Panic Disorder (PANIC)

Categories: Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases, Respiratory diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Panic Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Panic Disorder:

Name: Panic Disorder 12 73 36 54 42 44 15 17 70
Panic Anxiety Syndrome 12
Panic Disorder 1 70
Panic 54


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:594
KEGG 36 H01664
MeSH 44 D016584
NCIt 50 C34890
SNOMED-CT 67 191705007
ICD10 32 F41.0
UMLS 70 C0030319 C1868649

Summaries for Panic Disorder

KEGG : 36 Panic disorder (PD) is a common type of anxiety disorder, characterized by unexpected and repeated panic attacks or fear of future panic attacks. It has a rapid onset and includes symptoms such as palpitations, chest pain, sweating and shaking. Some physical illnesses (e.g. asthma) commonly occur with panic disorder, and certain lifestyle factors (e.g. smoking) increase the risk for the disorder, but causal pathways are still unclear. In recent years, an association was found between panic symptoms and increased activity in the right frontal region of the brain. Genetic susceptibility factors also exist, but their exact nature and pathophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and several medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and benzodiazepines are effective for PD. Among these, SSRIs and SNRIs are considered to be first-line treatment agents because of their efficacy and favorable side effect profile.

MalaCards based summary : Panic Disorder, also known as panic anxiety syndrome, is related to panic disorder 1 and agoraphobia. An important gene associated with Panic Disorder is MIR22 (MicroRNA 22), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways and Clomipramine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics. The drugs Paroxetine and Risperidone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include amygdala, heart and cortex, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability and Decreased viability

Disease Ontology : 12 An anxiety disorder that is characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms that may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, or abdominal distress.

MedlinePlus : 42 Panic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror when there is no real danger. You may feel as if you are losing control. You may also have physical symptoms, such as Fast heartbeat Chest or stomach pain Breathing difficulty Weakness or dizziness Sweating Feeling hot or a cold chill Tingly or numb hands Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere, and without warning. You may live in fear of another attack and may avoid places where you have had an attack. For some people, fear takes over their lives and they cannot leave their homes. Panic disorder is more common in women than men. It usually starts when people are young adults. Sometimes it starts when a person is under a lot of stress. Most people get better with treatment. Therapy can show you how to recognize and change your thinking patterns before they lead to panic. Medicines can also help. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

Wikipedia : 73 Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks. Panic... more...

Related Diseases for Panic Disorder

Diseases in the Panic Disorder family:

Panic Disorder 1 Panic Disorder 2
Panic Disorder 3

Diseases related to Panic Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 446)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 panic disorder 1 33.4 PAND1 COMT
2 agoraphobia 32.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 PTK7 MIR22 MAOA HTR2A
3 neurotic disorder 32.3 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A COMT
4 anxiety 32.3 TSPO TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 PTK7 MAOA
5 major depressive disorder 32.3 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A
6 mental depression 31.9 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
7 generalized anxiety disorder 31.9 TSPO SLC6A4 SLC6A2 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A
8 depression 31.9 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
9 social phobia 31.8 SLC6A4 PTK7 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
10 personality disorder 31.8 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
11 post-traumatic stress disorder 31.7 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A CRH COMT
12 separation anxiety disorder 31.6 TSPO SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A COMT
13 schizophrenia 31.6 TSPO TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 MAOA HTR3A
14 obsessive-compulsive disorder 31.6 TPH2 SLC6A4 PTK7 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A
15 substance abuse 31.6 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH COMT
16 alexithymia 31.5 SLC6A4 HTR1A COMT
17 alcohol use disorder 31.5 SLC6A4 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A CRH COMT
18 hypochondriasis 31.5 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A
19 mood disorder 31.5 TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A
20 phobia, specific 31.5 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH COMT
21 sexual disorder 31.4 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A
22 dysthymic disorder 31.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH
23 somatization disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 HTR1A CRH COMT
24 irritable bowel syndrome 31.3 SLC6A4 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A CRH COMT
25 acute stress disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 HTR1A CRH
26 eating disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A CRH COMT CCK
27 phobic disorder 31.2 SLC6A4 PTK7 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH
28 withdrawal disorder 31.2 TSPO HTR1A CRH
29 endogenous depression 31.2 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH
30 bipolar disorder 31.2 TSPO TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 MAOA HTR3A
31 alcohol dependence 31.1 TSPO TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 MAOA HTR3A
32 headache 31.1 SLC6A4 COMT CCK
33 sleep disorder 31.0 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH COMT
34 substance dependence 31.0 SLC6A4 MAOA CRH COMT
35 bulimia nervosa 31.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A COMT CCK
36 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder 31.0 SLC6A4 HTR2A COMT
37 migraine with or without aura 1 31.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A CRH
38 constipation 31.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 HTR3A CCK
39 somatoform disorder 31.0 SLC6A4 CRH COMT
40 borderline personality disorder 31.0 TPH2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
41 animal phobia 30.9 SLC6A4 PTK7
42 cyclothymic disorder 30.9 SLC6A4 HTR2A COMT
43 body dysmorphic disorder 30.9 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
44 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 30.9 TSPO TPH2 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 MAOA HTR2A
45 fibromyalgia 30.9 TSPO SLC6A4 HTR3A HTR2A CRH COMT
46 bipolar i disorder 30.9 TPH2 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A COMT
47 tobacco addiction 30.7 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A CRH COMT
48 amnestic disorder 30.7 TSPO HTR3A HTR1A
49 premature ejaculation 30.7 SLC6A4 HTR1A COMT
50 paine syndrome 30.7 SLC6A4 CRH COMT

