MCID: OST016
MIFTS: 54

Osteochondrosis

Categories: Rare diseases, Bone diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Osteochondrosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Osteochondrosis:

Name: Osteochondrosis 38 12 53 15 73
Osteochondritis 12 76 73
Osteochondritis Juvenilis 12 73
Apophysitis 12 73
Epiphysitis 12 73
Juvenile Osteochondrosis of Tibial Tubercle 73
Epiphyseal Necrosis 12

Classifications:



Summaries for Osteochondrosis

Disease Ontology : 12 An ischemic bone disease that results in necrosis followed by regrowth in children and teens located in bone.

MalaCards based summary : Osteochondrosis, also known as osteochondritis, is related to osteoporosis and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. An important gene associated with Osteochondrosis is COL2A1 (Collagen Type II Alpha 1 Chain), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Phospholipase-C Pathway and Degradation of the extracellular matrix. The drugs Anesthetics and Fibrin Tissue Adhesive have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, bone and bone marrow, and related phenotypes are Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) and Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2)

Wikipedia : 76 Osteochondritis is a painful type of osteochondrosis where the cartilage or bone in a joint is... more...

Related Diseases for Osteochondrosis

Diseases related to Osteochondrosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 88)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 osteoporosis 28.3 CD36 COL2A1 IGF1 NR3C1 TGFB1 VDR
2 multiple epiphyseal dysplasia 12.5
3 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 4 12.4
4 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 2 12.3
5 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 5 12.2
6 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 1 12.2
7 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 3 12.2
8 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 6 12.2
9 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with early-onset diabetes mellitus 12.2
10 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with myopia and conductive deafness 12.2
11 epiphyseal dysplasia, microcephaly, and nystagmus 12.1
12 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 7 12.1
13 brachyolmia type 4 with mild epiphyseal and metaphyseal changes 12.1
14 epiphyseal chondrodysplasia, miura type 12.1
15 deafness, epiphyseal dysplasia, short stature 12.0
16 legg-calve-perthes disease 12.0
17 slipped femoral capital epiphyses 11.9
18 multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, recessive 11.9
19 scheuermann disease 11.9
20 multiple epiphyseal dysplasia with robin phenotype 11.9
21 metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with cone-shaped epiphyses, normal hair, and normal hands 11.9
22 kohler's disease 11.8
23 al-gazali-bakalinova syndrome 11.8
24 panner disease 11.8
25 metaphyseal acroscyphodysplasia 11.8
26 growth retardation, deafness, femoral epiphyseal dysplasia, and lacrimal duct obstruction 11.8
27 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with severe proximal femoral dysplasia 11.8
28 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with miniepiphyses 11.8
29 epiphyseal dysplasia hearing loss dysmorphism 11.8
30 skeletal dysplasia with delayed epiphyseal and carpal bone ossification 11.7
31 epiphyseal dysplasia of femoral head, myopia, and deafness 11.7
32 epiphyseal dysplasia, baumann type 11.7
33 multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant 11.7
34 deafness goiter stippled epiphyses 11.7
35 epiphyseal dysplasia dysmorphism camptodactyly 11.7
36 narrow oral fissure short stature cone shaped epiphyses 11.7
37 multiple epiphyseal dysplasia due to collagen 9 anomaly 11.7
38 blount's disease 11.7
39 osgood-schlatter's disease 11.5
40 kienbock's disease 11.2
41 sinding-larsen-johansson disease 11.2
42 thiemann disease 11.2
43 freiberg's disease 11.0
44 parastremmatic dwarfism 10.9
45 blount disease, infantile 10.8
46 blount disease, adolescent 10.8
47 pseudopapilledema 10.6 IGF1 IGF2
48 acid-labile subunit deficiency 10.6 IGF1 IGF2
49 fibromatosis, gingival, 1 10.5 CD36 TGFB1
50 achondrogenesis, type ii 10.5 CD36 COL2A1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Osteochondrosis:



Diseases related to Osteochondrosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Osteochondrosis

