MCID: OST016
MIFTS: 52

Osteochondrosis

Categories: Bone diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Osteochondrosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Osteochondrosis:

Name: Osteochondrosis 38 12 53 15 73
Osteochondritis 12 76 73
Osteochondritis Juvenilis 12 73
Apophysitis 12 73
Epiphysitis 12 73
Juvenile Osteochondrosis of Tibial Tubercle 73
Epiphyseal Necrosis 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:8125
ICD10 33 M92 M93.9
ICD9CM 35 732.6
MeSH 44 D055034
NCIt 50 C34879
SNOMED-CT 68 19579005 65477003

Summaries for Osteochondrosis

Disease Ontology : 12 An ischemic bone disease that results in necrosis followed by regrowth in children and teens located in bone.

MalaCards based summary : Osteochondrosis, also known as osteochondritis, is related to osteoporosis and short stature and advanced bone age, with or without early-onset osteoarthritis and/or osteochondritis dissecans. An important gene associated with Osteochondrosis is COL2A1 (Collagen Type II Alpha 1 Chain), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Proteoglycans in cancer and Adipogenesis. The drugs Anesthetics and Fibrin Tissue Adhesive have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, bone marrow and testes, and related phenotypes are Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) and Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2)

Wikipedia : 76 Osteochondritis is a painful type of osteochondrosis where the cartilage or bone in a joint is... more...

Related Diseases for Osteochondrosis

Diseases related to Osteochondrosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 356)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 osteoporosis 29.5 CD36 COL2A1 IGF1 NR3C1 TGFB1 VDR
2 short stature and advanced bone age, with or without early-onset osteoarthritis and/or osteochondritis dissecans 12.7
3 multiple epiphyseal dysplasia 12.6
4 familial osteochondritis dissecans 12.6
5 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 4 12.6
6 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 2 12.5
7 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 5 12.4
8 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 1 12.4
9 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 3 12.4
10 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 6 12.4
11 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with myopia and conductive deafness 12.3
12 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with early-onset diabetes mellitus 12.3
13 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 7 12.3
14 epiphyseal dysplasia, microcephaly, and nystagmus 12.3
15 epiphyseal chondrodysplasia, miura type 12.3
16 brachyolmia type 4 with mild epiphyseal and metaphyseal changes 12.3
17 deafness, epiphyseal dysplasia, short stature 12.2
18 multiple epiphyseal dysplasia due to collagen 9 anomaly 12.2
19 legg-calve-perthes disease 12.1
20 slipped femoral capital epiphyses 12.1
21 multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, recessive 12.1
22 scheuermann disease 12.1
23 multiple epiphyseal dysplasia with robin phenotype 12.0
24 metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with cone-shaped epiphyses, normal hair, and normal hands 12.0
25 kohler's disease 12.0
26 al-gazali-bakalinova syndrome 12.0
27 growth retardation, deafness, femoral epiphyseal dysplasia, and lacrimal duct obstruction 11.9
28 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with severe proximal femoral dysplasia 11.9
29 epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with miniepiphyses 11.9
30 epiphyseal dysplasia hearing loss dysmorphism 11.9
31 metaphyseal acroscyphodysplasia 11.9
32 skeletal dysplasia with delayed epiphyseal and carpal bone ossification 11.9
33 epiphyseal dysplasia of femoral head, myopia, and deafness 11.9
34 epiphyseal dysplasia, baumann type 11.9
35 multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant 11.9
36 deafness goiter stippled epiphyses 11.9
37 epiphyseal dysplasia dysmorphism camptodactyly 11.9
38 narrow oral fissure short stature cone shaped epiphyses 11.9
39 blount's disease 11.9
40 panner disease 11.8
41 otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive 11.8
42 angel-shaped phalangoepiphyseal dysplasia 11.8
43 pacman dysplasia 11.7
44 osgood-schlatter's disease 11.7
45 even-plus syndrome 11.6
46 otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia 11.5
47 trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type i 11.4
48 acrocapitofemoral dysplasia 11.4
49 spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, micromelic 11.4
50 solitary bone cyst 11.4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Osteochondrosis:



Diseases related to Osteochondrosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Osteochondrosis

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Osteochondrosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 18)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-100 9.58 SEMA3D
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-13 9.58 CD36
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-135 9.58 NR3C1
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-157 9.58 CD36 NR3C1 SEMA3D
5 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-21 9.58 NR3C1
6 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-214 9.58 CD36 NR3C1
7 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-29 9.58 CD36
8 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-30 9.58 CD36
9 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-4 9.58 CD36
10 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-42 9.58 CD36
11 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-49 9.58 CD36
12 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-63 9.58 SEMA3D
13 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-73 9.58 SEMA3D
14 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-79 9.58 NR3C1
15 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-83 9.58 SEMA3D
16 Decreased viability with paclitaxel GR00179-A-1 9.26 IGF1 TGFB1
17 Decreased viability with paclitaxel GR00179-A-2 9.26 IGF1
18 Decreased viability with paclitaxel GR00179-A-3 9.26 TGFB1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Osteochondrosis:

46 (show all 19)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.27 CD36 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF2 KLHDC2 MMP16
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.27 CD36 COL2A1 IGF1 IGF2 KLHDC2 NR3C1
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.25 CD36 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 KLHDC2
4 cellular MP:0005384 10.21 CD36 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 NR3C1
5 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.18 CD36 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 NR3C1
6 immune system MP:0005387 10.16 CD36 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 KLHDC2
7 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.15 CD36 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 KLHDC2 NR3C1
8 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.14 CD36 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF2 MMP16 NR3C1
9 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.13 CD36 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 KLHDC2 NR3C1
10 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.11 CD36 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 KLHDC2
11 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.09 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF2 KLHDC2 MMP16 TGFB1
12 integument MP:0010771 10.03 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 KLHDC2 NR3C1 TGFB1
13 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.98 CD36 COL2A1 IGF1 NR3C1 TGFB1
14 muscle MP:0005369 9.92 CD36 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 NR3C1 TGFB1
15 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.88 CD36 COL2A1 IGF2 NR3C1 TGFB1 XIRP2
16 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.86 CD36 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 NR3C1
17 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.63 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 NR3C1 TGFB1
18 skeleton MP:0005390 9.61 CD36 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF1 IGF2 MMP16
19 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.17 CD36 COL2A1 GNPTAB IGF2 KLHDC2 MMP16

Drugs & Therapeutics for Osteochondrosis

Drugs for Osteochondrosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 11)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Anesthetics Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
2 Fibrin Tissue Adhesive Phase 2, Phase 3
3
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 137-58-6 3676
4 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
5 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 1, Phase 2
6 Anesthetics, Local Phase 1, Phase 2
7 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 1, Phase 2
8 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
9 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 1, Phase 2
10 Astragalus Not Applicable
11 Calcium, Dietary

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 23)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment of the Osgood Schlatter Unknown status NCT02824172 Phase 3
2 The Use of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Articular Cartilage Defects Unknown status NCT00891501 Phase 2, Phase 3
3 Comparison of Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation Versus Mosaicoplasty: a Randomized Trial Completed NCT00560664 Phase 3
4 Effectiveness of Dextrose Injection for Osgood-Schlatter Disease Completed NCT01300754 Phase 1, Phase 2
5 Comparison of Standard Fusion With "Topping Off"-System in Lumbar Spine Unknown status NCT01224379 Not Applicable
6 Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee Unknown status NCT01455987
7 Talar Avascular Necrosis: Surgical Angiogenesis vs. Core Decompression Unknown status NCT02289976 Not Applicable
8 Effect of Activity Modification and Exercises in Young Adolescents With Osgood Schlatter Disease. Completed NCT02799394 Not Applicable
9 Follow-Up Study Evaluating the Long Term Outcome of ChondroMimetic in the Treatment of Osteochondral Defects in the Knee Completed NCT03385642
10 Prospective Study of Scheuermann's Kyphosis Completed NCT00738309
11 Study of Two Surgical Drilling Techniques to Treat Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee Recruiting NCT01754298 Not Applicable
12 Intra Articular Injections With Platelet Rich Plasma in Patients With Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee: Recruiting NCT02397278 Not Applicable Platelet rich plasma (PRP)
13 24 Month Follow-up of Patients With Osgood Schlatter (OSD) Recruiting NCT03589001
14 Human Bone Graft for Fixation of Osteochondral Defects in the Knee Joint Recruiting NCT03777735
15 An Observational, Prospective Study of Patients With Chondral and/or Osteochondral Defects of the Knee Treated With NAMIC Recruiting NCT03625180
16 AS: Ankle Spacer for Talar Osteochondral Defects Recruiting NCT03303690 Not Applicable
17 ReNu™ Marrow Stimulation Augmentation Recruiting NCT03036878 Not Applicable
18 Cytokine Profiles in Spondylodiscitis Recruiting NCT02554227
19 Agili-C™ Implant Performance Evaluation in the Repair of Cartilage and Osteochondral Defects Active, not recruiting NCT02423629 Not Applicable
20 A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of BioCartilage® Micronized Cartilage Matrix in Microfracture Treatment of Osteochondral Defects Not yet recruiting NCT03696394 Not Applicable
21 A Prospective, Post-marketing Registry on the Use of ChondroMimetic for the Repair of Osteochondral Defects Terminated NCT01209390
22 Long Term Outcomes of Osteochondral Allografts for Osteochondral Defects of the Knee Withdrawn NCT02308358
23 Estimation of the Long Term Effectiveness of Routine Use of Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy Withdrawn NCT01631409 Aspirin, Isosorbide mononitrate, Atenolol, Enalapril.;Aspirin, Isosorbide mononitrate, Atenolol, Enalapril.;Aspirin, Isosorbide mononitrate, Atenolol, Enalapril