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Panic Disorder:

Diseases related to Panic Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Panic Disorder

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Panic Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability GR00249-S 9.28 SLC6A4
2 Decreased viability GR00381-A-1 9.28 HTR1A HTR3A SLC6A4
3 Decreased viability GR00381-A-3 9.28 HTR1A HTR3A SLC6A4
4 Decreased viability GR00402-S-2 9.28 HTR1A HTR3A

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Panic Disorder:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.1 CCK CCKAR CCKBR COMT CRH HTR1A
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.81 CCK CCKAR CCKBR COMT CRH HTR2A
3 nervous system MP:0003631 9.73 CCK CCKAR CCKBR COMT CRH HTR1A
4 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.17 CCK CCKAR CCKBR COMT CRH HTR3A

Drugs & Therapeutics for Panic Disorder

Drugs for Panic Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 128)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Paroxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 61869-08-7 43815
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 106266-06-2 5073
Clonazepam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 1622-61-3 2802
Norepinephrine Approved Phase 4 51-41-2 439260
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
Vortioxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 508233-74-7 9966051
Clozapine Approved Phase 4 5786-21-0 2818
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 4 146939-27-7 60854
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-33-8 2771
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
Diphenhydramine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 147-24-0, 58-73-1 3100
Suvorexant Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1030377-33-3
Promethazine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60-87-7 4927
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
Alprazolam Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 28981-97-7 2118
Dexetimide Withdrawn Phase 4 21888-98-2
20 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4
21 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4
22 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4
23 Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors Phase 4
24 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 4 111974-72-2
25 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
26 Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
27 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
28 Analgesics Phase 4
29 Duloxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
30 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
31 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
32 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
33 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
34 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
35 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
36 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
37 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
38 GABA Modulators Phase 4
39 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
40 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50-67-9 5202
Levetiracetam Approved Phase 3 102767-28-2 441341
Cycloserine Approved Phase 3 68-41-7 401 6234
Xenon Experimental Phase 2, Phase 3 7440-63-3
Lecithin Experimental Phase 3 8002-43-5
46 Nootropic Agents Phase 3
47 Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Phase 3
48 Anticonvulsants Phase 3
49 Anesthetics Phase 2, Phase 3
50 Anesthetics, General Phase 2, Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 220)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Costs of Lost Productive Time Among Korean Workers With Panic Disorder and Effect of Treatment With Paroxetine Controlled Release Unknown status NCT00492414 Phase 4 Paroxetine CR
2 The Effects of Treatment With Sertraline for Panic Disorder and/or Depression Driven Chest Pain and/or Palpitations in a Double Blind, Care as Usual and Placebo Controlled Study Completed NCT01114100 Phase 4 sertraline;placebo
3 Phase 4 Study of Panic Disorder That Expresses to Change of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism After 12 Week of Paroxetine Treatment Completed NCT00767754 Phase 4 Paxil CR