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Osteochondrosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 18)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-100 9.58 SEMA3D
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-13 9.58 CD36
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-135 9.58 NR3C1
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-157 9.58 SEMA3D CD36 NR3C1
5 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-21 9.58 NR3C1
6 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-214 9.58 CD36 NR3C1
7 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-29 9.58 CD36
8 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-30 9.58 CD36
9 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-4 9.58 CD36
10 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-42 9.58 CD36
11 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-49 9.58 CD36
12 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-63 9.58 SEMA3D
13 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-73 9.58 SEMA3D
14 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-79 9.58 NR3C1
15 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-83 9.58 SEMA3D
16 Decreased viability with paclitaxel GR00179-A-1 9.26 TGFB1 IGF1
17 Decreased viability with paclitaxel GR00179-A-2 9.26 IGF1
18 Decreased viability with paclitaxel GR00179-A-3 9.26 TGFB1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Osteochondrosis:

46 (show all 18)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.21 IHH SEMA3D TGFB1 NR3C1 VDR COL2A1
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.19 IHH TGFB1 MMP16 NR3C1 VDR COL24A1
3 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.17 NR3C1 MMP16 IGF2 VDR TGFB1 COL24A1
4 cellular MP:0005384 10.15 NR3C1 IHH IGF2 VDR TGFB1 CD36
5 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.13 IHH TGFB1 MMP16 NR3C1 VDR COL2A1
6 immune system MP:0005387 10.11 TBXAS1 TGFB1 NR3C1 VDR COL24A1 COL2A1
7 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.08 NR3C1 TBXAS1 IGF2 VDR TGFB1 IGF1
8 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.06 IGF2 NR3C1 IHH MMP16 VDR TGFB1
9 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.05 NR3C1 IHH IGF2 VDR TGFB1 IGF1
10 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.01 IHH MMP16 TGFB1 IGF2 VDR COL2A1
11 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.97 NR3C1 TGFB1 IGF1 COL2A1 CD36
12 nervous system MP:0003631 9.92 NR3C1 IHH IGF2 VDR TGFB1 IGF1
13 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 9.91 IHH MMP16 VDR COL2A1 IGF2 IGF1
14 muscle MP:0005369 9.91 IHH TGFB1 NR3C1 VDR IGF2 CD36
15 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.8 TGFB1 NR3C1 VDR COL2A1 IGF2 CD36
16 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.63 NR3C1 IHH IGF2 TGFB1 IGF1 COL2A1
17 skeleton MP:0005390 9.61 IHH TGFB1 MMP16 NR3C1 VDR COL2A1
18 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.1 IHH MMP16 IGF2 TGFB1 COL2A1 CD36