Search NIH Clinical Center for Osteochondrosis

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Osteochondrosis cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Osteochondrosis:
Carticel�, autologous cultured chondrocytes for treatment of cartilage defects
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Osteochondrosis:
Chondrocytes (Carticel�) PMIDs: 17515233 17590152 16510814

Genetic Tests for Osteochondrosis

Anatomical Context for Osteochondrosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Osteochondrosis:

41
Bone, Bone Marrow, Testes, Pituitary, Kidney

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Osteochondrosis:

19
Bone

Publications for Osteochondrosis

Articles related to Osteochondrosis:

(show top 50) (show all 793)
# Title Authors Year
1
Fifty years of osteochondrosis. ( 29956851 )
2018
2
Genetic risk factors for osteochondrosis in various horse breeds. ( 29498750 )
2018
3
Maternal obesity increases insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation and osteochondrosis lesions in foals and yearlings until 18 months of age. ( 29373573 )
2018
4
Differences between horse selection based on two forms of osteochondrosis in fetlock. ( 29524049 )
2018
5
Septic Arthritis/Osteomyelitis May Lead to Osteochondrosis-Like Lesions in Foals. ( 29807507 )
2018
6
Treatment of Osteochondrosis Dissecans of the Canine Stifle Using Synthetic Osteochondral Resurfacing. ( 29534283 )
2018
7
Osteochondritis Dissecans in the Knee of Skeletally Immature Patients: Rates of Persistent Pain, Osteoarthritis, and Arthroplasty at Mean 14-Years' Follow-Up. ( 29998745 )
2018
8
Characterization of cellular and matrix alterations in the early pathogenesis of osteochondritis dissecans in pigs using second harmonic generation and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy. ( 29460985 )
2018
9
Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee - Conservative Treatment Strategies: A Systematic Review. ( 29468901 )
2018
10
Variation in stress distribution patterns across the radial head fovea in osteochondritis dissecans: predictive factors in radiographic findings. ( 29477668 )
2018
11
Is there any difference between open and arthroscopic treatment for osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum? ( 29546608 )
2018
12
Management of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Femoral Condyle: A Critical Analysis Review. ( 29557795 )
2018
13
Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans in Adults. ( 29613834 )
2018
14
Epidemiology and patient-reported outcome after juvenile osteochondritis dissecans in the knee. ( 29793821 )
2018
15
Osteochondritis dissecans shows a severe course and poor outcome in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a matched pair study of 22 cases. ( 29992441 )
2018
16
Internal Fixation of Unstable Osteochondritis Dissecans: Do Open Growth Plates Improve Healing Rate? ( 29995442 )
2018
17
Clinical and Biological Signature of Osteochondritis Dissecans in a Cross-Sectional Study. ( 29998134 )
2018
18
Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee: Etiology and Pathogenetic Mechanisms. A Systematic Review. ( 29998741 )
2018
19
Osteochondritis dissecans of the trochlea: case report. ( 30027086 )
2018
20
"The quiet necrosis": An early medieval case of multifocal juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. ( 30077620 )
2018
21
Grade I Osteochondritis Dissecans in a Young Professional Athlete. ( 30078890 )
2018
22
OSTEOCHONDRITIS DISSECANS OF THE RADIAL HEAD IN A YOUNG ATHLETE: A CASE REPORT. ( 30140566 )
2018
23
Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee: Short-Term Outcomes of a Hybrid Technique to Restore a Partially Salvageable Progeny Fragment. ( 30141694 )
2018
24
Decreased Defect Size and Partial Restoration of Subchondral Bone on Computed Tomography After Arthroscopic Debridement and Microfracture for Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum. ( 30141965 )
2018
25
Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesion of the Radial Head. ( 30180223 )
2018
26
OSTEOCHONDRAL AUTOGRAFT TRANSFER FOR TREATMENT OF STIFLE OSTEOCHONDRITIS DISSECANS IN TWO RELATED SNOW LEOPARDS ( PANTHERA UNCIA). ( 30212335 )
2018
27
Arthroscopic Meniscopexy for the Treatment of Nontraumatic Osteochondritis Dissecans in the Knee Joint of Adult Patients. ( 30221986 )
2018
28
A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Staging System for Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Elbow: A Validation Study Against the International Cartilage Repair Society Classification. ( 30225272 )
2018
29
Treatment of Capitellar Osteochondritis Dissecans With a Novel Regenerative Technique: Case Report of 3 Patients After 4 Years. ( 30228993 )
2018
30
Bone Peg Grafting for Capitellar Osteochondritis Dissecans in Adolescent Baseball Players. ( 30233980 )
2018
31
Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of the knee is a result of failure of the blood supply to growth cartilage and osteochondrosis. ( 30248503 )
2018
32
Nonoperative management of stable pediatric osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum: predictors of treatment success. ( 30340803 )
2018
33
Effectiveness of ultrasonography screening and risk factor analysis of capitellar osteochondritis dissecans in adolescent baseball players. ( 30340804 )
2018
34
Sustained Results in Long-Term Follow-Up of Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) for Distal Femur Juvenile Osteochondritis Dissecans (JOCD). ( 30345118 )
2018
35
The Treatment of Adult Osteochondritis Dissecans with Autologous Cartilage Implantation: A Systematic Review. ( 30396204 )
2018
36
Outcomes of surgical treatment for osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow: evaluation by lesion location. ( 30446232 )
2018
37
The relation between ankle morphology and osteochondritis dissecans of talus. ( 30462607 )
2018
38
Treatment of unstable knee osteochondritis dissecans in the young adult: results and limitations of surgical strategies-The advantages of allografts to address an osteochondral challenge. ( 30523367 )
2018
39
Unstable Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Glenoid Fixed with Autogenous Osteochondral Plugs in a College Baseball Player: A Case Report. ( 30540608 )
2018
40
Expression of pro-apoptotic markers is increased along the osteochondral junction in naturally occurring osteochondrosis. ( 29998174 )
2018
41
ALIF L5/S1 in adolescent patient with osteochondrosis. ( 30006777 )
2018
42
Arthroscopic Management of Osteochondrosis of the Glenoid Cavity in a Dog. ( 30040000 )
2018
43
Incidence and characteristics of juvenile tarsocrural osteochondrosis in purebred Angus bulls. ( 30089542 )
2018
44
Polymorphisms in selected genes and analysis of their relationship with osteochondrosis in Polish sport horse breeds. ( 30152531 )
2018
45
SNP-based heritability and genetic architecture of tarsal osteochondrosis in North American Standardbred horses. ( 30353927 )
2018
46
Treatment of large deep osteochondritis lesions of the knee by autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC): Preliminary results in 13 patients. ( 29935334 )
2018
47
Ultrasonographic screening for subclinical osteochondrosis of the femoral trochlea in foals (28-166 days old): a prospective farm study. ( 29044618 )
2017
48
Surgical Management of Osteochondrosis in Foals. ( 28687096 )
2017
49
Osteochondrosis of the medial malleolar epiphysis: A case report and review of the literature. ( 28846950 )
2017
50
Response of cattle with clinical osteochondrosis to mineral supplementation. ( 28281772 )
2017

