Paine Syndrome (PAIN)

Categories: Cancer diseases, Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Paine Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Paine Syndrome:

Name: Paine Syndrome 57 53 72
Pain Disorder 12 55 15 72
Pain 6 43 17
Microcephaly with Spastic Diplegia 57 53
Pain Syndrome 15





paine syndrome:
Inheritance x-linked inheritance


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0060164
OMIM 57 311400
ICD10 33 R52 R52.9
MedGen 42 C1412041
UMLS 72 C0391976 C1412041

Summaries for Paine Syndrome

MedlinePlus : 43 Pain is a signal in your nervous system that something may be wrong. It is an unpleasant feeling, such as a prick, tingle, sting, burn, or ache. Pain may be sharp or dull. It may come and go, or it may be constant. You may feel pain in one area of your body, such as your back, abdomen, chest, pelvis, or you may feel pain all over. Pain can be helpful in diagnosing a problem. If you never felt pain, you might seriously hurt yourself without knowing it, or you might not realize you have a medical problem that needs treatment. There are two types of pain: acute and chronic. Acute pain usually comes on suddenly, because of a disease, injury, or inflammation. It can often be diagnosed and treated. It usually goes away, though sometimes it can turn into chronic pain. Chronic pain lasts for a long time, and can cause severe problems. Pain is not always curable, but there are many ways to treat it. Treatment depends on the cause and type of pain. There are drug treatments, including pain relievers. There are also non-drug treatments, such as acupuncture, physical therapy, and sometimes surgery. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

MalaCards based summary : Paine Syndrome, also known as pain disorder, is related to familial episodic pain syndrome and complex regional pain syndrome. An important gene associated with Paine Syndrome is GJB1 (Gap Junction Protein Beta 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cardiac conduction and Neuroscience. The drugs Imipramine and Alfentanil have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include breast, spinal cord and testes, and related phenotypes are microcephaly and generalized myoclonic seizures

Disease Ontology : 12 A somatoform disorder that involves chronic pain in one or more areas, and is thought to be caused by psychological stress.

More information from OMIM: 311400

Related Diseases for Paine Syndrome

Diseases in the Chronic Pain family:

Paine Syndrome Central Pain Syndrome

Diseases related to Paine Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 3706)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 familial episodic pain syndrome 34.8 TRPA1 SCN11A
2 complex regional pain syndrome 34.7 TAC1 SCN9A IL1B
3 neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type v 33.4 NGF BDNF
4 causalgia 33.4 TAC1 SCN11A SCN10A NGF
5 interstitial cystitis 32.9 TRPV1 TAC1 P2RX3 NGF BDNF
6 neuroschistosomiasis 32.4 TAC1 NGF
7 prurigo nodularis 32.3 TAC1 NGF
8 paroxysmal extreme pain disorder 32.3 TRPV1 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
9 hernia, hiatus 32.1 ATP4A ATP12A
10 toxic megacolon 32.1 ATP4A ATP12A
11 peripheral nervous system disease 32.1 TRPV1 TAC1 SCN9A NGF GJB1
12 laryngitis 31.9 IL1B ATP4A ATP12A
13 esophageal candidiasis 31.8 ATP4A ATP12A
14 lesion of sciatic nerve 31.6 TRPV1 SCN10A NGF
15 rumination disorder 31.5 ATP4A ATP12A
16 lymphocytic colitis 31.5 ATP4A ATP12A
17 polyposis, skin pigmentation, alopecia, and fingernail changes 31.4 CABIN1 ATP4A ATP12A
18 cystitis 31.4 TRPV1 TAC1 P2RX3 NGF
19 stomach disease 31.3 TRPV1 SCN10A IL1B ATP4A ATP12A
20 trigeminal neuralgia 31.3 TRPV1 SCN9A SCN10A
21 neuropathy 31.1 SCN9A SCN11A NGF GJB1
22 jejunoileitis 31.1 NGF IL1B ATP4A ATP12A
23 pain agnosia 31.1 TRPV1 TAC1 PNOC
24 diabetic neuropathy 31.1 TRPV1 SCN9A NGF
25 dyskinesia of esophagus 30.9 ATP4A ATP12A
26 duodenitis 30.9 ATP4A ATP12A
27 neuroma 30.8 TRPV1 SCN10A NGF
28 erythermalgia, primary 30.8 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
29 esophageal disease 30.8 TRPV1 ATP4A ATP12A
30 sciatic neuropathy 30.7 TRPV1 SCN10A NGF
31 migraine with or without aura 1 30.5 TRPV1 TRPA1 TAC1 P2RX3
32 sensory peripheral neuropathy 30.4 TRPV1 NGF GJB1
33 cannabis abuse 30.4 NGF BDNF
34 gastrointestinal system disease 30.4 TRPV1 IL1B ATP4A ATP12A
35 leiomyoma cutis 30.2 TRPV1 TAC1
36 sodium channelopathy-related small fiber neuropathy 30.2 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
37 clostridium difficile colitis 30.2 IL1B ATP4A ATP12A
38 indifference to pain, congenital, autosomal recessive 30.2 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
39 burning mouth syndrome 30.0 TRPV1 TAC1 SCN9A NGF
40 functional diarrhea 30.0 TAC1 ATP4A ATP12A
41 peptic esophagitis 30.0 IL1B ATP4A ATP12A
42 active peptic ulcer disease 29.9 ATP4A ATP12A
43 ischemic neuropathy 29.9 NGF CABIN1 ATP4A ATP12A
44 fungal esophagitis 29.9 ATP4A ATP12A
45 anismus 29.9 TAC1 ATP4A ATP12A
46 bile reflux 29.8 ATP4A ATP12A
47 aspiration pneumonia 29.8 TRPV1 TAC1 ATP4A ATP12A
48 agnosia 29.8 TRPV1 TAC1 PNOC
49 bladder calculus 29.8 ATP4A ATP12A
50 cerebral artery occlusion 29.7 IL1B BDNF

