MCID: PTL002
MIFTS: 33

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Categories: Bone diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome:

Name: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome 12 44 15 17 70

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:14284
MeSH 44 D046788
UMLS 70 C0877149

Summaries for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

MalaCards based summary : Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is related to bursitis and chondromalacia, and has symptoms including arthralgia and metatarsalgia. An important gene associated with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome is LRRC70 (Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 70), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Transcriptional regulation by the AP-2 (TFAP2) family of transcription factors. The drugs Acetylcholine and Lidocaine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, and related phenotypes are Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) and Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2)

Wikipedia : 73 Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS; not to be confused with jumper's knee) is knee pain as a result of... more...

Related Diseases for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Diseases related to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 41)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 bursitis 30.4 TAC1 LAPTM4A
2 chondromalacia 10.4
3 patella, chondromalacia of 10.3
4 frozen shoulder 10.3
5 multinucleated neurons, anhydramnios, renal dysplasia, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hydranencephaly 10.2
6 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.2
7 tendinitis 10.2
8 b-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma 10.1
9 facial neuralgia 10.0 TAC1 LAPTM4A
10 shoulder impingement syndrome 10.0 TAC1 LAPTM4A
11 plantar fasciitis 10.0 TAC1 LAPTM4A
12 myofascial pain syndrome 10.0 TAC1 LAPTM4A
13 epicondylitis 10.0 TAC1 LAPTM4A
14 reflex sympathetic dystrophy 10.0 TAC1 LAPTM4A
15 radiculopathy 10.0 TAC1 LAPTM4A
16 tendinopathy 10.0
17 alexithymia 10.0
18 covid-19 10.0
19 plica syndrome 10.0
20 arthropathy 10.0
21 osgood-schlatter's disease 10.0
22 osteochondrosis 10.0
23 osteochondritis dissecans 10.0
24 acute mountain sickness 10.0
25 bunion 10.0
26 chronic pain 10.0
27 dysautonomia 10.0
28 overuse syndrome 10.0
29 bruxism 10.0 TAC1 LAPTM4A
30 somatoform disorder 10.0 TAC1 LAPTM4A
31 urethral syndrome 10.0 TAC1 LAPTM4A
32 paine syndrome 9.9 TAC1 LAPTM4A
33 chromosomal triplication 9.9 CGB7 CGB3
34 serotonin syndrome 9.8 TAC1 CGB3
35 ectopic pregnancy 9.7 CGB7 CGB3
36 placenta disease 9.7 CGB7 CGB3
37 gestational trophoblastic neoplasm 9.7 CGB8 CGB3
38 seminoma 9.7 CGB7 CGB3
39 teratoma 9.6 CGB7 CGB3
40 mixed ductal-endocrine carcinoma 9.5 CGB8 CGB7 CGB3
41 choriocarcinoma 9.5 CGB7 CGB3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome:



Diseases related to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

UMLS symptoms related to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome:


arthralgia; metatarsalgia

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-134 9.17 CGB7 CGB8
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-32 9.17 CGB7 CGB8 LAPTM4A
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-61 9.17 LAPTM4A
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-79 9.17 LAPTM4A

Drugs & Therapeutics for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Drugs for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 34)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Acetylcholine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 51-84-3 187
2
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 137-58-6 3676
3
Imidacloprid Vet_approved Phase 3 105827-78-9 86418
4 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3
5 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 3
6 Cholinergic Agents Phase 3
7 Botulinum Toxins Phase 3
8 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 3
9
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
10
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
11
Phenylephrine Approved 59-42-7 6041
12
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational 1491-59-4 4636
13
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
14
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved 9004-61-9 53477741
15 Orange Approved
16
Sulfamethazine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 57-68-1 5327
17
Povidone-iodine Approved 25655-41-8
18
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
19
Acetaminophen Approved 103-90-2 1983
20
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 68-26-8, 11103-57-4 445354
21 Protective Agents
22 Immunologic Factors
23 Adjuvants, Immunologic
24 Viscosupplements
25 Hylan
26 Aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, simethicone drug combination
27 TEMPO
28 Anesthetics
29 Astragalus
30 retinol
31 Retinol palmitate
32 Analgesics
33 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
34 Antipyretics

