FPP
MCID: PRT042
MIFTS: 44

Parietal Foramina (FPP)

Categories: Bone diseases, Fetal diseases, Genetic diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Parietal Foramina

MalaCards integrated aliases for Parietal Foramina:

Name: Parietal Foramina 12 25 54 43 15
Enlarged Parietal Foramina 12 24 25 58
Symmetric Parietal Foramina 24 25 58
Hereditary Cranium Bifidum 12 25 58
Foramina Parietalia Permagna 25 58
Catlin Marks 25 58
Fenestrae Parietales Symmetricae 58
Fenestrae Parietals Symmetricae 25
Cranium Bifidum Occultum 25
Giant Parietal Foramina 25
Foramina, Parietal 39
Cranium Bifidum 25
Caitlin Marks 12
Pfm 25
Fpp 25

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
enlarged parietal foramina
Inheritance: Autosomal dominant; Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (Europe),1-9/100000 (Worldwide); Age of onset: Antenatal,Neonatal; Age of death: normal life expectancy;

GeneReviews:

24
Penetrance Penetrance for either an msx2 or alx4 heterozygous pathogenic variant is age related (as the relative width of the defects decreases with age) and high, but reduced (several individuals with a documented pathogenic variant showed no radiographic evidence of enlarged parietal foramina [wilkie et al 2000, mavrogiannis et al 2001, mavrogiannis et al 2006]).

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare bone diseases
Developmental anomalies during embryogenesis


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0060285
MeSH 43 C566826
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 Q75.8
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C1868598
Orphanet 58 ORPHA60015
UMLS 71 C1868598

Summaries for Parietal Foramina

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Enlarged parietal foramina is an inherited condition of impaired skull development. It is characterized by enlarged openings (foramina) in the parietal bones, which are the two bones that form the top and sides of the skull. This condition is due to incomplete bone formation (ossification) within the parietal bones. The openings are symmetrical and circular in shape, ranging in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters wide. Parietal foramina are a normal feature of fetal development, but typically they close before the baby is born, usually by the fifth month of pregnancy. However, in people with this condition, the parietal foramina remain open throughout life. The enlarged parietal foramina are soft to the touch due to the lack of bone at those areas of the skull. People with enlarged parietal foramina usually do not have any related health problems; however, scalp defects, seizures, and structural brain abnormalities have been noted in a small percentage of affected people. Pressure applied to the openings can lead to severe headaches, and individuals with this condition have an increased risk of brain damage or skull fractures if any trauma is experienced in the area of the openings. There are two forms of enlarged parietal foramina, called type 1 and type 2, which differ in their genetic cause.

MalaCards based summary : Parietal Foramina, also known as enlarged parietal foramina, is related to parietal foramina with cleidocranial dysplasia and potocki-shaffer syndrome. An important gene associated with Parietal Foramina is ALX4 (ALX Homeobox 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Neural Crest Differentiation. Affiliated tissues include bone, brain and liver, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and growth/size/body region

Disease Ontology : 12 An inherited neural tube defect that is characterized by enlarged openings in the parietal bones of the skull, has material basis in mutation in the ALX4 gene or MSX2 gene.

GeneReviews: NBK1128

Related Diseases for Parietal Foramina

Diseases in the Parietal Foramina family:

Parietal Foramina 1 Parietal Foramina 3
Parietal Foramina 2

Diseases related to Parietal Foramina via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 116)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 parietal foramina with cleidocranial dysplasia 35.2 RUNX2 MSX2
2 potocki-shaffer syndrome 33.5 PHF21A EXT2 ALX4
3 cleidocranial dysplasia 33.0 RUNX2 MSX2 CBFB
4 acromelic frontonasal dysostosis 32.4 ZSWIM6 ALX3
5 neural tube defects 30.3 MSX2 MSX1 FGF8 ALX4 ALX3 ALX1
6 hypertelorism 30.0 TWIST1 ALX4 ALX3 ALX1
7 dysostosis 30.0 ZSWIM6 TWIST1 RUNX2 MSX2 EXT2 ALX4
8 hemifacial microsomia 29.9 MSX2 MSX1 FGF8 ALX3
9 saethre-chotzen syndrome 29.9 TWIST1 RUNX2 RECQL4 MSX2 MSX1 ALX4
10 cleft palate, isolated 29.6 TWIST1 RUNX2 MSX2 MSX1 FGF8 ALX4
11 craniosynostosis 29.2 TWIST1 RUNX2 RECQL4 NELL1 MSX2 MSX1
12 synostosis 29.1 TWIST1 RUNX2 RECQL4 NELL1 MSX2 FGF8
13 parietal foramina 1 13.0
14 parietal foramina 2 13.0
15 parietal foramina 3 12.8
16 cdags syndrome 11.7
17 frontofacionasal dysplasia 11.6
18 frontonasal dysplasia 3 11.6
19 frontonasal dysplasia 1 11.4
20 opitz-kaveggia syndrome 10.6
21 ptosis 10.5
22 hemangioma 10.5
23 cerebellar hypoplasia 10.5
24 warman mulliken hayward syndrome 10.5
25 headache 10.5
26 seizure disorder 10.5
27 submucosal cleft palate 10.5
28 isolated scaphocephaly 10.5 TWIST1 ALX4
29 hydrocephalus 10.5
30 hair whorl 10.5
31 baastrup's syndrome 10.4 MSX2 ALX4
32 basal encephalocele 10.4 ALX4 ALX3
33 myelomeningocele 10.4
34 spina bifida cystica 10.4
35 hypertelorism, microtia, facial clefting syndrome 10.4 TWIST1 MSX2 ALX4
36 syndromic craniosynostosis 10.4 TWIST1 RUNX2 MSX2
37 periosteal osteogenic sarcoma 10.4 RUNX2 EXT2
38 chromosome 10q23 deletion syndrome 10.3 MSX1 BMPR1B
39 core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia 10.3 RUNX2 CBFB
40 clear cell chondrosarcoma 10.3 RUNX2 EXT2
41 hemophilia 10.3
42 acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis 10.3 ZSWIM6 ALX3
43 cleft lip 10.3
44 cleidocranial dysplasia spectrum disorder 10.3
45 encephalocele 10.3
46 hypothyroidism, thyroidal or athyroidal, with spiky hair and cleft palate 10.3 MSX1 ALX4
47 omphalocele 10.2 MSX2 MSX1 ALX4
48 bone disease 10.2
49 bone resorption disease 10.2
50 pertussis 10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Parietal Foramina:



Diseases related to Parietal Foramina

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Parietal Foramina

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Parietal Foramina:

45 (show all 12)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.32 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 FGF8 MSX1 MSX2
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.31 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 BMPR1B CBFB FGF8
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.3 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 BMPR1B CBFB EXT2
4 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.27 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 BMPR1B CBFB FGF8
5 embryo MP:0005380 10.2 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 BMPR1B CBFB EXT2
6 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.18 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 CBFB FGF8 MSX1
7 limbs/digits/tail MP:0005371 10.14 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 BMPR1B CBFB FGF8
8 nervous system MP:0003631 10.06 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 BMPR1B CBFB FGF8
9 normal MP:0002873 9.86 ALX1 ALX4 BMPR1B CBFB FGF8 MSX1
10 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.81 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 CBFB FGF8 MSX1
11 skeleton MP:0005390 9.77 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 BMPR1B CBFB EXT2
12 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.32 ALX1 ALX3 ALX4 BMPR1B CBFB FGF8

Drugs & Therapeutics for Parietal Foramina

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Parietal Foramina

Cochrane evidence based reviews: parietal foramina

Genetic Tests for Parietal Foramina

Anatomical Context for Parietal Foramina

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Parietal Foramina:

40
Bone, Brain, Liver, Lung, Eye, Skin, Spinal Cord

Publications for Parietal Foramina

Articles related to Parietal Foramina:

(show top 50) (show all 128)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Enlarged parietal foramina caused by mutations in the homeobox genes ALX4 and MSX2: from genotype to phenotype. 54 61 24 6
16319823 2006
2
Mild nasal clefting may be predictive for ALX4 heterozygotes. 61 24 6
24764194 2014
3
Vertical transmission of a frontonasal phenotype caused by a novel ALX4 mutation. 61 24 6
23401352 2013
4
A novel mutation in the MSX2 gene in a family with foramina parietalia permagna (FPP). 54 24 6
16222674 2005
5
Haploinsufficiency of the human homeobox gene ALX4 causes skull ossification defects. 61 24 6
11137991 2001
6
Functional haploinsufficiency of the human homeobox gene MSX2 causes defects in skull ossification. 61 24 6
10742103 2000
7
The ALX4 homeobox gene is mutated in patients with ossification defects of the skull (foramina parietalia permagna, OMIM 168500). 24 6
11106354 2000
8
Identification of mutations in the MSX2 homeobox gene in families affected with foramina parietalia permagna. 24 6
10767351 2000
9
Malformation of cortical and vascular development in one family with parietal foramina determined by an ALX4 homeobox gene mutation. 54 61 24
15569759 2004
10
Enlarged Parietal Foramina 61 6
20301307 2004
11
Parietal foramina with cleidocranial dysplasia is caused by mutation in MSX2. 54 61 24
14571277 2003
12
Identification of a novel homozygous ALX4 mutation in two unrelated patients with frontonasal dysplasia type-2. 61 24
29681084 2018
13
ALX4 related parietal foramina mimicking encephalocele in prenatal period. 61 24
27080046 2016
14
Translocations disrupting PHF21A in the Potocki-Shaffer-syndrome region are associated with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies. 61 24
22770980 2012
15
Skull fractures through parietal foramina: report of two cases. 61 24
22592614 2012
16
Mild nasal malformations and parietal foramina caused by homozygous ALX4 mutations. 61 24
22140057 2012
17
Enlarged parietal foramina: findings on prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. 61 24
20586040 2010
18
Epilepsy in one family with parietal foramina: an incidental finding? 61 24
15489411 2004
19
Surgical management of foramina parietalia permagna. 61 24
12867871 2003
20
A novel locus for parietal foramina maps to chromosome 4q21-q23. 61 24
12905082 2003
21
Aplasia cutis congenita and enlarged parietal foramina (Catlin marks) in a family. 61 24
7670261 1995
22
Hereditary cranium bifidum and symmetric parietal foramina are the same entity. 61 24
2185629 1990
23
Symptomatic large parietal foramina. 61 24
7110564 1982
24
Normal variants and congenital anomalies in the region of the obelion. 61 24
183538 1976
25
A craniosynostosis massively parallel sequencing panel study in 309 Australian and New Zealand patients: findings and recommendations. 24
29215649 2018
26
Use of Exome Sequencing for Infants in Intensive Care Units: Ascertainment of Severe Single-Gene Disorders and Effect on Medical Management. 24
28973083 2017
27
Timing, rates and spectra of human germline mutation. 24
26656846 2016
28
Enhanced utility of family-centered diagnostic exome sequencing with inheritance model-based analysis: results from 500 unselected families with undiagnosed genetic conditions. 24
25356970 2015
29
Boston type craniosynostosis: report of a second mutation in MSX2. 24
23949913 2013
30
Second family with the Boston-type craniosynostosis syndrome: novel mutation and expansion of the clinical spectrum. 24
23918290 2013
31
ALX4 gain-of-function mutations in nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. 24
22829454 2012
32
Microduplications upstream of MSX2 are associated with a phenocopy of cleidocranial dysplasia. 24
22717651 2012
33
Potocki-Shaffer syndrome: comprehensive clinical assessment, review of the literature, and proposals for medical management. 24
20140962 2010
34
ALX4 dysfunction disrupts craniofacial and epidermal development. 24
19692347 2009
35
Craniosynostosis in a patient with 2q37.3 deletion 5q34 duplication: association of extra copy of MSX2 with craniosynostosis. 24
19533795 2009
36
A novel mutation in the MSX2 homeobox gene of a family with foramina parietalia permagna, headache and vascular anomaly. 24
16642368 2006
37
Congenital scalp and calvarial deficiencies: principles for classification and surgical management. 24
15793456 2005
38
Craniosynostosis and related limb anomalies. 54 61
11277076 2001
39
Haploinsufficiency of ALX4 as a potential cause of parietal foramina in the 11p11.2 contiguous gene-deletion syndrome. 54 61
11017806 2000
40
Craniofacial disorders caused by mutations in homeobox genes MSX1 and MSX2. 54 61
10879654 2000
41
The molecular basis of Boston-type craniosynostosis: the Pro148-->His mutation in the N-terminal arm of the MSX2 homeodomain stabilizes DNA binding without altering nucleotide sequence preferences. 24
8968743 1996
42
A mutation in the homeodomain of the human MSX2 gene in a family affected with autosomal dominant craniosynostosis. 24
8106171 1993
43
Developmental defects in the cranial vault. 24
776315 1975
44
Teaching NeuroImages: Enlarged parietal foramina inadvertently labeled as burr holes. 61
31427498 2019
45
De novo truncating variants in PHF21A cause intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies. 61
30487643 2019
46
Asymmetrically enlarged parietal foramina in a rare case of Goldenhar syndrome with a possible etiopathogenesis. 61
29416828 2018
47
'Holes in the head': a case of enlarged parietal foramina. 61
28232462 2017
48
Foramina parietalia permagna: familial and radiological evaluation of two cases and review of literature. 61
27975139 2017
49
The extracranial to intracranial anastomotic channel through the parietal foramen: delineation with magnetic resonance imaging. 61
26498934 2016
50
Enlarged parietal foramina: a rare forensic autopsy finding. 61
26233611 2016

