Phase I Study of Photodynamic Therapy Using Pulsed Dye Laser and Oral Aminolevulinic Acid in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00571558 Phase 1 aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride;photodynamic therapy
16 Least Invasive Nonlinear Light Microscopy Unknown status NCT00767442
17 Association of Candida and Antifungal Therapy With Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Oral Leukoplakia- A Pilot Study Completed NCT04712929
18 Efficacy of Rose Bengal in Comparison With Toluidine Blue in Detection of Premalignant Lesions: a Preliminary Study Completed NCT03031899
19 Comparison Between Two Different High Power Ablative Lasers in the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT03233165
20 Diagnostic Accuracy of Salivary DNA Integrity Index in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions Completed NCT03682562
21 Malondialdehyde and Nitrous Oxide as Salivary Biomarkers for Different Oral Lesions Completed NCT04267419
22 Development of an Oral Epithelial Dysplasia Informational Needs Questionnaire Completed NCT04153266
23 A Pilot Multi-Center International Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Study of Sulindac, a Pan-Cox Inhibitor, in Oral Premalignant Lesions Completed NCT00299195 sulindac;Placebo
24 Evaluation of Effect of Topical Melatonin in Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Study Recruiting NCT04251845
25 Prospective Prediction of Malignant Transformation of Oral Leukoplakia Using a MAGE-A-based Immunoscore Recruiting NCT03975322
26 Dental Hygienists and Oral Mucosal Inspection - Extent, Knowledge and Perceived Barriers Recruiting NCT04079491
27 Fluorescence &Amp; Reflectance Imaging to Detect Oral Neoplasia Active, not recruiting NCT00542373
28 Biomarkers for Oral Cancer Active, not recruiting NCT00341497
29 Clinical Evaluation of the OncAlert RAPID; Impact on Decision-Making Active, not recruiting NCT03239834
30 Diagnostic Accuracy of Salivary Gamma-synuclein in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions Not yet recruiting NCT04732741
31 THE HONG KONG ORAL CANCER EDUCATION AND SCREENING (HOCES) PROGRAM: REFINING DISEASE PREVENTION, RISK STRATIFICATION AND EARLY DETECTION Not yet recruiting NCT04487938

Search NIH Clinical Center for Oral Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Oral Leukoplakia

Anatomical Context for Oral Leukoplakia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Oral Leukoplakia:

40
Tongue, Breast, Bone Marrow, Thyroid, Smooth Muscle, T Cells, Endothelial

Publications for Oral Leukoplakia

Articles related to Oral Leukoplakia:

(show top 50) (show all 1491)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Effect of polymorphisms in XRCC1, CCND1 and GSTM1 and tobacco exposure as risk modifier for oral leukoplakia. 61 54
19634112 2009
2
Genetic polymorphisms of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes are associated with oral leukoplakia development and p53 overexpression. 61 54
18507060 2008
3
PCNA and p53 expression in oral leukoplakia with different degrees of keratinization. 54 61
19089276 2006
4
Prognostic value of cyclin D1, p27, and p63 in oral leukoplakia. 54 61
16630290 2006
5
GSTM1 polymorphism and oral leukoplakia. 61 54
16519766 2006
6
Use of fuzzy neural networks in modeling relationships of HPV infection with apoptotic and proliferation markers in potentially malignant oral lesions. 54 61
16129653 2005
7
[Prognostic significance of cyclin D1, p27 and p63 expression in oral leukoplakia]. 54 61
15655576 2004
8
Immunohistochemical study of syndecan-1 down-regulation and the expression of p53 protein or Ki-67 antigen in oral leukoplakia with or without epithelial dysplasia. 54 61
12969225 2003
9
Expression of p27 and apoptosis in oral leukoplakia. 54 61
12820381 2003
10
Changes in apoptosis and mitotic index, p53 and Ki67 expression in various types of oral leukoplakia. 54 61
14707453 2003
11
Study comparative of Ki-67 expression in oral lichen planus and oral leukoplakia. Quantitative analysis. 54 61
11694870 2001
12
Evaluation of TGF-alpha and EGFR expression in oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis by quantitative immunohistochemistry. 54 61
11721175 2001
13
Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) expression in dysplastic oral leukoplakia: modulation by 13-cis retinoic acid. 61 54
10449674 1999
14
Genetic cancer susceptibility and DNA adducts: studies in smokers, tobacco chewers, and coke oven workers. 61 54
10571654 1999
15
Retinoids and chemoprevention of aerodigestive tract cancers. 61 54
9433644 1997
16
Transforming growth factor-alpha overexpression in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study. 61 54
8843456 1996
17
Increased expression of cytokeratins CK8 and CK19 is associated with head and neck carcinogenesis. 54 61
8634660 1995
18
[Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in oral leukoplakia]. 54 61
8745441 1995
19
Retinoid modulation of biomarkers in oral leukoplakia/dysplasia. 61 54
7823600 1994
20
Abnormal expression of retinoic acid receptors and keratin 19 by human oral and epidermal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. 54 61
1713123 1991
21
Evaluation of a social marketing campaign for the early detection of oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer: Sri Lankan experience. 61
33665068 2021
22
Therapeutic implications of candida phenotypes, virulence factors and antifungal sensitivity in Oral leukoplakia. 61
33786299 2021
23
Oral leukoplakia-epidemiological survey and histochemical analysis of 107 cases in Brazil. 61
32761445 2021
24
High-risk human papillomavirus in patients with oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma-A multi-centre study in Sweden, Brazil and Romania. 61
32568421 2021
25
MLH1, MSH2, MRE11, and XRCC1 in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. 61
33734109 2021
26
Clinicopathologic factors associated with malignant transformation of oral leukoplakias: a retrospective cohort study. 61
33674140 2021
27
Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue in 5-year-old girl with dyskeratosis congenita. 61
33736925 2021
28
Lichenoid morphology could be an early feature of oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. 61
33185900 2021
29
Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the last 5 years. 61
33606345 2021
30
[Identification of differentiated dysplasia improves prediction of oral leukoplakia at increased risk of malignant progression]. 61
33605260 2021
31
Importance of the PD-1/PD-L1 Axis for Malignant Transformation and Risk Assessment of Oral Leukoplakia. 61
33669300 2021
32
Molecular and Immunohistochemical Cognizance of HPV16 in Oral Leukoplakia, Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. 61
33646558 2021
33
Activation of EGFR-Aurora A induces loss of primary cilia in oral squamous cell carcinoma. 61
33529425 2021
34
Immunohistochemical Coexpression of MUC1 and MUC4 in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. 61
33544383 2021
35
Relationship of the XRCC1 rs25487 polymorphism with demographic, behavioral, clinical, and histological parameters in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Colombian population. 61
33647453 2021
36
Transcriptome array screening and verification of oral leukoplakia carcinogenesis-related hypoxia-responsive gene and microRNA. 61
33723932 2021
37
Use of allograft dermal matrix for repairing large oral epithelial defects: Outcomes of patients with lingual and buccal leukoplakia. 61
33538098 2021
38
Chewing tobacco may act as a risk factor for dysplastic transformation of squamous cells in Oral leukoplakia- A cytochemistry based approach. 61
33454586 2021
39
Patient-reported pain after surgical removal of leukoplakia - an observational 1-year follow-up study. 61
33476210 2021
40
Oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia in young patients: a systematic review. 61
33187936 2021
41
An anatomical perspective on clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of dorsal and ventrolateral tongue leukoplakia after carbon dioxide laser surgery. 61
33509189 2021
42
Oral tongue leukoplakia: analysis of clinicopathological characteristics, treatment outcomes, and factors related to recurrence and malignant transformation. 61
33411001 2021
43
Diagnostic accuracy of colposcopic examination in patients with oral dysplastic lesions. 61
32981873 2020
44
Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia: a follow-up study. 61
32436158 2020
45
[A Case of Malignant Transformation of Previously Diagnosed Oral Leukoplakia]. 61
33468840 2020
46
Tissue biomarkers for predicting the risk of oral cancer in patients diagnosed with oral leukoplakia: A systematic review. 61
33290585 2020
47
Association of Human Papillomavirus With Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Leukoplakia: A Meta-analysis. 61
33303094 2020
48
Salivary bacterial shifts in oral leukoplakia resemble the dysbiotic oral cancer bacteriome. 61
33391629 2020
49
Efficacy of oral brush cytology cell block immunocytochemistry in the diagnosis of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. 61
33368584 2020
50
[Oral leukoplakia associated with Human Papilloma Virus; a bipolar infection in a young patient]. 61
33351365 2020

Variations for Oral Leukoplakia

Expression for Oral Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Oral Leukoplakia.

Pathways for Oral Leukoplakia

Pathways related to Oral Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.75 TINF2 TGFA IFI27
2 11.4 XRCC1 TP63 PCNA MKI67
3 11.3 PCNA MKI67
4 11.27 GSTT1 GSTM1
5 11.25 TP63 TGFA PCNA
6 10.89 XRCC1 TGFA
7 10.72 GSTT1 GSTM1
8 10.54 GSTT1 GSTM1

GO Terms for Oral Leukoplakia

Cellular components related to Oral Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nuclear body GO:0016604 9.13 TINF2 PCNA MKI67
2 chromosome, telomeric region GO:0000781 8.8 XRCC1 TINF2 PCNA

Biological processes related to Oral Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 epithelial cell differentiation GO:0030855 9.37 TP63 PCNA
2 transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair GO:0006283 9.32 XRCC1 PCNA
3 glutathione metabolic process GO:0006749 9.26 GSTT1 GSTM1
4 nucleotide-excision repair, DNA gap filling GO:0006297 9.16 XRCC1 PCNA
5 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process GO:1901687 8.96 GSTT1 GSTM1
6 negative regulation of protein ADP-ribosylation GO:0010836 8.62 XRCC1 TINF2

Molecular functions related to Oral Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 enzyme binding GO:0019899 9.33 XRCC1 PCNA GSTM1
2 glutathione transferase activity GO:0004364 8.96 GSTT1 GSTM1
3 damaged DNA binding GO:0003684 8.8 XRCC1 TP63 PCNA

Sources for Oral Leukoplakia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....