MCID: ORL012
MIFTS: 47

Oral Leukoplakia

Categories: Rare diseases, Oral diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Oral Leukoplakia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Oral Leukoplakia:

Name: Oral Leukoplakia 53 29
Leukoplakia, Oral 73
Leukoplakia Oral 55

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 73 C0023532

Summaries for Oral Leukoplakia

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Oral leukoplakia describes a white plaque that does not rub off and cannot be characterized as any other condition. Though it may occur in any part of the mouth, it generally affects the tongue, gums, and inner cheek. Physicians will usually biopsy oral leukoplakia lesions as 20-40% of cases are precancerous or cancerous at the time of biopsy and another 8-15% become cancerous over time. The exact cause of oral leukoplakia is not known. Factors that may increase the risk of developing oral leukoplakia include smoking, alcohol use, vitamin deficiencies, malocclusion, and a weakened immune system.Treatment depends on the biopsy results and the size, appearance, and location of the oral leukoplakia. Removal or ablation of the lesion by surgery, laser, or cryotherapy (use of low temperature) may be recommended.

MalaCards based summary : Oral Leukoplakia, also known as leukoplakia, oral, is related to leukoplakia and basal cell carcinoma. An important gene associated with Oral Leukoplakia is GSTM1 (Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cell Cycle, Mitotic and Endometrial cancer. The drugs Pioglitazone and Celecoxib have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, t cells and testes, and related phenotypes are Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) and Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor)

Related Diseases for Oral Leukoplakia

Diseases related to Oral Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 199)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 leukoplakia 31.6 GSTM1 MKI67 PCNA
2 basal cell carcinoma 29.1 GSTM1 MKI67 TP53 XRCC1
3 papilloma 28.4 CCND1 CDKN2A PCNA TP53
4 oral cancer 28.0 CCND1 CDKN2A GSTM1 PCNA TP53
5 squamous cell carcinoma 27.7 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2 MKI67 TP53 XRCC1
6 esophageal cancer 27.5 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2 GSTM1 TP53
7 proliferative verrucous leukoplakia 11.8
8 oral hairy leukoplakia 11.6
9 dyskeratosis congenita 11.5
10 revesz syndrome 11.1
11 oral mucosa leukoplakia 11.1
12 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 5 11.0
13 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 6 11.0
14 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 6 11.0
15 brain ependymoma 10.6 MKI67 TP53
16 sister chromatid exchange, frequency of 10.6 GSTM1 XRCC1
17 oral squamous cell carcinoma 10.5
18 gallbladder squamous cell carcinoma 10.5 ERBB2 TP53
19 gastric papillary adenocarcinoma 10.5 ERBB2 TP53
20 uterine corpus serous adenocarcinoma 10.5 ERBB2 TP53
21 adenosarcoma 10.5 MKI67 TP53
22 pleomorphic adenoma carcinoma 10.5 ERBB2 TP53
23 fallopian tube adenocarcinoma 10.5 ERBB2 TP53
24 uterine body mixed cancer 10.5 ERBB2 TP53
25 soft tissue sarcoma 10.5 MKI67 TP53
26 glioma susceptibility 1 10.5 ERBB2 TP53
27 breast squamous cell carcinoma 10.5 ERBB2 TP53
28 testicular torsion 10.5 PCNA TP53
29 mature teratoma 10.5 PCNA TP53
30 microglandular adenosis 10.5 ERBB2 TP53
31 embryonal sarcoma 10.5 MKI67 TP53
32 fibrillary astrocytoma 10.5 PCNA TP53
33 uterine corpus cancer 10.4 ERBB2 TP53
34 breast benign neoplasm 10.4 ERBB2 TP53
35 thoracic benign neoplasm 10.4 ERBB2 TP53
36 esophagus adenocarcinoma 10.4 ERBB2 TP53
37 brain stem astrocytic neoplasm 10.4 CDKN2A TP53
38 gastric lymphoma 10.4 PCNA TP53
39 mixed cell type cancer 10.4 ERBB2 TP53
40 keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma 10.4 CDKN2A TP53
41 ovary adenocarcinoma 10.4 ERBB2 TP53
42 bladder carcinoma in situ 10.4 CDKN2A TP53
43 senile cataract 10.4 GSTM1 XRCC1
44 bartholin's gland benign neoplasm 10.4 CDKN2A TP53
45 vulva squamous cell carcinoma 10.4 CDKN2A TP53
46 thyroid lymphoma 10.4 CDKN2A TP53
47 nasal cavity adenocarcinoma 10.4 CDKN2A TP53
48 bowen's disease 10.4 MKI67 PCNA
49 bone squamous cell carcinoma 10.4 CDKN2A TP53
50 scrotal carcinoma 10.4 CDKN2A TP53