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Paine Syndrome:

Diseases related to Paine Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Paine Syndrome

Human phenotypes related to Paine Syndrome:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 microcephaly 32 HP:0000252
2 generalized myoclonic seizures 32 HP:0002123
3 spastic diplegia 32 HP:0001264
4 olivopontocerebellar hypoplasia 32 HP:0006955

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

hypoplasia of cerebellum, inferior olives and pons

variable elevated spinal fluid amino acids

spastic diplegia
myoclonic seizures
absent abdominal reflexes

Clinical features from OMIM:


MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Paine Syndrome:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.03 BDNF GJB1 NGF P2RX3 PNOC PTPRQ
2 integument MP:0010771 9.9 BDNF IL1B NGF P2RX3 PNOC SCN10A
3 nervous system MP:0003631 9.73 BDNF GJB1 IL1B LAPTM4A NGF P2RX3
4 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 8.92 BDNF SCN9A TRPA1 TRPV1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Paine Syndrome

DrugBank drugs 16 :

(show all 38)
# Drug Name Indication DrugBank ID
1 Acetaminophen In general, acetaminophen is used for the treatment of mild to moderate pain and reduction of fever [F4124]. It is available over the counter in various forms, the most common being oral forms. Acetaminophen _injection_ is indicated for [FDA label]: • Management of mild to moderate pain • Management of moderate to severe pain with adjunctive opioid analgesics • Reduction of fever Because of its low risk of causing allergic reactions, this drug can be administered in patients who are intolerant to salicylates and those with allergic tendencies, including bronchial asthmatics [F4124]. Specific dosing guidelines should be followed when administering acetaminophen to children [L5780]. DB00316
2 Acetylsalicylic acid **Pain, fever, and inflammation** Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), in the regular tablet form (immediate-release), is indicated to relieve pain, fever, and inflammation associated with many conditions, including the flu, the common cold, neck and back pain, dysmenorrhea, headache, tooth pain, sprains, fractures, myositis, neuralgia, synovitis, arthritis, bursitis, burns, and various injuries. It is also used for symptomatic pain relief after surgical and dental procedures [FDA label]. The _extra strength_ formulation of acetylsalicylic acid is also indicated for the management migraine pain with photophobia (sensitivity to light) and phonophobia (sensitivity to sound)[FDA label]. **Other indications** ASA is also indicated for various other purposes, due to its ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. These include: Reducing the risk of cardiovascular death in suspected cases of myocardial infarction (MI) [FDA label]. Reducing the risk of a first non-fatal myocardial infarction in patients, and for reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality in cases of unstable angina and in those who have had a prior myocardial infarction [FDA label]. For reducing the risk of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and to prevent atherothrombotic cerebral infarction (in conjunction with other treatments) [FDA label]. For the prevention of thromboembolism after hip replacement surgery [FDA label]. For decreasing platelet to platelet adhesion following carotid endarterectomy, aiding in the prevention of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) [FDA label]. Used for patients undergoing hemodialysis with a silicone rubber arteriovenous cannula inserted to prevent thrombosis at the insertion site [FDA Label]. **Important note regarding use of the extended-release formulation [F4405]** In the setting of acute myocardial infarction, or before percutaneous interventions, the extended-release form of acetylsalicylic acid should not be used. Use immediate-release formulations in scenarios requiring rapid onset of action [Label, F4405]. The extended-release form is taken to decrease the incidence of mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) for individuals diagnosed with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), including patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina or with chronic stable angina. Additionally, the extended-release form is used to decrease the risk of death and recurrent episodes of stroke in patients with a history of stroke or TIA [F4405]. DB00945
3 Benzhydrocodone Benzyhydrocodone is indicated, in combination with [acetaminophen], for the short-term management of acute pain requiring opioid therapy.[L4894] DB15465
4 Butorphanol For the relief of moderate to severe pain. DB00611
5 Carbamazepine Carbamazepine is indicated for the treatment of epilepsy and pain associated with true trigeminal neuralgia.[L1335] In particular, carbamazepine has shown efficacy in treating mixed seizures, partial seizures with complex symptoms, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures.[A180301,L1335] Carbamazepine is also indicated for the treatment of manic episodes and mixed manic-depressive episodes caused by bipolar I disorder.[L1335] Some off-label, unapproved uses of carbamazepine include the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and restless leg syndrome.[A180415,A180421] DB00564
6 Carisoprodol Carisoprodol is indicated for the relief of discomfort related to acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions [FDA label]. **Important limitations of use** [FDA label]: • Should only be used for acute treatment periods up to two or three weeks • Adequate evidence of effectiveness for more prolonged use has not been established • Not recommended in pediatric patients less than 16 years of age DB00395
7 Celecoxib Celecoxib is indicated for symptomatic treatment of adult osteoarthritis (OA) and adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA).[L7646] Celecoxib is not a substitute for aspirin for cardiovascular event prophylaxis.[L7586,L7646] It may be also be used to treat acute pain from various sources, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in children over 2, ankylosing spondylitis, and primary dysmenorrhea. In addition, celecoxib is used as an adjunct to therapy for patients diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis.[L7646] DB00482
8 Chlorzoxazone For the relief of discomfort associated with acute painful musculoskeletal conditions. DB00356
9 Codeine Codeine sulfate is a form of this drug that is commonly used. It is available in tablet form [FDA label] and indicated for the relief of mild to moderately severe pain, where the use of an opioid analgesic is appropriate [FDA label]. The solution form is used by itself or combined in a syrup with other drugs and is used as a cough suppressant in adults aged 18 and above [L5521], [L5524]. DB00318
10 Cyclobenzaprine For use as an adjunct to rest and physical therapy for relief of muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. DB00924
11 Dextropropoxyphene For the relief of mild to moderate pain. DB00647
12 Diclofenac Diclofenac is indicated for use in the treatment of pain and inflammation from varying sources including inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and akylosing spondylitis, as well as injury-related inflammation due to surgery and physical trauma. It is often used in combination with [misoprostol] as a gastro-protective agent in patients with high risk of developing NSAID-induced ulcers. DB00586
13 Dienogest Indicated for use as the treatment of endometriosis alone and as a contraceptive in combination with ethinylestradiol. DB09123
14 DL-Methylephedrine Used as an antitussive and decongestant [L2834]. DB11278
15 Ethynodiol diacetate For the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect to use this product as a method of contraception. DB00823
16 Etodolac For acute and long-term management of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as for the management of pain. DB00749
17 Hydrocodone Hydrocodone is indicated for the management of acute pain, sometimes in combination with [acetaminophen] or [ibuprofen], as well as the symptomatic treatment of the common cold and allergic rhinitis in combination with decongestants, antihistamines, and expectorants.[label,L7991] DB00956
