Categories: Neuronal diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Paresthesia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Paresthesia:

Name: Paresthesia 53 29 6 70


External Ids:

UMLS 70 C0030554

Summaries for Paresthesia

NINDS : 53 Paresthesia refers to a burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet, but can also occur in other parts of the body. The sensation, which happens without warning, is usually painless and described as tingling or numbness, skin crawling, or itching. Most people have experienced temporary paresthesia -- a feeling of "pins and needles" -- at some time in their lives when they have sat with legs crossed for too long, or fallen asleep with an arm crooked under their head. It happens when sustained pressure is placed on a nerve. The feeling quickly goes away once the pressure is relieved. Chronic paresthesia is often a symptom of an underlying neurological disease or traumatic nerve damage. Paresthesia can be caused by disorders affecting the central nervous system, such as stroke and transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes), multiple sclerosis, transverse myelitis, and encephalitis. A tumor or vascular lesion pressed up against the brain or spinal cord can also cause paresthesia. Nerve entrapment syndromes, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, can damage peripheral nerves and cause paresthesia accompanied by pain. Diagnostic evaluation is based on determining the underlying condition causing the paresthetic sensations. An individual's medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests are essential for the diagnosis. Physicians may order additional tests depending on the suspected cause of the paresthesia.

MalaCards based summary : Paresthesia is related to carpal tunnel syndrome and pernicious anemia, and has symptoms including hyperesthesia, dysesthesia and hyperalgesia. An important gene associated with Paresthesia is CAPN3 (Calpain 3). The drugs Diclofenac and Gabapentin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion and lymph node, and related phenotype is muscle.

Wikipedia : 73 Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation of the skin (tingling, pricking, chilling, burning, numbness) with... more...

Related Diseases for Paresthesia

Diseases related to Paresthesia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 197)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 carpal tunnel syndrome 11.1
2 pernicious anemia 11.0
3 notalgia paresthetica 11.0
4 multiple sclerosis 10.9
5 fibromyalgia 10.9
6 herpes zoster 10.9
7 brachyolmia type 3 10.9
8 pruritus, hereditary localized 10.9
9 tabes dorsalis 10.9
10 radial neuropathy 10.9
11 spondylosis 10.9
12 syringomyelia 10.9
13 lipedematous scalp 10.9
14 guillain-barre syndrome 10.2
15 back pain 10.1
16 chronic pain 10.1
17 headache 10.1
18 migraine with or without aura 1 10.0
19 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 10.0
20 anxiety 10.0
21 pain agnosia 10.0
22 horner's syndrome 10.0
23 polyneuropathy 10.0
24 facial paralysis 10.0
25 depression 10.0
26 dysphagia 10.0
27 pneumothorax 10.0
28 periodontitis 10.0
29 tremor 10.0
30 pneumothorax, primary spontaneous 9.9
31 multinucleated neurons, anhydramnios, renal dysplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hydranencephaly 9.9
32 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 9.9
33 autonomic neuropathy 9.9
34 neuroma 9.9
35 contact dermatitis 9.9
36 allergic contact dermatitis 9.9
37 demyelinating disease 9.9
38 radiculopathy 9.9
39 herpes simplex 9.9
40 neuropathy 9.9
41 glossodynia 9.9
42 odontoma 9.9
43 virus-associated trichodysplasia spinulosa 9.9
44 limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 9.8 FKRP CAPN3
45 limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1a 9.8 FKRP CAPN3
46 muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal recessive 7 9.8 FKRP CAPN3
47 autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 9.8 FKRP CAPN3
48 autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2j 9.8 FKRP CAPN3
49 autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2l 9.8 FKRP CAPN3
50 autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2h 9.8 FKRP CAPN3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Paresthesia:

Diseases related to Paresthesia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Paresthesia