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Oral Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to Oral Leukoplakia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Oral Leukoplakia

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Oral Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-1 9.28 CDKN2A PCNA TP53 XRCC1
2 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-2 9.28 CCND1 CDKN2A PCNA TP53 XRCC1
3 Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435) GR00104-A-0 9.13 CCND1 MKI67 PCNA

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Oral Leukoplakia:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.87 ERBB2 PCNA TINF2 TP53 CCND1 XRCC1
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.85 PCNA TINF2 TP53 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2
3 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.65 TP53 CCND1 XRCC1 CDKN2A ERBB2
4 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.55 MKI67 PCNA TINF2 TP53 CDKN2A
5 normal MP:0002873 9.43 MKI67 TINF2 TP53 CCND1 XRCC1 ERBB2
6 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.1 PCNA TINF2 TP53 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Oral Leukoplakia

Drugs for Oral Leukoplakia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 36)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 111025-46-8 4829
2
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 2 169590-42-5 2662
3
Aminolevulinic acid Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 106-60-5 137
4
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 122320-73-4 77999
5
Trioxsalen Approved Phase 2 3902-71-4 5585
6
Metformin Approved Phase 2 657-24-9 14219 4091
7
Fenretinide Investigational Phase 2 65646-68-6
8
Maleic acid Experimental Phase 2 110-16-7 444266
9 Ether Phase 2
10 Retinamide Phase 2
11 Analgesics Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
12 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 2
13 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
14 Hematoporphyrin Derivative Phase 2
15 Hematoporphyrins Phase 2
16 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
17 Dermatologic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2,Phase 2
18 Dihematoporphyrin Ether Phase 2
19 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
20 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2
21 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1, Phase 2
22 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 1, Phase 2,Phase 2
23 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
24 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
25 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
26 Tea Nutraceutical Phase 2
27
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 50-78-2 2244
28 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 1
29 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 1
30 Antipyretics Phase 1
31
Heparin Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 9005-49-6 772 46507594
32
Sulindac Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 38194-50-2 5352 1548887
33 calcium heparin Not Applicable
34 Coagulants Not Applicable
35 Hemostatics Not Applicable
36 Tolonium Chloride Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 23)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Leukoplakia and Erythroleukoplakia Completed NCT00155337 Phase 4
2 Rosiglitazone Maleate in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00369174 Phase 2 rosiglitazone maleate
3 Pioglitazone Hydrochloride in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00099021 Phase 2 pioglitazone hydrochloride
4 Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate in Preventing Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00330382 Phase 2 Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate
5 Celecoxib in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00101335 Phase 2 celecoxib
6 Fenretinide in Treating Patients With Leukoplakia of the Mouth Completed NCT00004161 Phase 2 fenretinide;Placebo
7 Celecoxib in Preventing Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia and/or Head and Neck Dysplasia Completed NCT00052611 Phase 2 Celecoxib
8 Treatment of Oral Premalignant Lesions With 5-ALA PDT Completed NCT00571974 Phase 1, Phase 2 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (Levulan KerastickTM)
9 Photodynamic Therapy With Porfimer Sodium in Treating Patients With Precancerous Lesions, Cancer, or Other Disease of the Aerodigestive Tract Completed NCT00453336 Phase 2 Porfimer Sodium
10 Metformin Hydrochloride in Preventing Oral Cancer in Patients With an Oral Premalignant Lesion Active, not recruiting NCT02581137 Phase 2 Metformin Hydrochloride
11 A Phase II Trial to Assess the Effects of Green Tea in Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00176566 Phase 2 Lozenge Intake
12 Pioglitazone for Oral Premalignant Lesions Terminated NCT00951379 Phase 2 Pioglitazone hydrochloride
13 Aspirin Mouthwash in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT01238185 Phase 1 acetylsalicylic acid
14 Photodynamic Therapy Using Aminolevulinic Acid in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00571558 Phase 1 aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride;photodynamic therapy
15 Least Invasive Nonlinear Light Microscopy Unknown status NCT00767442
16 Infectious Aetiology of Potentially Malignant Disorders and Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oral Cavity Unknown status NCT01636544 Not Applicable
17 Comparison Between Two Different High Power Ablative Lasers in the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT03233165 Not Applicable
18 Biomarkers for Oral Cancer Completed NCT00341497
19 Comparison or Rose Bengal and Toluidine Blue Staining for Lesion Detection Efficacy Completed NCT03031899 Not Applicable
20 Clinical Research Core Dental Screening Protocol Completed NCT00090818
21 Methylation of p16 CpG Island And Malignant Transformation of Oral Epithelial Dysplasia Completed NCT00835341
22 A Single Center Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Pain and Quality of Life Following Surgery Recruiting NCT01355926 Not Applicable
23 A Randomized Study of Sulindac in Oral Premalignant Lesions Active, not recruiting NCT00299195 Not Applicable sulindac;Placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Oral Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Oral Leukoplakia