Variations for Parietal Foramina

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Parietal Foramina:

6 (show top 50) (show all 149) ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎ ‎‎
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.443C>T (p.Pro148Leu)SNV Likely pathogenic 219192 rs104893895 5:174156225-174156225 5:174729222-174729222
2 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*102C>TSNV Uncertain significance 352840 rs886060426 5:174156688-174156688 5:174729685-174729685
3 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*601C>TSNV Uncertain significance 352852 rs886060430 5:174157187-174157187 5:174730184-174730184
4 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*363A>GSNV Uncertain significance 352847 rs376258231 5:174156949-174156949 5:174729946-174729946
5 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*144C>TSNV Uncertain significance 352841 rs530005338 5:174156730-174156730 5:174729727-174729727
6 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*289A>GSNV Uncertain significance 352844 rs886060427 5:174156875-174156875 5:174729872-174729872
7 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*526T>CSNV Uncertain significance 352850 rs532200136 5:174157112-174157112 5:174730109-174730109
8 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*530A>GSNV Uncertain significance 352851 rs886060429 5:174157116-174157116 5:174730113-174730113
9 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*863A>GSNV Uncertain significance 352856 rs886060431 5:174157449-174157449 5:174730446-174730446
10 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.-50C>TSNV Uncertain significance 352834 rs371076863 5:174151613-174151613 5:174724610-174724610
11 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*46G>TSNV Uncertain significance 352839 rs375964205 5:174156632-174156632 5:174729629-174729629
12 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.-42C>TSNV Uncertain significance 352835 rs758437365 5:174151621-174151621 5:174724618-174724618
13 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.635C>G (p.Ala212Gly)SNV Uncertain significance 352837 rs775062909 5:174156417-174156417 5:174729414-174729414
14 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*306G>TSNV Uncertain significance 352845 rs886060428 5:174156892-174156892 5:174729889-174729889
15 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*647C>TSNV Uncertain significance 352853 rs751312423 5:174157233-174157233 5:174730230-174730230
16 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*946T>GSNV Uncertain significance 352857 rs886060432 5:174157532-174157532 5:174730529-174730529
17 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*1096A>GSNV Uncertain significance 352861 rs530984915 5:174157682-174157682 5:174730679-174730679
18 MSX2 NM_002449.5(MSX2):c.*1312A>GSNV Uncertain significance 352866 rs886060434 5:174157898-174157898 5:174730895-174730895
19 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*2668T>CSNV Uncertain significance 304635 rs886048291 11:44283736-44283736 11:44262186-44262186
20 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*1444G>CSNV Uncertain significance 304658 rs886048299 11:44284960-44284960 11:44263410-44263410
21 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*1365C>ASNV Uncertain significance 304660 rs529798397 11:44285039-44285039 11:44263489-44263489
22 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*1346deldeletion Uncertain significance 304662 rs544187857 11:44285058-44285058 11:44263508-44263508
23 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*1710T>CSNV Uncertain significance 304651 rs886048297 11:44284694-44284694 11:44263144-44263144
24 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*867C>TSNV Uncertain significance 304681 rs746147000 11:44285537-44285537 11:44263987-44263987
25 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.1185C>G (p.Ala395=)SNV Uncertain significance 304699 rs751941183 11:44286455-44286455 11:44264905-44264905