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 127)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Foot Orthotics in the Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Randomised Clinical Trial in Primary Care Completed NCT00118521 Phase 3
2 Effectiveness of Diacutaneous Fibrolysis Technique on Pain, Range of Motion, Strength and Function in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Completed NCT02379364 Phase 3
3 A Prospective Randomized Study Comparing the Outcome of Electrical Stimulation of Vastus Medialis Obliquus Muscle and Physical Therapy vs Only Physical Therapy But no Electrical Stimulation in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Recruiting NCT03184545 Phase 3
4 Botox for Non-surgical Lateral Release in Patellofemoral Pain Terminated NCT00496964 Phase 3 Botulinum toxin A + exercise;Placebo
5 Comparison of The Clinical Effects Between Different Physical Therapy Tools in Patellofemoral Pain Patients Unknown status NCT00451347 Phase 1, Phase 2
6 Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Therapy-resistant Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: an Open-label, Randomized, Delayed-start Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02613247 Phase 2
7 Quadriceps Femoris Strengthening Versus Hamstring Stretching for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Completed NCT01691170 Phase 1, Phase 2
8 Treatment for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Using Knee Abduction Moment-Reducing Footwear Completed NCT01332110 Phase 1, Phase 2
9 Assessing Foot Injuries in Infantry Recruits Wearing Different Boots, a Prospective Randomized Study Completed NCT02810002 Phase 1, Phase 2
10 Phase 1 Study: Comparison of Electromechanical Delay Phase 2 Study: Research in Viscoelasticity of Tendon Structures Phase 3 Study: Effects of Exercise Training in the Mechanical Properties Unknown status NCT00451087 Phase 1
11 Effect of Hip Adduction Combination With Knee Extension Exercise on Morphology of Quadriceps Muscles, Pain and Functional Outcomes in Patients With PFPS Unknown status NCT00166777 Phase 1
12 The Effects of a Trunk Strengthening Program on Anterior Knee Pain in an Adolescent Athletic Population: a Randomized Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02123602
13 Effect of Star Excursion Balance Test on Balance, Quality of Life and Functional Status in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Unknown status NCT03364855
14 Immediate Effect of Selective Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of Vastus Medialis Obliquus in Women With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Unknown status NCT02548988
15 Morphology of the Vastus Medialis Obliquus in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome and Healthy Young Adults --A Sonographic Study Unknown status NCT00173147
16 Foot Orthoses in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: a Prospective Randomized Study of Morpho-specific Versus Placebo Orthoses Unknown status NCT02250144
17 Effects of Kinesio Taping in Painful and Neuromuscular Performance of Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Unknown status NCT02827084
18 Can Lower Extremity Overuse Injuries Be Prevented by an Exercise Program Aiming at Muscular Strength, Flexibility and Coordination - a RCT Unknown status NCT00348647
19 The Effect of Muscle Strengthening Associated With Neuromuscular Stimulus in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain During Negotiating Stairs: A Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02591680
20 Shock Wave Therapy Versus Neuromuscular Training in Women With Patellofemoral Pain Unknown status NCT03324204
21 The Additional Effect of First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Correction on Runners With First Ray Instability and Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Unknown status NCT03468491
22 The Role of Quadriceps Contraction in Patellar Repositioning-a Computed Tomography Study Unknown status NCT00760136
23 Arthroscopic Treatment of Resistant Cases of Patellofemoral Pain by Circumpatellar Denervation Unknown status NCT03615976
24 Effectiveness of a Roller Intervention in Patients With Anterior Knee Pain: a Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03620799