UMLS symptoms related to Paresthesia:

hyperesthesia; dysesthesia; hyperalgesia; numbness; circumoral paresthesia; paresthesia, distal; paresthesia mucosal; paresthesia skin; tingling of skin; burning sensation of skin; burning mucosal; paresthesia mouth; electric shock sensation; skin sensation disturbance; tingling mucosal; back paresthesia; buttock paresthesia; extremity paresthesia; facial paresthesia; facial paresthesia, unilateral; finger paresthesia; lip paresthesia; nose paresthesia; palmar pain; palmar paresthesia; thigh numbness; thigh paresthesia; trunk paresthesia; abnormal sensation; pins and needles; paresthesia upper limb; stinging sensation; painful paresthesias; paresthesia lower limb; has tingling sensation

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Paresthesia:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 muscle MP:0005369 8.8 CAPN3 FKRP MT-ND6

Drugs & Therapeutics for Paresthesia

Drugs for Paresthesia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 60)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 15307-86-5 3033
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
Indian frankincense Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4
Riboflavin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-88-5 493570
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 1406-16-2
Thiamine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 70-16-6, 59-43-8 1130
Pyridoxine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 65-23-6 1054
8 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
9 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
10 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 4
11 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
12 Analgesics Phase 4
13 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
14 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
15 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
16 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
17 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
18 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
19 Tea Phase 4
20 Vitamins Phase 4
21 Vitamin B 6 Phase 4
22 Vitamin B2 Phase 4
23 Thiamin Phase 4
24 Calciferol Phase 4
25 Gotu Kola Phase 4
26 Superoxide Dismutase Phase 4
Pyridoxal Experimental, Nutraceutical Phase 4 66-72-8 1050
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 137-58-6 3676
Mexiletine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 31828-71-4 4178
30 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 3
31 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 3
32 Anesthetics, Local Phase 3
33 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 3
Imidacloprid Vet_approved Phase 2 105827-78-9 86418
Lesogaberan Investigational Phase 1 344413-67-8
36 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 1
37 GABA Agonists Phase 1
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational 51-84-3 187
Tetracycline Approved, Vet_approved 60-54-8 5353990
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 564-25-0 54671203
Doxorubicin Approved, Investigational 23214-92-8 31703
Acetaminophen Approved 103-90-2 1983
Ropivacaine Approved 84057-95-4 71273 175805
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved 124-94-7 31307
Betamethasone Approved, Vet_approved 378-44-9 9782
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
47 abobotulinumtoxinA
48 Cholinergic Agents
49 Botulinum Toxins
50 Botulinum Toxins, Type A