Genetic tests related to Oral Leukoplakia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Oral Leukoplakia 29

Anatomical Context for Oral Leukoplakia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Oral Leukoplakia:

41
Tongue, T Cells, Testes, Liver, Colon

Publications for Oral Leukoplakia

Articles related to Oral Leukoplakia:

(show top 50) (show all 546)
# Title Authors Year
1
Determination and diagnostic value of CA9 mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with oral leukoplakia. ( 29745265 )
2018
2
Expression and oncogenic properties of membranous Notch1 in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 29620248 )
2018
3
CD47 as a potential prognostic marker for oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 29805639 )
2018
4
A clinical diagnosis of oral leukoplakia; A guide for dentists. ( 29274164 )
2018
5
Immunoexpression of SOX-2 in oral leukoplakia. ( 29938872 )
2018
6
Knowledge about oral leukoplakia for use at different levels of expertise, including patients. ( 29480645 )
2018
7
Liquid-based oral brush cytology in the diagnosis of oral leukoplakia using a modified Bethesda Cytology system. ( 29957892 )
2018
8
Oral leukoplakia remains a challenging condition. ( 29480606 )
2018
9
T cells are involved in the induction of macrophage phenotypes in oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma-a preliminary report. ( 29108105 )
2018
10
Malignant transformation of Taiwanese patients with oral leukoplakia: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. ( 29428194 )
2018
11
Podoplanin expression as a predictive marker of dysplasia in oral leukoplakia. ( 29588189 )
2018
12
Expression of DNA doublestrand repair proteins in oral leukoplakia and the risk of malignant transformation. ( 29928356 )
2018
13
Oral leukoplakia, a precancerous lesion of squamous cell carcinoma, in patients with long-term pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment. ( 29443777 )
2018
14
Secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor expression and apoptosis effect in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 29436667 )
2018
15
Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia in a patient with dyskeratosis congenita. ( 28923296 )
2017
16
Expression of Human Papillomavirus DNA and p53 Polymorphisms through Polymerase Chain Reaction in Normal Mucosa and Oral Leukoplakia Individuals with Deleterious Oral Habits. ( 28584747 )
2017
17
Correlation of Vascularization and Inflammation with Severity of Oral Leukoplakia. ( 29531547 )
2017
18
Different Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenases 1A1 and 2 in Oral Leukoplakia With Epithelial Dysplasia and in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. ( 29189260 )
2017
19
In silico analysis of pathways activation landscape in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia. ( 28580171 )
2017
20
Plasma HPV DNA is detectable in oral leukoplakia patients. ( 28554767 )
2017
21
Oral leukoplakia and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a review for dental practitioners. ( 29097794 )
2017
22
Nomogram for risk prediction of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia patients using combined biomarkers. ( 28797449 )
2017
23
Evaluation of Genetic Polymorphisms in Glutathione S-Transferase Theta1, Glutathione S-Transferase Mu1, and Glutathione S-Transferase Mu3 in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Deleterious Habits using Polymerase Chain Reaction. ( 28904918 )
2017
24
Serum metabolomics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 28862226 )
2017
25