4 Long-term, Open, Naturalistic, Randomized Clinical Trial With Clonazepam and Paroxetine in Panic Disorder With or Without Agoraphobia Completed NCT02852577 Phase 4 Clonazepam;Paroxetine
5 A Randomized, Controlled Trial on the Effects of Paroxetine Versus Placebo in Combination With Aerobic Exercise or Relaxation Training in the Treatment of Panic Disorder Completed NCT00540098 Phase 4 paroxetine + aerobic exercise;Paroxetine + relaxation;Placebo + aerobic exercise;Placebo + relaxation
6 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Non-cardiac Chest Pain and Palpitations. Completed NCT00623454 Phase 4
7 An 8-week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Seroquel SR Co-administration for SSRI-Resistant, Comorbid Panic Disorder Completed NCT00619892 Phase 4 quetiapine XR;placebo
8 Efficacy of Aerobic Exercise Added to Alprazolam in Panic Disorder Treatment: a Clinical Randomized Trial Completed NCT00803400 Phase 4 Alprazolam;Alprazolam + Aerobic exercise
9 Changes of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism Associated With the Fear Network Activity Before and After 12 Weeks of Escitalpram Treatment in Panic Disorder Completed NCT00767871 Phase 4 Lexapro
10 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study Of Sertraline Compared With Paroxetine In The Treatment Of Panic Disorder Completed NCT00677352 Phase 4 sertraline;Paroxetine
11 A 10-Week, Open-Label, Flexible Dose Adaptive Study Evaluating the Efficacy of Vortioxetine in Subjects With Panic Disorder Completed NCT02395510 Phase 4 Vortioxetine
12 The Efficacy and Tolerability of Duloxetine for the Treatment of Panic Disorder Completed NCT00438971 Phase 4 Duloxetine
13 A Randomized Double-Blind Comparison of Sertraline With Early Alprazolam XR Co-Administration vs Sertraline/Placebo for Primary Care Panic Disorder Patients Completed NCT00198094 Phase 4 Sertraline and Alprazolam XR
14 Combined Treatment With A Benzodiazepine (Clonazepam) And A Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (Paroxetine) For Rapid Treatment Of Panic Disorder With Depression Completed NCT00031317 Phase 4 Paroxetine;Clozapine
15 Randomized Controlled Trial of Escitalopram Versus Placebo for Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Panic Disorder Completed NCT01551225 Phase 4 Escitalopram
16 A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-label, Parallel Design Trial to Compare Time to Response in the Symptoms of Anxiety to Concomitant Treatment With Niravam™ and an SSRI or SNRI to Treatment With an SSRI or SNRI Alone in Subjects With Generalized Anxiety Disorder or Panic Disorder Completed NCT00266409 Phase 4 Niravam;SSRI/SNRI
17 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone Monotherapy in Ambulatory Bipolar Disorder With Current at Least Moderately Severe Anxiety and Lifetime Panic Disorder or Generalized Anxiety Disorder Completed NCT00167479 Phase 4 risperidone (Risperdal)
18 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study of Quetiapine SR and Divalproex Sodium ER on Anxiety in Bipolar Disorder With at Least Moderately Severe Current Anxiety and Lifetime Panic or Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Completed NCT00579280 Phase 4 quetiapine SR;divalproex sodium ER;placebo
19 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Ziprasidone in Bipolar Disorder With Comorbid Lifetime Panic or Generalized Anxiety Disorder Completed NCT01172652 Phase 4 Ziprasidone;Placebo
20 A Collaborative Care Program to Improve Treatment of Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Cardiac Patients (MOSAIC) Completed NCT01201967 Phase 4
21 Aripiprazole for the Treatment of Refractory Anxiety: Impact on Clinical Outcomes, Resilience and Neuroendocrinologic Parameters Completed NCT00438386 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
22 12 Week Prospective Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Trial of Seroquel SR for Alcohol Dependence and Comorbid Anxiety Completed NCT00352469 Phase 4 Seroquel XR
23 Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM): Improving Primary Care Anxiety Outcomes Completed NCT00347269 Phase 4 Psychotropic medication optimization
24 Pharmacotherapy in Depression With Panic Spectrum Completed NCT00177996 Phase 4 sertraline hydrochloride