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 42)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Randomized Study on SCS for the Treatment of Refractory Angina Pectoris Unknown status NCT00121654 Phase 4
2 Phase 4 Study of Efficacy of Gabapentin in the Treatment of Chest Pain and Paresthesia in Patients With Sternotomy Completed NCT00800527 Phase 4 Gabapentin;Diclofenac
3 Randomised, Prospective, Single-blind, Controlled Multicenter Study on the Safety of Two Epidural Catheters in Patients Undergoing Surgery Under Thoracic Epidural Anaesthesia Completed NCT00394459 Phase 4
4 Effects of Bromelain and Boswellia Serrata Casperome With Centella Asiatica and Thiamine, Riboflavin, Pyridoxine, Vitamin D, Superoxide Dismutase on Edema, Paresthesia and Postoperative Pain After Quadrantectomy With or Without Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: Blinded Randomized Controlled Study Recruiting NCT04669119 Phase 4
5 Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Mexiletine for Painful Diabetic Neuropathy Completed NCT00004647 Phase 3 mexiletine
6 A Comparison Between Ultrasound- and Neurostimulation-Guided Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve Block Completed NCT02577510 Phase 3 Nerve Injection- Nerve Stimulator;Nerve Injection - Ultrasound
7 Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Chronic Migraine: Neurophysiological Study and Pilot Therapeutic Trial Completed NCT02122237 Phase 3
8 Evaluation of Photobiomodulation Effects on Pain, Edema, Paresthesia and Bone Regeneration After Maxillar Surgical Disjunction: Double Blind, Randomized and Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT03814525 Phase 2
9 Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Major Depressive Disorder: a Phase II, Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02562703 Phase 1, Phase 2
10 Combined Cortical and Subcortical Recording and Stimulation as a Circuit-Oriented Treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Recruiting NCT03184454 Phase 2
11 A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Centre Study to Determine the Effect of Intradermal AZD3161 on Quantitative Sensory Testing Variables in Normal and UVC Exposed Skin in Healthy Volunteers Completed NCT01240148 Phase 1 AZD3161;Lidocaine;AZD3161 Placebo
12 A Double-blind, Randomized, Cross-over Design, Phase 1 Pharmacodynamic Study to Investigate the Effect of Different Formulations of AZD3355 for the Development of Paresthesiae After Dosing in Healthy Subjects Completed NCT00688402 Phase 1 AZD3355
13 Neurophysiological Study of tDCS Effects in Healthy Volunteers Completed NCT02125422 Phase 1
14 The Use of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (Tens) in Reducing Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy Induced by Antineoplastic Chemotherapy Unknown status NCT02107417
15 Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS) for Food Craving in Obese Individuals: a Randomized, Sham-controlled, Double Blind Clinical Trial. Unknown status NCT03217929
16 The Effect of Platelet-rich Fibrin on Nerve Regeneration After Bilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy of the Mandible Unknown status NCT03159338
17 Sensory Mapping Following Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery Unknown status NCT01375283
18 Effects of Cervical and Thoracic Manipulative Techniques Combined With OnabotulinumtoxinA Prophylaxis in the Management of Chronic Migraine: a Pilot Single-blind Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02953015 OnabotulinumtoxinA (Prophylaxis therapy)
19 Central Sensitization in Chronic Whiplash Patients: Metabolite Concentrations in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Periacueductal Gray Matter Unknown status NCT03005691
20 CompaRison of Paresthesia Mapping to anatomIc Midline-based burSt Programming Strategies Completed NCT02986074
21 Midline vs Lateral Parasagittal Approach During Fluoroscopically Guided Interlaminar Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection: the Role of Concordant Pressure Paresthesia in Determing Outcome. Completed NCT01760317