18 Hydromorphone Hydromorphone is indicated for the management of moderate to severe acute pain and severe chronic pain. Due to its addictive potential and overdose risk, hydromorphone is only prescribed when other first-line treatments have failed.[A176468] The WHO has proposed a three-step ladder for the management of pain in which it is suggested to start with a non-opioid medication followed by addition of weak opioids to the non-opioid treatment for moderate pain and finishing in the use of strong opioids such as hydromorphone along with the existing regimen for cases of severe pain.[A176471] Off-label, hydromorphone can be administered for the suppression of refractory cough.[A176468] DB00327
19 Ibuprofen Ibuprofen is the most commonly used and prescribed NSAID. It is very common over the counter medication widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic.[A39096] The use of ibuprofen and its enantiomer [DB09213] in a racemic mix is common for the management of mild to moderate pain related to dysmenorrhea, headache, migraine, postoperative dental pain, spondylitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and soft tissue disorder.[A39097] Due to its activity against prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, ibuprofen has been attributed to alteration of platelet function and prolongation of gestation and labor.[A39092] As ibuprofen is a widely used medication, the main therapeutic indications are: * Patent Ductus Arteriosus - it is a neonatal condition wherein the ductus arteriosus (blood vessel that connects the main pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta) fails to close after birth causing severe risk of heart failure. The prostaglandin inhibition of ibuprofen has been studied for the treatment of this condition as it is known that prostaglandin E2 is responsible for keeping the ductus arteriosus open.[A39100] * Rheumatoid- and osteo-arthritis - ibuprofen is very commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of inflammatory, musculoskeletal and rheumatic disorders.[A39176] * Cystic fibrosis - the use of high dosages of ibuprofen has been proven to decrease inflammation and decreasing polymorphonuclear cell influx in the lungs.[A39177] * Orthostatic hypotension - ibuprofen can induce sodium retention and antagonize the effect of diuretics which has been reported to be beneficial for patients with severe orthostatic hypotension.[A1651] * Dental pain - ibuprofen is used to manage acute and chronic orofacial pain.[A10901] * Minor pain - ibuprofen is widely used to reduce minor aches and pains as well as to reduce fever and manage dysmenorrhea. It is very commonly used for the relief of acute indications such as fever and tension headaches.[A39092] * Investigational uses - efforts have been put into developing ibuprofen for the prophylaxis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and breast cancer.[A39092] DB01050
20 Indomethacin Oral indometacin is indicated for symptomatic management of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease, moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis, moderate to severe osteoarthritis, acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis) and acute gouty arthritis.[A177871,L6778] Intravenous indometacin is indicated to induce closure of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing between 500 and 1750 g when after 48 hours usual medical management (e.g., fluid restriction, diuretics, digitalis, respiratory support, etc.) is ineffective.[F4600] DB00328
21 Ketoprofen For symptomatic treatment of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, primary dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain associated with musculotendinous trauma (sprains and strains), postoperative (including dental surgery) or postpartum pain. DB01009
22 Ketorolac Ketorolac is a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and has antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. [A176131] It is indicated for short term management of acute pain that requires the caliber of pain management offered by opioids. [L6526] Clinicians may choose to initiate ketorolac to manage post-operative pain, spinal and soft tissue pain, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual disorders and headaches among other ailments. [L6520] Regardless of the etiology of pain, patients should use the lowest possible dose, and avoid using ketorolac for an extended period of time (ideally ≤ 5 days).[L6526] A benefit of choosing ketorolac over other analgesics with similar potency is that that there does not appear to be a risk of dependence or tolerance with ketorolac use.[A176131] DB00465
23 Leuprolide For treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids and premature puberty DB00007
24 Levomenthol Used to treat occasional minor irritation, pain, sore mouth, and sore throat as well as cough associated with a cold or inhaled irritants. DB00825
25 Medroxyprogesterone acetate Used as a contraceptive and to treat secondary amenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, pain associated with endometriosis, endometrial and renal cell carcinomas, paraphilia in males, GnRH-dependent forms of precocious puberty, as well as to prevent endometrial changes associated with estrogens. DB00603
26 Menthyl salicylate For the temporary relief of pain associated with rheumatism, arthritis, neuralgia, sprains and strains of joints and muscles, lumbago and fibrositis [F91]. DB11201
27 Metaxalone For the treatment of painful peripheral musculoskeletal conditions and spasticity from upper motor neuron syndromes. DB00660
28 Methadone For the treatment of dry cough, drug withdrawal syndrome, opioid type drug dependence, and pain. DB00333
29 Methyl salicylate Ointments or liniments containing methyl salicylate are applied topically as counter irritant for relief of acute pain associated with lumbago,sciatica and rheumatic conditions. Local analgesics for human and veterinary medicine. DB09543
30 Naproxen Naproxen is indicated for the management of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, tendinitis, bursitis, acute gout, primary dysmenorrhea, and for the relief of mild to moderate pain.[L6582][L6583][A178975] Further, it is first-line therapy for osteoarthritis, acute gouty arthritis, dysmenorrhea, and musculoskeletal inflammation and pain.[A178975] DB00788
31 Nepafenac For the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery. DB06802
32 Oxandrolone Use to promote weight gain after weight loss following extensive surgery. DB00621
33 Ropivacaine Used in obstetric anesthesia and regional anesthesia for surgery. DB00296
34 Sarracenia Purpurea No approved therapeutic indications. DB13965
35 Sufentanil The indications for this drug are as follows: 1. As an analgesic adjunct in the maintenance of balanced general anesthesia in patients who are intubated and ventilated. 2. As a primary anesthetic agent for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia with 100% oxygen in patients undergoing major surgical procedures, in patients who are intubated and ventilated, such as cardiovascular surgery or neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position, to provide favorable myocardial and cerebral oxygen balance or when extended postoperative ventilation is anticipated. 3. For epidural administration as an analgesic combined with low dose (usually 12.5 mg per administration) bupivacaine usually during labor and vaginal delivery 4. The sublingual form is indicated for the management of acute pain in adults that is severe to warrant the use of an opioid analgesic in certified medically supervised healthcare settings, including hospitals, surgical centers, and emergency departments. [FDA label] DB00708
36 Tenoxicam For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, backache, and pain. DB00469
37 Tolmetin For the relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, including the treatment of acute flares long-term management. Also for treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. DB00500
38 Tramadol Tramadol is approved for the management of moderate to severe pain in adults.[F4676,F4679] Tramadol is also used off-label in the treatment of premature ejaculation.[A173986] DB00193