25 A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Two Chiropractic Protocols for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: a Pilot Study Completed NCT00401050
26 Investigation of Muscle Activity Pattern of Gluteus Medius and Tensor Fascia Lata in Patients With PFPS Completed NCT00451438
27 Activation of Hip Muscles in Runners With Patellofemoral Syndrome: Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT02837289
28 McConnell Patellar Taping in Static and Dynamic Postural Control of Women With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Randomized Clinical Trial and Blind Completed NCT02841384
29 Short Term Efficacy of the Combination of Radiofrecuency Diathermy and Supervised Exercise Versus Supervised Exercise Alone in the Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Completed NCT04538508
30 Correlation Between the Amplitude of Ankle Dorsiflexion and Occurrence of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Completed NCT03213015
31 Comparison of Short-Term Effects of Mobilization With Movement and Kinesiotaping on Pain, Function and Balance in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Control Completed NCT02707679
32 Evaluation of a Treatment Algorithm for Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02461095
33 Changes in Quadriceps Function Following Local or Distant Interventions in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain Completed NCT01434966
34 Kinematics of Lower Limb, Pain and Function of the Women With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Who Underwent Two Types Treatment: Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT01804608
35 Effects of Trigger Point Dry Needling In Patient With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Completed NCT03966937
36 Dynamic Quadriceps Muscle Stimulation for Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain Completed NCT02243332
37 Association Between Ankle Dorsiflexion and Frontal Projection Angle During a Functional Task in the Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Completed NCT03897569
38 A Randomized, Pragmatic, Effectiveness Trial Evaluating Intra-articular Hyaluronan for the Symptomatic Treatment of Chronic Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Completed NCT01811654
39 The Effects of Foot Exercises on Pain, Biomechanical Characteristics and Functionality of Lower Extremity in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Completed NCT03099512
40 Early Intervention for Adolescents With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - a Cluster Randomized Trial Completed NCT01438762
41 Effectiveness of Exercise Therapy Versus Spinal Manual Therapy in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Medium Term Follow-up Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial Completed NCT04748692
42 Comparing the Effects of Positional Release Technique Versus Myofascial Release Technique of Gluteus Medius in the Management of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized Control Trial Completed NCT04667091
43 Spinal Manipulation for Improving Hip and Knee Muscle Strength in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial Completed NCT03101956
44 The Acute Effects of Hip and Knee Exercises on Pain Sensitivity in Young Adult Females With Long-standing Patellofemoral Pain - a Randomized Crossover Study. Completed NCT03054701
45 Differences in Pain Sensitivity in Young Females With Longstanding Patellofemoral Pain, Recovered Females With a History of PFP, and Healthy Controls. Completed NCT03051412
46 Comparison of Early Hip Strengthening to Early Quadriceps Strengthening in the Treatment of Females With Patellofemoral Pain Completed NCT00445224
47 Analysis of the Efficacy in the Lomg Term (Six Months Follow up) of the Combination of Radiofrecuency and Therapeutic Exercise Versus Therapeutic Exercise Alone in the Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Completed NCT04462718
48 Effect of Two Strengthening Protocols for Lower Limbs in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain: Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT03163290
49 Do Simple Running Technique Changes Reduce Pain and Change Injury Causing Mechanics in Runners With Common Running Related Injuries? Completed NCT03067545
50 The Effects of Protonics Knee Brace Versus Hamstring Resisted Exercise on Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Completed NCT03042559