22 Immunomodulatory and Clinical Effects of Doxycycline on Persistent Symptoms After Treatment of Neuroborreliosis: A Double-blind, Randomised, Crossover Study Completed NCT01205464 Doxycycline;Placebo
23 The Effect of Muscle Energy Technique on Femoral Meralgia Paraesthesia in Postpartum: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT04747119
24 Epidemiological Study to Assess the Management of Palmar-plantar Erythrodysesthesia (PPE) in Patients With Metastatic Ovarian or Breast Cancer Treated With Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin Completed NCT00746694
25 NAPS (Non-awake Versus Awake Placement of Spinal Cord Stimulators) Study for the Evaluation of Awake and Non-awake Methods of SCS Paddle Lead Placement Completed NCT02284542
26 Subcutaneous Stimulation as Add on Therapy to Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) to Treat Low Back Pain in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) (SubQ Study) Completed NCT01776749
27 Effects of Transcutaneous Nervous Electric Stimulation (TENS) and Interferential Electrical Stimulation (IES) on the Autonomous Balance of Normotens Volunteers and Hypertensive Patients Completed NCT03258489
28 The Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Reduction of Posterior Neck Pain After Thyroidectomy Completed NCT02012686
29 Effects of Spinal Cord Stimulation on Sensory Perceptions of Chronic Pain Patients Completed NCT02837822
30 Observational Prospective Single Centre Study of the Response to Interventional Pain Management Techniques in Chronic Low Back Pain in Adults. 1 and 6 Months Follow-up. Multivariate Analysis of Predictors of Response. Predictive Model. Recruiting NCT04451252
31 Trialing of Intra-spinal Stimulation in Patients With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome or Causalgia Recruiting NCT03954080
32 Mechanisms and Outcome-Prognostication for Paresthesia-based and -Free Spinal Cord Stimulation in Patients With Persistent Neuropathic Pain: the MOPPStim Study Recruiting NCT03852381
33 Photobiomodulation Therapy and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Chronic Neck Pain Patients Recruiting NCT04020861
34 Effects of Paresthesia Free Spinal Cord Stimulation on Pain Intensity, Functional Improvement, Pain Thresholds and Sensory Perceptions in Chronic Pain Patients Recruiting NCT03670147
35 Study to Demonstrate the Value of Paresthesia-Free Fast-Acting Subperception (FAST) and Other SCS Therapies Using WaveWriter™ Spinal Cord Stimulator Systems in the Treatment of Chronic Pain Recruiting NCT04618471
36 Prospective Analysis of Effect of Collagen Wrap Conduit on Radial and Ulnar Nerve Function Following Radial/Ulnar Forearm Free Flap Harvest Recruiting NCT03875833
37 Does the Use of a Nerve Stimulator Improve the Outcome of Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Block (Anesthesia) for Upper Extremity Surgery? Recruiting NCT03112642
38 Objective Measures of Nerve Integrity, Posture, Gait and Blood Flow, After Nerve Decompression In diabetiC Neuropathy PatiENTs Recruiting NCT01735903
39 Comparing Between Ultrasound Assisted Epidural Catheter Placement Using Accuro and the Use of Ultra Sound Real Time With Acoustic Puncture Assisted Device to Confirm Epidural Space End Point Recruiting NCT04204070
40 Brain Activity Assessment by Functional MRI Before, After Radiofrequency of Gasserian Ganglia in Patient With Trigeminal Neuralgia Not yet recruiting NCT03305289
41 A Randomised Pilot Study to Assess differenCes in tHe Subjects' Experience of stimulAtion-Induced paRaesthesiA Between Two Different Spinal Cord sTimulation dEvices: the Axium® DoRsal Root Ganglion Stimulation System Versus the Prime Advanced Dorsal Column Stimulation System Terminated NCT02250469
42 Randomised Sham-controlled Trial of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) for the Prevention of Episodic Migraine Withdrawn NCT02122757