Variations for Osteochondrosis

Expression for Osteochondrosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Osteochondrosis.

Pathways for Osteochondrosis

GO Terms for Osteochondrosis

Cellular components related to Osteochondrosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 platelet alpha granule lumen GO:0031093 8.8 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1

Biological processes related to Osteochondrosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0000122 9.83 CD36 IGF2 NR3C1 TGFB1 VDR
2 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.8 CD36 IGF1 TGFB1 VDR
3 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.65 CD36 IGF1 IGF2
4 cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus GO:0071549 9.57 NR3C1 TGFB1
5 cellular response to amyloid-beta GO:1904646 9.56 CD36 IGF1
6 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation GO:0042104 9.55 IGF1 IGF2
7 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division GO:0045840 9.54 IGF1 IGF2
8 endochondral ossification GO:0001958 9.52 COL2A1 MMP16
9 cell-cell junction organization GO:0045216 9.51 TGFB1 XIRP2
10 response to fatty acid GO:0070542 9.46 CD36 TBXAS1
11 skeletal system development GO:0001501 9.46 COL2A1 IGF1 IGF2 VDR
12 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process GO:0045725 9.4 IGF1 IGF2
13 positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding GO:2000679 9.37 IGF1 TGFB1
14 intestinal absorption GO:0050892 9.32 CD36 VDR
15 cell activation GO:0001775 9.26 IGF1 TGFB1
16 platelet degranulation GO:0002576 9.26 CD36 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1
17 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 8.92 CD36 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1

Molecular functions related to Osteochondrosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.33 IGF1 IGF2 TGFB1
2 protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity GO:0043539 9.26 IGF2 TGFB1
3 insulin receptor binding GO:0005158 8.96 IGF1 IGF2
4 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding GO:0005159 8.62 IGF1 IGF2

Sources for Osteochondrosis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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