Drugs for Paine Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 865)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Imipramine Approved Phase 4 50-49-7 3696
Alfentanil Approved, Illicit Phase 4 71195-58-9 51263
3 Pinaverium Approved Phase 4 59995-65-2
Spironolactone Approved Phase 4 1952-01-7, 52-01-7 5833
Cefmetazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56796-20-4 42008
Colchicine Approved Phase 4 64-86-8 6167 2833
Remifentanil Approved Phase 4 132875-61-7 60815
tannic acid Approved Phase 4 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1491-59-4 4636
Ephedrine Approved Phase 4 299-42-3 9294
Phenylephrine Approved Phase 4 59-42-7 6041
Pseudoephedrine Approved Phase 4 90-82-4 7028
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
Levetiracetam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 102767-28-2 441341
Cyclobenzaprine Approved Phase 4 303-53-7 2895
Nabilone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51022-71-0 5284592
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 616-91-1 12035
Dextromethorphan Approved Phase 4 125-71-3 5360696 5362449
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
Tropisetron Approved, Investigational Phase 4 105826-92-4, 89565-68-4 5595
Loperamide Approved Phase 4 53179-11-6 3955
Hydroxyzine Approved Phase 4 68-88-2 3658
Nefopam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 13669-70-0
Apomorphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 41372-20-7, 58-00-4 6005
26 Ginger Approved Phase 4
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
Lornoxicam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 70374-39-9 5282204
Procaine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-46-1 4914
Flurbiprofen Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5104-49-4 3394
Tizanidine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51322-75-9 5487
Methocarbamol Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 532-03-6 4107
Atracurium Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 64228-79-1 47319
Nepafenac Approved, Investigational Phase 4 78281-72-8 151075
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53-86-1 3715
Dipivefrin Approved Phase 4 52365-63-6 3105
Lumiracoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 220991-20-8 151166
Glucosamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 3416-24-8 439213
Opium Approved, Illicit Phase 4 8008-60-4
Belladonna Approved, Experimental Phase 4
Levonorgestrel Approved, Investigational Phase 4 797-63-7, 17489-40-6 13109
Medroxyprogesterone acetate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 71-58-9
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Phase 4 57-63-6 5991
Tetracaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 94-24-6 5411
Mefenamic acid Approved Phase 4 61-68-7 4044
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
Butorphanol Approved, Illicit, Vet_approved Phase 4 58786-99-5, 42408-82-2 5361092
Eletriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 143322-58-1 77993
Teriparatide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 52232-67-4 16133850