25 A 14 Week, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study of Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Controlled Release Capsules in Adult ADHD With and Without Anxiety Disorder Comorbidity Recruiting NCT03785223 Phase 4 Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Controlled-Release Capsules;Placebo Capsule
26 Comparative Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Pharmacotherapy for Anxiety Recruiting NCT03522844 Phase 4 Escitalopram
27 The Role of Orexin in Human Panic Disorder Active, not recruiting NCT02593682 Phase 4 suvorexant;placebo
28 An Open-label Study to Assess the Safety and Tolerability of Xanax XR in the Treatment of Adolescents With Panic Disorder or Anxiety With Panic Attacks Terminated NCT00634790 Phase 4 alprazolam XR
29 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study of Xanax XR in the Treatment of Adolescents With a Primary Diagnosis of Panic Disorder Terminated NCT00635531 Phase 4 alprazolam XR
30 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study of Continuation Treatment With Xanax XR in the Treatment of Adolescents With a Primary Diagnosis of Panic Disorder Terminated NCT00635076 Phase 4 alprazolam XR
31 Sertraline in the Treatment of Generalized Social Phobia With Comorbidity Terminated NCT00182533 Phase 4 Sertraline;Placebo
32 Mechanisms of CBT-Treatment Effects in Patients With Panic Disorder and Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia: The Role of Interoceptive Exposure Unknown status NCT01323556 Phase 2, Phase 3
33 Levetiracetam Treatment of Panic Disorder and Lactate-Induced Panic Attacks Completed NCT00279617 Phase 3 levetiracetam
34 Randomized Controlled Trial of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy vs. Applied Relaxation for Panic Disorder Completed NCT00128388 Phase 2, Phase 3
35 Dynamic Treatment vs. CBT for Panic Disorder Completed NCT00353470 Phase 3
36 Internet- Versus Group-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Panic Disorder in a Psychiatric Setting: A Randomized Equivalence Trial Completed NCT00845260 Phase 3
37 Treatment Refractory Panic Disorder Completed NCT00118417 Phase 2, Phase 3 Clonazepam;Sertraline
38 Treatment of Panic Disorder: Long Term Strategies Completed NCT00000368 Phase 3 Paroxetine or other medication - algorithm used
39 A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Flexible-dose Study of Venlafaxine Extended-release Capsules in Adult Outpatients With Panic Disorder Completed NCT00038896 Phase 3 Venlafaxine ER
40 Pilot Study of Venlafaxine Extended Release (XR) in the Treatment of Panic Disorder (PD) in Comparison to Paroxetine. Completed NCT00195598 Phase 3 VENLAFAXINE;Paroxetine
41 A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Comparison of Venlafaxine Extended-release Capsules and Paroxetine in Outpatients With Panic Disorder Completed NCT00044772 Phase 3 Venlafaxine ER
42 A Randomized, Controlled Study of a Stepped-care Model for the Treatment of Social Phobia and Panic Disorder in Adults Completed NCT00619138 Phase 3
43 Improving Quality of Primary Care for Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT00102427 Phase 2, Phase 3
44 Cognitive Behavioral Interventions That Target Personality Risk for Substance Abuse and Mental Illness: Delivery by Educational Professionals Completed NCT00776685 Phase 2, Phase 3
45 A New School-based Drug Prevention Programme for Teenagers: Interventions That Target Personality Risk for Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Completed NCT00344474 Phase 2, Phase 3
46 The RELAX Trial: Reducing Limitations From Anxiety in Primary Care Completed NCT00158327 Phase 3
47 Online Treatments for Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care Completed NCT01482806 Phase 2, Phase 3
48 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone Monotherapy in Ambulatory Bipolar Disorder With Concurrent Moderately Severe Anxiety and Lifetime Panic or Generalized Anxiety Disorder Completed NCT00277654 Phase 3 Risperidone
49 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Xenon Inhalation for Treatment of Patients With Panic Disorder Not yet recruiting NCT04432155 Phase 2, Phase 3 Xenon;Placebo
50 Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: An 8-Week Pilot Study Not yet recruiting NCT03549819 Phase 3 Cannabidiol (CBD) Oil Capsules;Sunflower Lecithin Oil in Capsule