Effects of Black Raspberry Extract and Berry Compounds on Repair of DNA Damage and Mutagenesis Induced by Chemical and Physical Agents in Human Oral Leukoplakia and Rat Oral Fibroblasts. ( 29068672 )
2017
26
Micronucleus Assay: An Early Diagnostic Tool to Assess Genotoxic Changes in Patients with Tobacco Use, Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis. ( 29207828 )
2017
27
The Microbiome of Potentially Malignant Oral Leukoplakia Exhibits Enrichment for<i>Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, Campylobacter</i>, and<i>Rothia</i>Species. ( 29250055 )
2017
28
Evaluation of Total and Lipid Bound Sialic Acid in Serum in Oral Leukoplakia. ( 28511503 )
2017
29
Quantitative prediction of oral cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia. ( 28545021 )
2017
30
New definition proposed for oral leukoplakia. ( 28928786 )
2017
31
Limited evidence for interventions to treat oral leukoplakia. ( 29075031 )
2017
32
Predictive value of the combination of SMAD4 expression and lymphocyte infiltration in malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. ( 28256094 )
2017
33
Evaluation of Different Laser-Supported Surgical Protocols for the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia: A Long-Term Follow-Up. ( 28426376 )
2017
34
Oral leukoplakia and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. ( 28916027 )
2017
35
Ultrastructural Changes during the Life Cycle of<i>Mycoplasma salivarium</i>in Oral Biopsies from Patients with Oral Leukoplakia. ( 28983467 )
2017
36
PTEN allelic loss is an important mechanism in the late stage of development of oral leukoplakia into oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 28858374 )
2017
37
Type of surgical treatment and recurrence of oral leukoplakia: A retrospective clinical study. ( 28809365 )
2017
38
Snail and Axin2 expression predict the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. ( 28939076 )
2017
39
Factors affecting Clinical Outcomes after Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia with CO2 and Diode Laser. ( 28874640 )
2017
40
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia misdiagnosed as oral leukoplakia. ( 29551871 )
2017
41
Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia to prevent oral cancer. ( 28537153 )
2017
42
Cytological study of DNA content and nuclear morphometric analysis for aid in the diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia within oral leukoplakia. ( 28732697 )
2017
43
Association between oral leukoplakia and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancer death: A follow-up study of the Linxian General Population Trial. ( 28929584 )
2017
44
A comparative evaluation: Oral leukoplakia surgical management using diode laser, CO2 laser, and cryosurgery. ( 28638555 )
2017
45
Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia to prevent oral cancer. ( 27471845 )
2016
46
Aberrant DKK3 expression in the oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis: a comparative immunohistochemical study. ( 27349317 )
2016
47
A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Phase IIB Trial of Curcumin in Oral Leukoplakia. ( 27267893 )
2016
48
p53 and ki67 as biomarkers in determining response to chemoprevention for oral leukoplakia. ( 27605086 )
2016
49
GSTM1 null polymorphism prevalence in tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients in South Indian population: A polymerase chain reaction study. ( 27723629 )
2016
50
Vascular alterations after photodynamic therapy mediated by 5-aminolevulinic acid in oral leukoplakia. ( 28004205 )
2016

Variations for Oral Leukoplakia

Expression for Oral Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Oral Leukoplakia.