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 10000)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Effect of Ketamine Infusion for Reduction of Neuropathic Pain and Improvement of Quality of Life After Lumbar Surgery Unknown status NCT02154438 Phase 4 Ketamine
2 Close Kinect Chain Exercise With Kinesio Taping in the Management of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Unknown status NCT02241148 Phase 4 Acetaminophen 500mg
3 Chronic Significant Pain and Functional Outcome After Laparoscopic Versus Open Groin Hernia Mesh Repair: Design of a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT00625534 Phase 4
4 Effect of Ketalar to Prevent Postoperative Chronic Pain After Mastectomy Unknown status NCT00129597 Phase 4 ketalar
5 Pain Scale in the Use of Topical Anesthesia in Small Gauge Vitrectomy Unknown status NCT01022879 Phase 4
6 A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Two-Part, Cross-over Study to Compare the Reduction in Pain Intensity After Single-Dose Administration of IV or Oral Acetaminophen and IV Morphine by Using UVB or IDC Pain Models Unknown status NCT02678416 Phase 4 IV Acetaminophen;IV Morphine;Acetaminophen tablets
7 Assessment of Pregabalin Efficacy for the Treatment and Prevention of At-level Non-evoked and Evoked Spinal Cord Injury Neuropathic Pain Unknown status NCT01479556 Phase 4 Pregabalin;Placebo
8 Ketoprofen Gel vs Placebo in Patients Presented With Low-back Pain to Emergency Department: A Ranodmized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02491879 Phase 4 Ketoprofen
9 Efficacy and Safety of Intranasal Ketorolac Tromethamine (SPRIX) as a Short Term Pain Management Tool for Adult Male Patients With Post-Vasectomy Pain Unknown status NCT02000388 Phase 4 Ketorolac Tromethamine
10 Comparison of Two Different Circumcision Surgical Technique on Postoperative Pain Unknown status NCT01909765 Phase 4
11 Ultrasound-guided Quadratus Lumborum Block for Postoperative Analgesia After Colostomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02691403 Phase 4 levo-bupivacaine;normal saline
12 An Enriched Enrollment, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group, Randomized Withdrawal Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy, Tolerability and Safety of Etoricoxib (Arcoxia) in Patients With Moderate to Severe Neuropathic Pain Unknown status NCT01264237 Phase 4 Etoricoxib;Placebo
13 Intranasal Fentanyl in Treatment of Labour Pain - Efficacy and Safety Unknown status NCT02571179 Phase 4 intranasal fentanyl 50 microg dose up to 250 microg
14 Naproxen for Acute Pain After Surgery: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT00615875 Phase 4 naproxen;placebo
15 The Safety and Efficacy of 5% Lidocaine Patch and Flurbiprofen Patch for Relieving Acute Low Back Pain Unknown status NCT03171987 Phase 4 Lidocaine patch local application;Flurbiprofen patch local application
16 Continuous Infusion of Local Anesthetic for Optimal Post Operative Pain Control Following Hemorrhoidectomy: A Randomized Double-blind Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01099605 Phase 4
17 Therapeutic Effects of Video Game Play Therapy on Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain:Randomized-Controlled Clinical Trail Unknown status NCT02125968 Phase 4
18 The Effect of Naproxen Sodium + Codeine, and Paracetamol+ Codeine on Postoperative Laminectomy Pain Unknown status NCT02255955 Phase 4 550 mg naproxen sodium and 30mg codeine;300 mg paracetamol and 30 mg codeine;placebo tablet
19 Efficacy of Intravenous Naproksen Sodium+Codein and Paracetamol+Codein on Postoperative Pain and Contramal Consumption After a Lumbar Disk Surgery Unknown status NCT02252614 Phase 4 naproxen sodium codein;paracetamol codein;Placebo
20 Phase 4 Study of Topical NSAID for Ophthalmologic Use: Pain Measurement After First Drop. Unknown status NCT00869219 Phase 4 Nevanac;Acular LS
21 Is There Any Relation Between Pain and Stone Location in Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery? Unknown status NCT02430883 Phase 4
22 Effectiveness of Intraoperative Exparel, a Bupivacaine Liposome Injectable Suspension, for Postoperative Pain Control in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled Study Unknown status NCT02808728 Phase 4 Pain Cocktail with Exparel;Pain Cocktail with Ropivacaine
23 Comparison of Ketoprofen Gel to Placebo in Patients Presented With Mechanical Low Back Pain to the Emergency Department: A Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02619695 Phase 4 Fastjel
24 Port Site Infiltration With Bupivacaine for Reduction of Postoperative Pain in Woman Undergoing Gynecologic Laparoscopy: A Randomized, Factorial, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03259243 Phase 4 Bupivacaine Hydrochloride