Search NIH Clinical Center for Panic Disorder

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 70 / NDF-RT 51 :

Clomipramine Hydrochloride
Fluoxetine Hydrochloride
Fluvoxamine Maleate
Imipramine Hydrochloride
Imipramine pamoate
Maprotiline Hydrochloride
Paroxetine Hydrochloride
Propranolol Hydrochloride
Sertraline Hydrochloride

Cochrane evidence based reviews: panic disorder

Genetic Tests for Panic Disorder

Anatomical Context for Panic Disorder

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Panic Disorder:

Amygdala, Heart, Cortex, Brain, Pituitary, Thyroid, Eye

Publications for Panic Disorder

Articles related to Panic Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 9232)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Panic and pandemic: Narrative review of the literature on the links and risks of panic disorder as a consequence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. 61 42
33221039 2021
The course and clinical correlates of panic disorder during the postpartum period: a naturalistic observational study. 42 61
33111774 2020
Human microRNAs miR-22, miR-138-2, miR-148a, and miR-488 are associated with panic disorder and regulate several anxiety candidate genes and related pathways. 61 47
21168126 2011
Impact of respiratory protective devices on respiration: Implications for panic vulnerability during the COVID-19 pandemic. 42
33065816 2020
Gene variations in the cholecystokinin system in patients with panic disorder. 61 54
20023595 2010
Platelet serotonin transporter function and heart rate variability in patients with panic disorder. 54 61
20358007 2010
The complex global pattern of genetic variation and linkage disequilibrium at catechol-O-methyltransferase. 61 54
18574484 2010
Association of a polyadenylation polymorphism in the serotonin transporter and panic disorder. 54 61
19969287 2010
Panic disorder is associated with the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) but not the promoter region (5-HTTLPR). 54 61
18663369 2010
CCK as a modulator of cardiovascular function. 61 54
19563885 2009
Changes in CCK-4 induced panic after treatment with the GABA-reuptake inhibitor tiagabine are associated with an increase in 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone concentrations. 54 61
19501468 2009
The symptomatic profile of panic disorder is shaped by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. 61 54
19683026 2009
The acute antipanic and anxiolytic activity of aerobic exercise in patients with panic disorder and healthy control subjects. 61 54
19289240 2009
779 TC of CCK-1 intron 1 is associated with postprandial syndrome (PDS) in Japanese male subjects. 54 61
19760980 2009
Effects of experimentally induced panic attacks on neuroimmunological markers. 61 54
19023641 2009
Sympathetic activity relates to adenosine A(2A) receptor gene variation in blood-injury phobia. 54 61
18629431 2009
Impact of loudness dependency of auditory evoked potentials on the panic response to CCK-4. 61 54
18534623 2009
Association testing of panic disorder candidate genes using CCK-4 challenge in healthy volunteers. 54 61
18832011 2008
The association between serotonin-related gene polymorphisms and panic disorder. 54 61
18436425 2008
Combined effects of exonic polymorphisms in CRHR1 and AVPR1B genes in a case/control study for panic disorder. 54 61
18384079 2008
Influence of the catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met genotype on amygdala and prefrontal cortex emotional processing in panic disorder. 54 61
18440204 2008
Platelet 18 kDa Translocator Protein density is reduced in depressed patients with adult separation anxiety. 61 54
18054208 2008
Respiratory irregularity and stress hormones in panic disorder: exploring potential linkages. 61 54
17557312 2008
Lack of association between the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and personality traits in asymptomatic patients with panic disorder. 54 61
18164547 2008
Lack of association between the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and Panic Disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 61 54
17705872 2007
Increased brain serotonin turnover in panic disorder patients in the absence of a panic attack: reduction by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. 54 61
17613943 2007
Evaluation of the CCK-4 model as a challenge paradigm in a population of healthy volunteers within a proof-of-concept study. 54 61
17318504 2007
Meta-analysis of COMT val158met in panic disorder: ethnic heterogeneity and gender specificity. 61 54
17357147 2007
Reduced serotonin-1A receptor binding in social anxiety disorder. 54 61
16979141 2007
Association study of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene polymorphisms in panic disorder. 54 61
17123728 2007
HPA axis activity in patients with panic disorder: review and synthesis of four studies. 61 54
16845643 2007
Tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin transporter gene polymorphism does not affect the diagnosis, clinical features and treatment outcome of panic disorder in the Korean population. 54 61
16822601 2006
Association of the Val158Met catechol O-methyltransferase genetic polymorphism with panic disorder. 61 54
16525418 2006
Functional magnetic resonance imaging characterization of CCK-4-induced panic attack and subsequent anticipatory anxiety. 54 61
16600640 2006
The neuronal noradrenaline transporter, anxiety and cardiovascular disease. 61 54
16785272 2006
The novel brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene in panic disorder. 61 54
16401665 2006
Cholecystokinin hyperresponsiveness in functional dyspepsia. 54 61
16718754 2006
Tryptophan depletion does not modify response to CCK-4 challenge in patients with panic disorder after treatment with citalopram. 61 54
16541242 2006
Evidence that variation in the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) gene influences susceptibility to panic disorder. 61 54
16511838 2006
Cell-specific repressor or enhancer activities of Deaf-1 at a serotonin 1A receptor gene polymorphism. 61 54
16467535 2006
Megestrol attenuates the hormonal response to CCK-4-induced panic attacks. 61 54
16470820 2006
Increased prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in panic disorder: clinical and theoretical implications. 61 54
16273019 2005
Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor binding sites in platelets of patients with panic disorder associated to separation anxiety symptoms. 54 61
15830231 2005
Central cholecystokinin activity in irritable bowel syndrome, panic disorder, and healthy controls. 61 54
16046372 2005
Cognitive modulation of the endocrine stress response to a pharmacological challenge in normal and panic disorder subjects. 54 61
15939844 2005
The corticotropin-releasing hormone gene and behavioral inhibition in children at risk for panic disorder. 54 61
15953484 2005
Selective GABAergic treatment for panic? Investigations in experimental panic induction and panic disorder. 61 54
15944741 2005
Association study of A2a adenosine receptor genetic polymorphism in panic disorder. 54 61
15774265 2005
Epistatic interaction between the monoamine oxidase A and serotonin transporter genes in anorexia nervosa. 61 54
15523490 2005
Norepinephrine transporter (NET) promoter and 5'-UTR polymorphisms: association analysis in panic disorder. 61 54
15722184 2005