Drugs & Therapeutics for Osteochondrosis

Drugs for Osteochondrosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 11)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Anesthetics Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
2 Fibrin Tissue Adhesive Phase 2, Phase 3
3
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 137-58-6 3676
4 Anesthetics, Local Phase 1, Phase 2
5 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
6 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 1, Phase 2
7 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 1, Phase 2
8 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
9 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 1, Phase 2
10 Calcium, Dietary
11 Astragalus Nutraceutical Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 19)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment of the Osgood Schlatter Unknown status NCT02824172 Phase 3
2 The Use of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Articular Cartilage Defects Unknown status NCT00891501 Phase 2, Phase 3
3 Comparison of Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation Versus Mosaicoplasty: a Randomized Trial Completed NCT00560664 Phase 3
4 Effectiveness of Dextrose Injection for Osgood-Schlatter Disease Completed NCT01300754 Phase 1, Phase 2
5 Comparison of Standard Fusion With "Topping Off"-System in Lumbar Spine Unknown status NCT01224379 Not Applicable
6 Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee Unknown status NCT01455987
7 Talar Avascular Necrosis: Surgical Angiogenesis vs. Core Decompression Unknown status NCT02289976 Not Applicable
8 Effect of Activity Modification and Exercises in Young Adolescents With Osgood Schlatter Disease. Completed NCT02799394 Not Applicable
9 Follow-Up Study Evaluating the Long Term Outcome of ChondroMimetic in the Treatment of Osteochondral Defects in the Knee Completed NCT03385642
10 Prospective Study of Scheuermann's Kyphosis Completed NCT00738309
11 Study of Two Surgical Drilling Techniques to Treat Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee Recruiting NCT01754298 Not Applicable
12 Intra Articular Injections With Platelet Rich Plasma in Patients With Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee: Recruiting NCT02397278 Not Applicable Platelet rich plasma (PRP)
13 AS: Ankle Spacer for Talar Osteochondral Defects Recruiting NCT03303690 Not Applicable
14 ReNu™ Marrow Stimulation Augmentation Recruiting NCT03036878 Not Applicable
15 Cytokine Profiles in Spondylodiscitis Recruiting NCT02554227
16 Agili-C™ Implant Performance Evaluation in the Repair of Cartilage and Osteochondral Defects Active, not recruiting NCT02423629 Not Applicable
17 A Prospective, Post-marketing Registry on the Use of ChondroMimetic for the Repair of Osteochondral Defects Terminated NCT01209390
18 Long Term Outcomes of Osteochondral Allografts for Osteochondral Defects of the Knee Withdrawn NCT02308358
19 Estimation of the Long Term Effectiveness of Routine Use of Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy Withdrawn NCT01631409 Aspirin, Isosorbide mononitrate, Atenolol, Enalapril.;Aspirin, Isosorbide mononitrate, Atenolol, Enalapril.;Aspirin, Isosorbide mononitrate, Atenolol, Enalapril

Search NIH Clinical Center for Osteochondrosis

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Osteochondrosis cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Osteochondrosis:
Carticel
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Osteochondrosis:
Chondrocytes (Carticel PMIDs: 17515233 17590152 16510814

Genetic Tests for Osteochondrosis

Anatomical Context for Osteochondrosis

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Osteochondrosis:

19
Bone

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Osteochondrosis:

41
Bone, Bone Marrow, Testes, Pituitary

Publications for Osteochondrosis

Articles related to Osteochondrosis:

(show top 50) (show all 437)
# Title Authors Year
1
Fifty years of osteochondrosis. ( 29956851 )
2018
2
Genetic risk factors for osteochondrosis in various horse breeds. ( 29498750 )
2018
3
Maternal obesity increases insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation and osteochondrosis lesions in foals and yearlings until 18 months of age. ( 29373573 )
2018
4
Differences between horse selection based on two forms of osteochondrosis in fetlock. ( 29524049 )
2018
5
Septic Arthritis/Osteomyelitis May Lead to Osteochondrosis-Like Lesions in Foals. ( 29807507 )
2018
6
Treatment of Osteochondrosis Dissecans of the Canine Stifle Using Synthetic Osteochondral Resurfacing. ( 29534283 )
2018
7
Ultrasonographic screening for subclinical osteochondrosis of the femoral trochlea in foals (28-166 days old): a prospective farm study. ( 29044618 )
2017
8
Surgical Management of Osteochondrosis in Foals. ( 28687096 )
2017
9
Osteochondrosis of the medial malleolar epiphysis: A case report and review of the literature. ( 28846950 )
2017
10
Response of cattle with clinical osteochondrosis to mineral supplementation. ( 28281772 )
2017
11
Non-linear optical microscopy of cartilage canals in the distal femur of young pigs may reveal the cause of articular osteochondrosis. ( 28830435 )
2017
12
Validation of the ultrasonographic assessment of the femoral trochlea epiphyseal cartilage in foals at osteochondrosis predilected sites with magnetic resonance imaging and histology. ( 28470772 )
2017
13
Quantitative and qualitative aspects of standing-up behavior and the prevalence of osteochondrosis in Warmblood foals on different farms: could there be a link? ( 29121926 )
2017
14
Degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease osteochondrosis intervertebralis in Europe: prevalence, geographic variation and radiological correlates in men and women aged 50 and over. ( 28398504 )
2017
15
Prevalence and severity of osteochondrosis of the free thoracic vertebra in three modern broiler strains and the Athens Canadian Random Bred control broiler. ( 28975826 )
2017
16
Osteochondrosis, Synovial Fossae, and Articular Indentations in the Talus and Distal Tibia of Growing Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars. ( 28129094 )
2017
17
High Levels of Circulating Type II Collagen Degradation Marker (CTx-II) Are Associated with Specific VDR Polymorphisms in Patients with Adult Vertebral Osteochondrosis. ( 28961166 )
2017
18
Osteochondrosis dissecans of the temporomandibular joint: a case report and a review of literature. ( 27142101 )
2016
19
OSTEOCHONDROSIS IN THE DISTAL FEMURS OF AN ADULT RETICULATED GIRAFFE (GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS RETICULATA): MACROSCOPIC, RADIOLOGIC, AND HISTOLOGIC FINDINGS. ( 27010303 )
2016
20
Femoral epiphyseal cartilage matrix changes at predilection sites of equine osteochondrosis: Quantitative MRI, second-harmonic microscopy, and histological findings. ( 27734566 )
2016
21
In vivo visualization using MRI T2 mapping of induced osteochondrosis and osteochondritis dissecans lesions in goats undergoing controlled exercise. ( 27283998 )
2016
22
Direct comparison of different surgical approaches in a woman with bilateral osteochondrosis dissecans of her knees: a case report. ( 26786243 )
2016
23
Heritability and prevalence of selected osteochondrosis lesions in yearling Thoroughbred horses. ( 27448988 )
2016
24
Vitamin D Deficiency: The Missing Etiological Factor in the Development of Juvenile Osteochondrosis Dissecans? ( 28009798 )
2016
25
Osteochondrosis prevalence and severity at 12 and 24 weeks of age in commercial pigs with and without organic-complexed trace mineral supplementation. ( 27898885 )
2016
26
Impact of feeding and housing on the development of osteochondrosis in foals-A longitudinal study. ( 27094134 )
2016
27
Preliminary report on osteochondrosis in cattle in the north-western parts of South Africa. ( 27543146 )
2016
28
Identification and validation of risk loci for osteochondrosis in standardbreds. ( 26753841 )
2016
29
Prevalence and characteristics of osteochondrosis in 309 Spanish Purebred horses. ( 26670332 )
2016
30
Candidate gene analysis of osteochondrosis in Spanish Purebred horses. ( 27422688 )
2016
31
The development of locomotor kinetics in the foal and the effect of osteochondrosis. ( 27859501 )
2016
32
Prevalence of humeral head osteochondrosis in the Greater Swiss Mountain dog and the Border Collie in Switzerland. ( 27821378 )
2016
33
Differences in the vascular tree of the femoral trochlear growth cartilage at osteochondrosis-susceptible sites in foals revealed by SWI 3T MRI. ( 26740060 )
2016
34
An Update on the Pathogenesis of Osteochondrosis. ( 26080832 )
2015
35
Associations of conformation and locomotive characteristics in growing gilts with osteochondrosis at slaughter. ( 25568360 )
2015
36
Dissolution of the capitellum after nondisplaced supracondylar fracture of the humerus in a child: a case report of transient osteochondrosis. ( 25647568 )
2015
37
Identification of novel osteochondrosis- associated genes. ( 26296056 )
2015
38
Osteochondrosis, but not lameness, is more frequent among free-range pigs than confined herd-mates. ( 26416598 )
2015
39
Surgical induction, histological evaluation, and MRI identification of cartilage necrosis in the distal femur in goats to model early lesions of osteochondrosis. ( 25463443 )
2015
40
[INFLUENCE OF AUTOLOGOUS CHONDROCYTES TRANSPLANTATION ON THE INTERVERTEBRAL DISC STATE IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF OSTEOCHONDROSIS]. ( 26591226 )
2015
41
Multiparametric MRI of Epiphyseal Cartilage Necrosis (Osteochondrosis) with Histological Validation in a Goat Model. ( 26473611 )
2015
42
Age-dependent expression of osteochondrosis-related genes in equine leukocytes. ( 26392886 )
2015
43
Wnt/ I^-catenin signaling of cartilage canal and osteochondral junction chondrocytes and full thickness cartilage in early equine osteochondrosis. ( 25676127 )
2015
44
Bilateral osteochondrosis of the distal tibial epiphysis: a case report. ( 25504104 )
2015
45
Osteochondrosis of the accessory ossification centre of the medial malleolus. ( 25438106 )
2015
46
Treatment of Osteochondrosis Dissecans in the Stifle and Tarsus of Juvenile Thoroughbred Horses. ( 25243728 )
2014
47
Next-generation sequencing identifies equine cartilage and subchondral bone miRNAs and suggests their involvement in osteochondrosis physiopathology. ( 25227120 )
2014
48
The influence of floor type before and after 10 weeks of age on osteochondrosis in growing gilts. ( 24987085 )
2014
49
Arthroscopic assessment of osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle treated with debridement and sliding humeral osteotomy. ( 25109907 )
2014
50
Ossification defects detected in CT scans represent early osteochondrosis in the distal femur of piglets. ( 24740876 )
2014