25 Pharmacological Anxiolysis With Promethazine as an Adjunctive Therapy for Acute Low Back Pain in the Adult Emergency Department Unknown status NCT01129934 Phase 4 Morphine-Promethazine;morphine
26 The Impact of Perioperative Gabapentin on Chronic Groin Pain After Inguinal Hernia Repair Unknown status NCT02419443 Phase 4 Gabapentin;Placebo
27 Phase IV Pilot Study of Ulipristal Acetate for Treatment of Endometriosis-related Pelvic Pain Unknown status NCT02213081 Phase 4 Ulipristal
28 Effect of Three Therapeutic Strategies on the Restriction of the Participation of Patients With a Chronic Back Pain : Multidisciplinary is it the Key Component ? Unknown status NCT02030171 Phase 4
29 Intravenous Terbutaline to Facilitate Epidural Catheter Placement for Parturients With Labor Pain Unknown status NCT01651962 Phase 4 Terbutaline;Fentanyl;0.9% NaCl
30 The Effect of Oxycodone to the Placental Circulation at Early Labour Unknown status NCT02573831 Phase 4 Oxycodone;Placebo
31 Effect of Intravenous Lidocaine on Postoperative Pain Management After Laparoscopy Cholecystectomy Unknown status NCT02997215 Phase 4 Lidocaine;Saline Placebo
32 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study on Magnetic Field Therapy to Improve Chronic Lumbar Pain (Lbp) Unknown status NCT00444990 Phase 4
33 Effect of the Administration of Etoricoxib on Postoperative Pain and Quality of Recovery in Patients Undergoing Thyroid Surgery Unknown status NCT00935116 Phase 4 etoricoxib
34 Comparison of TAP Block With Two Different Doses of Levobupivacaine for Postoperative Pain Management in Pediatric Patients Unknown status NCT02567487 Phase 4 Levobupivacaine
35 The Comparison of 0.15 Milligram Spinal Morphine Treatment for Morphine Requirement After Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery. A Pilot Randomized Control Study Unknown status NCT01979354 Phase 4 Spinal morphine
36 Efficacy of Transdermal Fentanyl Patches in Relief of Acute Postoperative Pain After Mastectomy Unknown status NCT03051503 Phase 4 The Transdermal Therapeutic System-Fentanyl (TTS-F)
37 Low Dose Naltrexone for Treatment of Pain in Patients With Fibromyalgia - Effect Via a Central Mechanism? A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled, Crossover Study. Unknown status NCT02806440 Phase 4 Low dose naltrexone;Placebo
38 Lidocaine Patch for Postoperative Analgesia After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Unknown status NCT01485939 Phase 4
39 Intraartikulær Versus ekstraartikulær Bolus Injektion Med Ropivacain Ved Total knæalloplastik: et Prospektivt, Randomiseret, Dobbeltblindet, Kontrolleret Studie Unknown status NCT00632580 Phase 4 intraarticular injection with ropivacaine;extraarticular injection with ropivacaine
40 Comparison of 2 Methods to Reduce Postoperative Pain in Children and a Comparison of 3 Methods of Preoperative Education Intervention to Reduce Anxiety in Children and Their Family Unknown status NCT00643032 Phase 4
41 Preemptive Paracetamol for Postoperative Pain: a Randomised, Double-blind, Two Way Crossover Trial Unknown status NCT02425254 Phase 4 Intravenous paracetamol;Intravenous saline 0.9%
42 The Effect of Esmolol on Pain Due to Rocuronium Injection Pain Unknown status NCT01824758 Phase 4 Lidocaine;Esmolol;rocuronium;Placebo
43 Role of Peritubal Infiltration of 0.25% Bupivacaine in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in Postoperative Pain Control Unknown status NCT02198027 Phase 4 Bupivacaine
44 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Pilot Study of the Efficacy of Celecoxib 200 Mg Qd in Relieving Pain and Walking Dysfunction in Osteoarthritis of the Knee Unknown status NCT00194090 Phase 4 celecoxib
45 Local Infiltration Analgesia With Ropivacaine Versus Placebo in Bilateral Hip Arthroplasty Unknown status NCT00864409 Phase 4 ropivacaine 0,2%;saline.9%
46 Evaluation of Analgesic Efficacy of Etoricoxib Compared With Ibuprofen in Third Molar Extraction Pain. Unknown status NCT00855777 Phase 4 etoricoxib;ibuprofen
47 The Analgesic Effects of Morphine Versus Ketorolac in Low Back Pain Unknown status NCT02782286 Phase 4 Ketorolac;Morphine
48 Comparison of the Two Different Doses of Dexamethasone on Persistent Mastectomy Pain Unknown status NCT02551133 Phase 4 dexamethasone
49 A Comparison Between Lidocaine-Prilocaine Cream (EMLA) Application And Wound Infiltration With Lidocaine For Post Caesarean Section Pain Relief : A Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02549105 Phase 4 EMLA CREAM 5 mg;LIDOCAINE 1 %
50 The Effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists on Acute and Chronic Postoperative Pain in Patients Treated for Hypertension. Unknown status NCT02513979 Phase 4 Angiotensin type II receptor antagonists