Variations for Panic Disorder

Expression for Panic Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Panic Disorder.

Pathways for Panic Disorder

Pathways related to Panic Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
11.69 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 COMT
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
9 10.58 MAOA COMT
10 10.52 CCKBR CCK
Show member pathways

GO Terms for Panic Disorder

Cellular components related to Panic Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 9.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A2 PTK7 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
2 integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.13 SLC6A4 HTR3A HTR2A
3 integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 8.8 SLC6A4 HTR3A HTR2A

Biological processes related to Panic Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 21)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.19 PTK7 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A CRH CCKBR
2 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.97 HTR2A HTR1A CRH CCKBR CCK
3 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.77 SLC6A2 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A CRH
4 memory GO:0007613 9.72 SLC6A4 HTR2A CCK
5 phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007200 9.65 HTR2A CCKBR CCKAR
6 response to estrogen GO:0043627 9.63 TPH2 CRH COMT
7 response to drug GO:0042493 9.63 TSPO SLC6A4 SLC6A2 HTR2A CRH COMT
8 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.6 SLC6A4 HTR1A
9 behavior GO:0007610 9.58 HTR2A HTR1A
10 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 9.58 MAOA COMT
11 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 9.56 MAOA COMT
12 positive regulation of mitochondrial depolarization GO:0051901 9.54 TSPO CCK
13 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 9.52 MAOA COMT
14 monoamine transport GO:0015844 9.51 SLC6A4 SLC6A2
15 neurotransmitter reuptake GO:0098810 9.49 SLC6A4 SLC6A2
16 positive regulation of behavioral fear response GO:2000987 9.43 CRH CCK
17 regulation of hormone secretion GO:0046883 9.4 HTR1A CCKAR
18 cholecystokinin signaling pathway GO:0038188 9.32 CCKBR CCKAR
19 regulation of serotonin secretion GO:0014062 9.26 HTR1A CRH
20 serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007210 9.13 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
21 response to pain GO:0048265 8.92 TSPO SLC6A2 CRH COMT

Molecular functions related to Panic Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 9.43 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A
2 neurotransmitter transporter activity GO:0005326 9.32 SLC6A4 SLC6A2
3 monoamine transmembrane transporter activity GO:0008504 9.16 SLC6A4 SLC6A2
4 cholecystokinin receptor activity GO:0004951 8.96 CCKBR CCKAR
5 serotonin binding GO:0051378 8.92 SLC6A4 HTR3A HTR2A HTR1A

Sources for Panic Disorder

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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