Variations for Osteochondrosis

Expression for Osteochondrosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Osteochondrosis.

Pathways for Osteochondrosis

GO Terms for Osteochondrosis

Cellular components related to Osteochondrosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.7 CD36 COL2A1 IGF1 IGF2 IHH SEMA3D
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.56 COL24A1 COL2A1 IGF1 IGF2 IHH MMP16
3 collagen trimer GO:0005581 9.43 CD36 COL24A1 COL2A1
4 platelet alpha granule lumen GO:0031093 8.8 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1

Biological processes related to Osteochondrosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 30)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.94 IGF1 IGF2 IHH TGFB1
2 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0000122 9.93 CD36 IGF2 NR3C1 TGFB1 VDR
3 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 9.91 IGF1 IGF2 IHH NR3C1 TGFB1 VDR
4 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.88 CD36 IGF1 TGFB1 VDR
5 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.77 CD36 IGF1 IGF2
6 response to organic substance GO:0010033 9.69 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1
7 liver regeneration GO:0097421 9.65 IHH TGFB1
8 ossification GO:0001503 9.65 COL2A1 IGF2 IHH
9 cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus GO:0071549 9.64 NR3C1 TGFB1
10 cellular response to amyloid-beta GO:1904646 9.63 CD36 IGF1
11 response to lipid GO:0033993 9.63 CD36 VDR
12 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division GO:0045840 9.62 IGF1 IGF2
13 endochondral ossification GO:0001958 9.62 COL2A1 MMP16
14 regulation of gene expression GO:0010468 9.62 COL2A1 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1
15 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation GO:0042104 9.61 IGF1 IGF2
16 positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process GO:0032967 9.61 IHH TGFB1
17 response to fatty acid GO:0070542 9.59 CD36 TBXAS1
18 cell activation GO:0001775 9.58 IGF1 TGFB1
19 response to glucose GO:0009749 9.58 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1
20 positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway GO:0046628 9.57 IGF1 IGF2
21 positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding GO:2000679 9.56 IGF1 TGFB1
22 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process GO:0045725 9.55 IGF1 IGF2
23 intestinal absorption GO:0050892 9.52 CD36 VDR
24 chondrocyte proliferation GO:0035988 9.49 IHH MMP16
25 morphogenesis of a branching structure GO:0001763 9.46 IHH TGFB1
26 platelet degranulation GO:0002576 9.46 CD36 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1
27 positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation GO:0050679 9.43 IGF1 IHH TGFB1
28 proteoglycan metabolic process GO:0006029 9.37 COL2A1 IHH
29 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.26 CD36 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1
30 skeletal system development GO:0001501 9.02 COL2A1 IGF1 IGF2 IHH VDR

Molecular functions related to Osteochondrosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.43 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1
2 protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity GO:0043539 9.32 IGF2 TGFB1
3 insulin receptor binding GO:0005158 9.16 IGF1 IGF2
4 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding GO:0005159 8.96 IGF1 IGF2
5 receptor activator activity GO:0030546 8.62 IGF1 IGF2

Sources for Osteochondrosis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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