Search NIH Clinical Center for Paine Syndrome

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 72 / NDF-RT 51 :

Acetylsalicylic acid
Ethynodiol diacetate
Medroxyprogesterone acetate
Menthyl salicylate
Methyl salicylate
Sarracenia Purpurea

Genetic Tests for Paine Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Paine Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Paine Syndrome:

Breast, Spinal Cord, Testes, Brain, Bone, Prostate, Skin

Publications for Paine Syndrome

Articles related to Paine Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 926)
# Title Authors PMID Year
X-chromosomal recessive microcephaly with epilepsy, spastic tetraplegia and absent abdominal reflexes. New variety of "Paine syndrome"? 38 8
4274173 1973
Conference report: International Workshop on the fragile X and X-linked mental retardation. 8
6369987 1984
Evaluation of familial biochemically determined mental retardation in children, with special reference to aminoaciduria. 8
14429829 1960
The sensory and affective components of pain: are they differentially modifiable dimensions or inseparable aspects of a unitary experience? A systematic review. 17
31053232 2019
When does the brain choose pain? 17
30919200 2019
Nursing outcomes for pain assessment of patients undergoing palliative care. 17
30916269 2019
Burning mouth syndrome-a diagnostic dilemma. 38
30603879 2019
[Epidemiological survey of mental disorders in the rural left behind elderly aged 60 years and older in Gansu]. 38
31434422 2019
Use of PROMIS-29® in US Veterans: Diagnostic Concordance and Domain Comparisons with the General Population. 38
31144276 2019
Altered gray matter volume in sensorimotor and thalamic regions associated with pain in localized provoked vulvodynia: a voxel-based morphometry study. 38
30817440 2019
AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia. 38
30453109 2019
An updated review on pathophysiology and management of burning mouth syndrome with endocrinological, psychological and neuropathic perspectives. 38
30892737 2019
Transfer of complex regional pain syndrome to mice via human autoantibodies is mediated by interleukin-1-induced mechanisms. 38
31182576 2019
Role of coping with negative emotions in cognitive behavioral therapy for persistent somatoform pain disorder: Is it more important than pain catastrophizing? 38
31102312 2019
Reduced empathic pain processing in patients with somatoform pain disorder: Evidence from behavioral and neurophysiological measures. 38
30878486 2019
AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: Focal and Segmental Disorders. 38
30527971 2019
Standards for the diagnosis and management of complex regional pain syndrome: Results of a European Pain Federation task force. 38
30620109 2019
Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Systematic Review of Outcomes Across Various Treatment Modalities. 38
29402732 2019
Effect of Local Anesthetic Versus Botulinum Toxin-A Injections for Myofascial Pain Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 38
30589660 2019
The outcome of a temporomandibular joint compression test for the diagnosis of arthralgia is confounded by concurrent myalgia. 38
31025193 2019
Effectiveness of hot herbal compress versus topical diclofenac in treating patients with myofascial pain syndrome. 38
30963051 2019
Microsurgical Resection of Thoracic Meningioma: 2-Dimensional Operative Video. 38
30032268 2019
The GC-MS metabolomics signature in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome directs to dysbiosis as an aspect contributing factor of FMS pathophysiology. 38
30919098 2019
Exosome microRNA signatures in patients with complex regional pain syndrome undergoing plasma exchange. 38
30871575 2019
Oral burning: local and systemic connection for a patient-centric approach. 38
30984309 2019
Painful legs and moving toes syndrome evaluated through brain single photon emission computed tomography: a case series. 38
30637456 2019
Prescribing practice of pregabalin/gabapentin in pain therapy: an evaluation of German claim data. 38
30928920 2019
Development and preliminary evaluation of a new screening instrument for atypical odontalgia and persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder. 38
30229950 2019
Retrosigmoid approach for glycerin rhizotomy in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia without overt arterial compression: updated case series. 38
30849763 2019
Prevalence of Axonal Sensory Neuropathy With IgM Binding to Trisulfated Heparin Disaccharide in Patients With Fibromyalgia. 38
30801480 2019
Putative salivary biomarkers useful to differentiate patients with fibromyalgia. 38
29654921 2019
Emerging relevance of circadian rhythms in headaches and neuropathic pain. 38
29969187 2019
Hyperexcitability of Cortical Oscillations in Patients with Somatoform Pain Disorder: A Resting-State EEG Study. 38
31360161 2019
Altered Brain Functional Hubs and Connectivity Underlie Persistent Somatoform Pain Disorder. 38
31114477 2019
Structural and Functional Connectivity Between the Amygdala and Orbital Frontal Cortex in Burning Mouth Syndrome: An fMRI Study. 38
31404248 2019
Rethinking the criteria for fibromyalgia in 2019: the ABC indicators. 38
31372029 2019
Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome type I with spinal myoclonus - a case report and review of literature. 38
30636459 2019
The Effect of Electric Stimulation Techniques on Pain and Tenderness at the Myofascial Trigger Point: A Systematic Review. 38
30690516 2019
Early US Experience With Stimulation of the Dorsal Root Ganglia for the Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy in the Lower Extremities: A Multicenter Retrospective Case Series. 38
30264870 2019
Cost-Effectiveness and Cost-Utility of Internet-Delivered Exposure Therapy for Fibromyalgia: Results From a Randomized, Controlled Trial. 38
30107241 2019
Structural alterations in functional neurological disorder and related conditions: a software and hardware problem? 38
31146322 2019
Increased cerebral nuclear factor kappa B in a complex regional pain syndrome rat model: possible relationship between peripheral injury and the brain. 38
30881100 2019
Effect of aerobic exercise in the treatment of myofascial pain: a systematic review. 38
30656147 2018
Intra- and Perioperative Complications Associated with Endoscopic Spine Surgery: A Multi-Institutional Study. 38
30213674 2018
Validity and Reliability of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool Among Individuals with Chronic Daily Headache: A Clinic-Based Study. 38
30566656 2018
Epidemiology of Persistent Postsurgical Pain Manifesting as Dry Eye-Like Symptoms After Cataract Surgery. 38
30211743 2018
[Long-term opioid therapy of non-cancer pain : Prevalence and predictors of hospitalization in the event of possible misuse]. 38
30242530 2018
Microsurgical Decompression of Trigeminal Neuralgia Caused by Simultaneous Double Arterial (SCA and AICA) and Petrosal Vein Complex Compression. 38
30473985 2018
The Role of Disaccharidase Deficiencies in Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders-A Narrative Review. 38
30501067 2018
Fronto-Insular Connectivity during Pain Distraction Is Impaired in Patients with Somatoform Pain. 38
30028554 2018