Pathways for Oral Leukoplakia

Pathways related to Oral Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 33)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.21 CCND1 CDKN2A PCNA TINF2 TP53
2
Show member pathways
12.6 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2 PCNA TP53
3
Show member pathways
12.56 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2 TP53
4 12.55 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2 GSTM1 TP53
5
Show member pathways
12.49 CCND1 PCNA TP53 XRCC1
6
Show member pathways
12.43 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2 GSTM1 TP53
7
Show member pathways
12.37 CCND1 CDKN2A PCNA TP53
8 12.3 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2 TP53
9 12.22 CCND1 CDKN2A PCNA TP53
10
Show member pathways
12.2 CCND1 CDKN2A TP53
11
Show member pathways
12.17 CCND1 CDKN2A TP53
12 12.16 CCND1 CDKN2A PCNA TP53
13 12.11 CCND1 ERBB2 TP53
14 12.1 CCND1 CDKN2A TP53
15 12.01 CCND1 ERBB2 PCNA
16 11.98 CCND1 CDKN2A TP53
17 11.97 CCND1 ERBB2 TP53
18
Show member pathways
11.85 CCND1 PCNA TP53
19 11.79 CCND1 CDKN2A TP53
20 11.76 CDKN2A PCNA TP53
21 11.66 CCND1 PCNA TP53
22 11.62 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2 TP53
23 11.57 CCND1 CDKN2A MKI67 PCNA TP53 XRCC1
24 11.36 CCND1 CDKN2A TP53
25 11.32 CCND1 CDKN2A ERBB2 TP53
26 11.23 CCND1 XRCC1
27 11.22 CCND1 PCNA TP53
28 11.15 CDKN2A TP53
29 11.12 CDKN2A ERBB2 GSTM1 TP53
30 11.1 PCNA TP53
31 11 CCND1 PCNA TP53
32 10.96 CDKN2A TP53
33
Show member pathways
10.95 CDKN2A TP53

GO Terms for Oral Leukoplakia

Cellular components related to Oral Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 replication fork GO:0005657 9.16 PCNA TP53
2 nuclear chromosome, telomeric region GO:0000784 9.13 PCNA TINF2 XRCC1
3 nuclear body GO:0016604 8.92 MKI67 PCNA TINF2 TP53

Biological processes related to Oral Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell cycle GO:0007049 9.76 CCND1 CDKN2A MKI67 TP53
2 cellular response to DNA damage stimulus GO:0006974 9.67 CCND1 PCNA TP53 XRCC1
3 cell proliferation GO:0008283 9.56 ERBB2 MKI67 PCNA TP53
4 base-excision repair GO:0006284 9.49 TP53 XRCC1
5 liver regeneration GO:0097421 9.48 CCND1 PCNA
6 nucleotide-excision repair, DNA gap filling GO:0006297 9.43 PCNA XRCC1
7 response to X-ray GO:0010165 9.4 CCND1 TP53
8 replicative senescence GO:0090399 9.32 CDKN2A TP53
9 mitotic G1 DNA damage checkpoint GO:0031571 9.16 CCND1 TP53
10 negative regulation of immature T cell proliferation in thymus GO:0033088 8.96 CDKN2A ERBB2
11 negative regulation of protein ADP-ribosylation GO:0010836 8.62 TINF2 XRCC1

Molecular functions related to Oral Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 disordered domain specific binding GO:0097718 9.26 CDKN2A TP53
2 histone acetyltransferase binding GO:0035035 9.16 PCNA TP53
3 damaged DNA binding GO:0003684 9.13 PCNA TP53 XRCC1
4 enzyme binding GO:0019899 9.02 CCND1 GSTM1 PCNA TP53 XRCC1

Sources for Oral Leukoplakia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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