26 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.728C>T (p.Ala243Val)SNV Uncertain significance 304705 rs145166164 11:44296947-44296947 11:44275397-44275397
27 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.280C>T (p.Pro94Ser)SNV Uncertain significance 304712 rs760627532 11:44331333-44331333 11:44309783-44309783
28 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*3988T>ASNV Uncertain significance 304610 rs886048283 11:44282416-44282416 11:44260866-44260866
29 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*3825G>CSNV Uncertain significance 304611 rs538499078 11:44282579-44282579 11:44261029-44261029
30 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*3805G>ASNV Uncertain significance 304612 rs373307279 11:44282599-44282599 11:44261049-44261049
31 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*3033G>ASNV Uncertain significance 304625 rs886048287 11:44283371-44283371 11:44261821-44261821
32 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*3016G>ASNV Uncertain significance 304626 rs886048288 11:44283388-44283388 11:44261838-44261838
33 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*2991G>ASNV Uncertain significance 304628 rs556132435 11:44283413-44283413 11:44261863-44261863
34 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*2835A>TSNV Uncertain significance 304630 rs886048290 11:44283569-44283569 11:44262019-44262019
35 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*2469T>CSNV Uncertain significance 304640 rs886048293 11:44283935-44283935 11:44262385-44262385
36 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*1470C>TSNV Uncertain significance 304654 rs886048298 11:44284934-44284934 11:44263384-44263384
37 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*1157C>ASNV Uncertain significance 304665 rs886048302 11:44285247-44285247 11:44263697-44263697
38 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*1135C>TSNV Uncertain significance 304666 rs886048303 11:44285269-44285269 11:44263719-44263719
39 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*782A>GSNV Uncertain significance 304684 rs373562733 11:44285622-44285622 11:44264072-44264072
40 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*296C>TSNV Uncertain significance 304690 rs867734583 11:44286108-44286108 11:44264558-44264558
41 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.569C>T (p.Pro190Leu)SNV Uncertain significance 304708 rs143620051 11:44297106-44297106 11:44275556-44275556
42 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.-81C>TSNV Uncertain significance 304718 rs886048305 11:44331693-44331693 11:44310143-44310143
43 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*3577C>TSNV Uncertain significance 304615 rs569151215 11:44282827-44282827 11:44261277-44261277
44 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*3382G>ASNV Uncertain significance 304618 rs748214374 11:44283022-44283022 11:44261472-44261472
45 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*3381C>TSNV Uncertain significance 304619 rs531931217 11:44283023-44283023 11:44261473-44261473
46 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*3112C>TSNV Uncertain significance 304622 rs886048286 11:44283292-44283292 11:44261742-44261742
47 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*2489C>TSNV Uncertain significance 304637 rs886048292 11:44283915-44283915 11:44262365-44262365
48 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*2431C>TSNV Uncertain significance 304641 rs886048294 11:44283973-44283973 11:44262423-44262423
49 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*1913G>ASNV Uncertain significance 304647 rs189662898 11:44284491-44284491 11:44262941-44262941
50 ALX4 NM_021926.4(ALX4):c.*1466G>ASNV Uncertain significance 304655 rs552492615 11:44284938-44284938 11:44263388-44263388

Expression for Parietal Foramina

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Parietal Foramina.