Variations for Paine Syndrome

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Paine Syndrome:

# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 PTPRQ NM_001145026.2(PTPRQ): c.6475C> T (p.Arg2159Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1445287184 12:81064144-81064144 12:80670365-80670365
2 GJB1 NM_000166.6(GJB1): c.109G> T (p.Val37Leu) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs1057518946 X:70443666-70443666 X:71223816-71223816
3 COL5A1 NM_000093.4(COL5A1): c.608G> T (p.Gly203Val) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs1554781700 9:137593133-137593133 9:134701287-134701287
4 OAT NM_000274.3(OAT): c.875A> G (p.Lys292Arg) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs1057518927 10:126091521-126091521 10:124402952-124402952
5 SCN4A NM_000334.4(SCN4A): c.1333G> T (p.Val445Leu) single nucleotide variant Conflicting interpretations of pathogenicity rs121908552 17:62041947-62041947 17:63964587-63964587
6 KIF1B NM_015074.3(KIF1B): c.2473G> A (p.Glu825Lys) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs763122049 1:10384889-10384889 1:10324831-10324831
7 SELENON NM_020451.3(SELENON): c.482G> A (p.Arg161Gln) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs765749301 1:26131711-26131711 1:25805220-25805220
8 MAP2K2 NM_030662.3(MAP2K2): c.514A> G (p.Lys172Glu) single nucleotide variant Uncertain significance rs1413580671 19:4102388-4102388 19:4102390-4102390

Expression for Paine Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Paine Syndrome.

Pathways for Paine Syndrome

Pathways related to Paine Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
2 12.27 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A NGF
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.68 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
6 11.47 TAC1 NGF IL1B BDNF
Show member pathways
11.31 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
8 10.28 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A

GO Terms for Paine Syndrome

Cellular components related to Paine Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 axon GO:0030424 9.17 TAC1 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A P2RX3 NGF
2 stereocilium bundle GO:0032421 9.16 TRPA1 PTPRQ
3 voltage-gated sodium channel complex GO:0001518 9.13 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A

Biological processes related to Paine Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 28)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transmembrane transport GO:0055085 9.99 TRPV1 TRPA1 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A GJB1
2 ion transmembrane transport GO:0034220 9.83 TRPV1 TRPA1 SCN9A SCN10A P2RX3
3 ion transport GO:0006811 9.76 TRPV1 TRPA1 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A P2RX3
4 sodium ion transmembrane transport GO:0035725 9.73 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
5 neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway GO:0048011 9.64 NGF BDNF
6 response to ATP GO:0033198 9.63 P2RX3 IL1B
7 cellular response to ATP GO:0071318 9.63 TRPV1 P2RX3
8 cellular sodium ion homeostasis GO:0006883 9.62 ATP4A ATP12A
9 establishment or maintenance of transmembrane electrochemical gradient GO:0010248 9.62 ATP4A ATP12A
10 nerve development GO:0021675 9.61 NGF BDNF
11 sodium ion export across plasma membrane GO:0036376 9.61 ATP4A ATP12A
12 response to carbohydrate GO:0009743 9.6 P2RX3 IL1B
13 cellular potassium ion homeostasis GO:0030007 9.59 ATP4A ATP12A
14 nerve growth factor signaling pathway GO:0038180 9.58 NGF BDNF
15 memory GO:0007613 9.58 NGF BDNF
16 response to pain GO:0048265 9.58 TRPV1 TRPA1 TAC1
17 sensory perception GO:0007600 9.57 SCN10A PNOC
18 positive regulation of collateral sprouting GO:0048672 9.55 NGF BDNF
19 response to heat GO:0009408 9.54 TRPV1 P2RX3
20 membrane depolarization during action potential GO:0086010 9.54 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
21 urinary bladder smooth muscle contraction GO:0014832 9.52 TRPV1 P2RX3
22 behavioral response to pain GO:0048266 9.5 TRPV1 SCN9A P2RX3
23 thermoception GO:0050955 9.49 TRPV1 TRPA1
24 fever generation GO:0001660 9.48 TRPV1 IL1B
25 detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain GO:0050968 9.46 TRPV1 TRPA1
26 sodium ion transport GO:0006814 9.43 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
27 neuronal action potential GO:0019228 9.26 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A P2RX3
28 sensory perception of pain GO:0019233 9.02 TRPV1 TRPA1 TAC1 SCN9A SCN10A

Molecular functions related to Paine Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 voltage-gated ion channel activity GO:0005244 9.58 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
2 calcium-release channel activity GO:0015278 9.37 TRPV1 TRPA1
3 sodium channel activity GO:0005272 9.33 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
4 sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity GO:0005391 9.32 ATP4A ATP12A
5 potassium:proton exchanging ATPase activity GO:0008900 9.26 ATP4A ATP12A
6 voltage-gated sodium channel activity GO:0005248 9.13 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A
7 ion channel activity GO:0005216 9.02 TRPV1 SCN9A SCN11A SCN10A P2RX3

Sources for Paine Syndrome

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
Loading form....