Search NIH Clinical Center for Paresthesia

Genetic Tests for Paresthesia

Genetic tests related to Paresthesia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Paresthesia 29

Anatomical Context for Paresthesia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Paresthesia:

Spinal Cord, Dorsal Root Ganglion, Lymph Node, Tongue, Cortex, Bone, Salivary Gland

Publications for Paresthesia

Articles related to Paresthesia:

(show top 50) (show all 5384)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Ibrutinib-induced acute kidney injury via interstitial nephritis. 61
33567947 2021
Double crush syndrome: Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment results. 61
33130027 2021
Medical and surgical treatment of meralgia paresthetica. 61
33567881 2021
Novel fluoroscopic landmark to significantly facilitate the visualization of foramen ovale in treating idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. 61
33328267 2021
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome. 61
33745647 2021
Current concepts in the management of diabetic polyneuropathy. 61
32918837 2021
Robot-assisted sialolithotomy with sialoendoscopy: a review of safety, efficacy and cost. 61
32472392 2021
The role of sleep in telogen effluvium and trichodynia: A commentary in the context of the current pandemic. 61
33387387 2021
Effectiveness and safety of low-level laser therapy in diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33810813 2021
Benefits of a collagen membrane for recurrent ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow: A series of 40 cases. 61
33309790 2021
The effect of delayed photobiomodulation on neurosensory disturbance recovery after zygomatic trauma: A parallel controlled clinical trial. 61
33640829 2021
Outcomes after truncal ablation with or without concomitant phlebectomy for isolated symptomatic varicose veins (C2 disease). 61
32502731 2021
Uniportal thoracoscopic surgical management using a suture traction for primary pneumothorax. 61
33183063 2021
[Clinical analysis of 46 rheumatoid arthritis patients with peripheral neuropathy]. 61
33663170 2021
Multiple neurological manifestations in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-NXP2-positive myositis: A case report. 61
33725895 2021
Randomized, controlled trial of lasmiditan over four migraine attacks: Findings from the CENTURION study. 61
33541117 2021
Not only gustatory sweating and flushing: Signs and symptoms associated to the Frey syndrome and the role of botulinum toxin A therapy. 61
33247501 2021
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosed in pregnancy: Case report. 61
33719122 2021
Eribulin Mesylate-related Multifocal Demyelinating Neuropathy with Myokymia in a Breast Cancer Patient. 61
33678744 2021
Plexiform Schwannoma of the Oral Cavity: Report of Eight Cases and a Review of the Literature. 61
32270393 2021
Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis in mainland China: a unicentric retrospective study. 61
33739616 2021
Peripheral neuropathy due to neuroborreliosis: Insensitivity for CXCL13 as early diagnostic marker. 61
33684563 2021
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A Narrative Review. 61
33804565 2021
Investigation of Schwannomas in the Forearms, Hands, and Digits: A Retrospective Study. 61
33559563 2021
Pulsed Radiofrequency Ablation: An Alternative Treatment Modality for Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy. 61
33164080 2021
Sudden Death from Primary Cerebral Melanoma: Clinical Signs and Pathological Observations. 61
33802952 2021
Degenerative cervical myelopathy. 61
33781560 2021
Intradural calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease: case report. 61
33668030 2021
Mechanisms and Rationale for Targeted Therapies in Refractory and Unexplained Chronic Cough. 61
32748976 2021
[Cervical Spinal Epidural Hematoma]. 61
33762457 2021
Subxifoid versus transthoracic thoracoscopic lobectomy: Results of a retrospective analysis before and after matching analysis. 61
33689213 2021
Recovery of post Herpes-Zoster pain, paresthesia and motor deficit with peri radicular injection of meloxicam. 61
33331747 2021
The Impact of Using a Larger Forearm Artery for Percutaneous Coronary Interventions on Hand Strength: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 61
33800778 2021
Benefits of the application of heat and pressure on peripheral venous cannulation in adults: A randomized controlled trial. 61
33219590 2021
A modified oblique incision in hamstring tendon graft harvesting during ACL reconstruction. 61
33752724 2021
Influence of Tensioner's Mobilization on the Centralization of Symptoms in Cervicobrachial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 61
33687860 2021
Tetrodotoxin for Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Dose Finding Trial. 61
33805908 2021
Efficacy and safety of condylectomy with minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of interdigital corns of the lesser toes compared to conservative treatment. 61
33743792 2021
Effects of a Cereal Bar with a Combination of Phytoestrogens on the Climacteric Symptoms: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial. 61
33734035 2021
Analysis of complications after the removal of 339 third molars. 61
33789003 2021
Peripheral Nerve Entrapment and Injury in the Upper Extremity. 61
33630556 2021
Comparison of outcome of open reduction and internal fixation versus closed treatment in pediatric mandible fractures-a retrospective study. 61
33483246 2021
Does Low-Level Laser Photobiomodulation Improve Neurosensory Recovery After Orthognathic Surgery? A Clinical Trial With Blink Reflex. 61
33358708 2021
The ascending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery penetrating the posterior division of the femoral nerve. 61
33536351 2021
Hemisensory loss in myasthenia gravis. 61
33731400 2021
A Rare Case of Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting as Ischemic Stroke and Splenic Infarction. 61
33333478 2021
Neurolymphomatosis: a single-center experience of neuromuscular manifestations, treatments, and outcomes. 61
33098033 2021
Effectiveness and safety of the improved mini-incision surgery for osmidrosis treatment. 61
33690951 2021
The efficacy and tolerability of auto-stimulation-VNS in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. 61
33626436 2021
Controversies in ameloblastoma management: evaluation of decision making, based on a retrospective analysis. 61
33037802 2021

Variations for Paresthesia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Paresthesia:

# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 CAPN3 NM_000070.3(CAPN3):c.550del (p.Thr184fs) Deletion Pathogenic 17621 rs80338800 GRCh37: 15:42680001-42680001
GRCh38: 15:42387803-42387803
2 CAPN3 NM_000070.3(CAPN3):c.1746-20C>G SNV Pathogenic 92408 rs201892814 GRCh37: 15:42695919-42695919
GRCh38: 15:42403721-42403721
3 FKRP NM_024301.5(FKRP):c.826C>A (p.Leu276Ile) SNV Pathogenic 4221 rs28937900 GRCh37: 19:47259533-47259533
GRCh38: 19:46756276-46756276
4 MT-ND6 NC_012920.1:m.14477A>G SNV Uncertain significance 523306 rs1556424448 GRCh37: MT:14477-14477
GRCh38: MT:14477-14477

Expression for Paresthesia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Paresthesia.

Pathways for Paresthesia

GO Terms for Paresthesia

Sources for Paresthesia

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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