Pathways for Parietal Foramina

Pathways related to Parietal Foramina according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.93 TWIST1 MSX2 MSX1 FGF8

GO Terms for Parietal Foramina

Cellular components related to Parietal Foramina according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nuclear chromatin GO:0000790 9.17 TWIST1 RUNX2 MSX2 MSX1 ALX4 ALX3

Biological processes related to Parietal Foramina according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 38)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 10.17 TWIST1 RUNX2 MSX1 CBFB BMPR1B ALX4
2 multicellular organism development GO:0007275 10.17 TWIST1 RECQL4 MSX2 MSX1 FGF8 ALX4
3 cell differentiation GO:0030154 10.14 TWIST1 RUNX2 NELL1 FGF8 EXT2 BMPR1B
4 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0000122 10.12 TWIST1 PHF21A MSX2 MSX1 CBFB ALX1
5 negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045892 10.05 TWIST1 RUNX2 MSX2 MSX1 ALX1
6 anterior/posterior pattern specification GO:0009952 9.88 MSX2 MSX1 ALX4 ALX1
7 osteoblast differentiation GO:0001649 9.88 TWIST1 RUNX2 MSX2 CBFB
8 muscle organ development GO:0007517 9.83 TWIST1 MSX1 ALX4
9 BMP signaling pathway GO:0030509 9.83 RUNX2 MSX2 MSX1 BMPR1B
10 cartilage development GO:0051216 9.82 MSX2 MSX1 BMPR1B
11 cellular response to growth factor stimulus GO:0071363 9.81 TWIST1 MSX2 BMPR1B
12 embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis GO:0048701 9.78 TWIST1 RUNX2 ALX3
13 roof of mouth development GO:0060021 9.78 TWIST1 MSX1 ALX4 ALX1
14 stem cell differentiation GO:0048863 9.77 RUNX2 MSX2 MSX1
15 positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation GO:0045669 9.76 RUNX2 NELL1 MSX2 BMPR1B
16 limb morphogenesis GO:0035108 9.71 FGF8 BMPR1B ALX4
17 embryonic digit morphogenesis GO:0042733 9.71 TWIST1 MSX2 MSX1 ALX4
18 signal transduction involved in regulation of gene expression GO:0023019 9.69 MSX2 MSX1 FGF8
19 positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation GO:0032332 9.68 RUNX2 BMPR1B
20 embryonic morphogenesis GO:0048598 9.67 MSX2 MSX1
21 cartilage condensation GO:0001502 9.67 BMPR1B ALX1
22 osteoblast development GO:0002076 9.67 RUNX2 MSX2
23 chondrocyte development GO:0002063 9.67 RUNX2 MSX2 BMPR1B
24 embryonic limb morphogenesis GO:0030326 9.67 TWIST1 MSX2 MSX1 ALX1
25 negative regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding GO:2000678 9.65 MSX2 MSX1
26 mammary gland epithelium development GO:0061180 9.64 MSX2 MSX1
27 BMP signaling pathway involved in heart development GO:0061312 9.62 MSX2 MSX1
28 cranial suture morphogenesis GO:0060363 9.62 TWIST1 MSX2
29 embryonic skeletal system morphogenesis GO:0048704 9.62 TWIST1 ALX4 ALX3 ALX1
30 regulation of odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth GO:0042487 9.61 RUNX2 FGF8
31 epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation GO:0003198 9.61 MSX2 MSX1 FGF8
32 embryonic nail plate morphogenesis GO:0035880 9.6 MSX2 MSX1
33 positive regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process GO:2001055 9.56 MSX2 MSX1
34 odontogenesis GO:0042476 9.56 TWIST1 MSX2 MSX1 FGF8
35 activation of meiosis GO:0090427 9.55 MSX2 MSX1
36 ossification GO:0001503 9.55 TWIST1 RUNX2 MSX2 EXT2 CBFB
37 embryonic forelimb morphogenesis GO:0035115 9.43 TWIST1 RUNX2 MSX2 MSX1 ALX4 ALX3
38 embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis GO:0035116 9.1 TWIST1 MSX2 MSX1 FGF8 ALX4 ALX3

Molecular functions related to Parietal Foramina according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 DNA binding GO:0003677 9.91 TWIST1 RUNX2 PHF21A MSX2 MSX1 CBFB
2 sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0043565 9.63 MSX2 MSX1 CBFB ALX4 ALX3 ALX1
3 RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0000977 9.35 MSX2 MSX1 ALX4 ALX3 ALX1
4 bHLH transcription factor binding GO:0043425 9.32 TWIST1 RUNX2
5 DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific GO:0000981 9.23 TWIST1 RUNX2 MSX2 MSX1 CBFB ALX4

Sources for Parietal Foramina

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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