Search NIH Clinical Center for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Cochrane evidence based reviews: patellofemoral pain syndrome

Genetic Tests for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome:

40
Bone

Publications for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Articles related to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 666)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Electromyographic and kinematic analysis of females with excessive medial knee displacement in the overhead squat. 61
33607358 2021
2
Morphometric analysis of vastus medialis oblique muscle and its influence on anterior knee pain. 61
33262319 2021
3
Patellofemoral Chondropathy Areas in Folk Dancers: An MRI Study. 61
33647095 2021
4
Motor Control Exercises Compared to Strengthening Exercises for Upper and Lower Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials. 61
33609357 2021
5
Learning Gait Modifications for Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation: Applying Motor Learning Principles to Improve Research and Clinical Implementation. 61
33351940 2021
6
Dose atrophy of vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis exist in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. 61
33568152 2021
7
The Effect of Diacutaneous Fibrolysis on Local and Widespread Hyperalgesia and Muscle Length in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Secondary Analysis of a Pretest-Posttest Clinical Trial. 61
33596548 2021
8
Diagnosis of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Based on a Multi-Input Convolutional Neural Network With Data Augmentation. 61
33643997 2021
9
Hydraulic distension as a treatment for patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) non-responsive to standard rehabilitation. 61
33279390 2021
10
Effectiveness of Tele-Prescription of Therapeutic Physical Exercise in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome during the COVID-19 Pandemic. 61
33504042 2021
11
Intra- and Inter-Session Reliability of Methods for Measuring Reaction Time in Participants with and without Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. 61
33778122 2021
12
Shank and rearfoot coordination and its variability during running in flatfoot. 61
33385870 2021
13
Comparison of dry needling and ischaemic compression techniques on pain and function in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomised clinical trial. 61
32338532 2020
14
Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Versus Exercise Program in Runners With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 61
33333491 2020
15
Effects of a 12-week home exercise therapy program on pain and neuromuscular activity in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. 61
32728976 2020
16
The effects of McConnell patellofemoral joint and tibial internal rotation limitation taping techniques in people with Patellofemoral pain syndrome. 61
32987346 2020
17
Sex differences in neuromuscular control of quadriceps. 61
32712701 2020
18
Monopolar dielectric diathermy by emission of radiofrequency in Patellofemoral pain. A single-blind-randomized clinical trial. 61
32683992 2020
19
Zone- and layer-specific differences in proteoglycan content in patellofemoral pain syndrome are detectable on T1ρ MRI. 61
32253471 2020
20
Influence of patellofemoral pain syndrome in functional perfomance of young women. 61
33135649 2020
21
Electrical Stimulation Therapies for Active Duty Military with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Trial. 61
32248227 2020
22
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome Modifies the Movement of the Rearfoot, but It Does Not Alter Plantar Pressure Distribution. 61
32904777 2020
23
Effects of exercise combined with whole body vibration in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomised-controlled clinical trial. 61
32859183 2020
24
FUNCTIONAL JOINT MOBILIZATIONS FOR PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME: A CLINICAL SUGGESTION. 61
33354396 2020
25
Taping, Bracing, and Injection Treatment for Patellofemoral Pain and Patellar Tendinopathy. 61
32500350 2020
26
Comparison of Protonics™ Knee Brace With Sport Cord on Knee Pain and Function in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 61
31034316 2020
27
What Is the Effect on Kinesio Taping on Pain and Gait in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome? 61
32775064 2020
28
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome and Pain Severity Is Associated With Asymmetry of Gluteus Medius Muscle Activation Measured Via Ultrasound. 61
31860586 2020
29
Classifying individuals with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome using ground force profiles - Development of a method using functional data boosting. 61
32497981 2020
30
Immediate effects of an elastic patellar brace on pain, neuromuscular activity and knee kinematics in subjects with patellofemoral pain. 61
32108253 2020
31
Individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome have altered inter-leg force coordination. 61
32361127 2020
32
Validity and Reliability of the Indonesian Version of the Kujala Score for Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. 61
32523969 2020
33
Cycling with Low Saddle Height is Related to Increased Knee Adduction Moments in Healthy Recreational Cyclists. 61
31269871 2020
34
Does Acute Fatigue Negatively Affect Intrinsic Risk Factors of the Lower Extremity Injury Risk Profile? A Systematic and Critical Review. 61
31782066 2020
35
Changes in Knee Vastii Muscle Activity in Women with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome During the Menstrual Cycle. 61
31408276 2020
36
Effects of McConnell taping combined with strengthening exercises of vastus medialis oblique in females with patellofemoral pain syndrome. 61
32296223 2020
37
Assessment and Management of Somatic Dysfunctions in Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. 61
32091560 2020
38
Effects of Posterior X Taping on Movement Quality and Knee Pain Intensity during Forward-Step-Down in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. 61
32132846 2020
39
Static patella tilt and axial engagement in knee extension are mainly influenced by knee torsion, the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove distance (TTTG), and trochlear dysplasia but not by femoral or tibial torsion. 61
31267191 2020
40
Women's Sports Medicine Programs in the United States: an interdisciplinary approach to the care of girls and women. 61
31213108 2020
41
Added Value of Gluteus Medius and Quadratus Lumborum Dry Needling in Improving Knee Pain and Function in Female Athletes With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. 61
31465756 2020
42
Analysis of Running-Related Injuries: The Vienna Study. 61
32041127 2020
43
The effect of patellofemoral pain syndrome on patellofemoral joint kinematics under upright weight-bearing conditions. 61
32997727 2020
44
Effect of diacutaneous fibrolysis on the muscular properties of gastrocnemius muscle. 61
33296423 2020
45
Prevalence and sensitivity of trigger points in lumbo-pelvic-hip muscles in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. 61
31987531 2020
46
Investigation of different application techniques for Kinesio Taping® with an accompanying exercise protocol for improvement of pain and functionality in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: A pilot study. 61
31987562 2020
47
Electromyographic analysis of VMO and VL across straight leg raise, short arc quad, medial tibial rotation and hip adduction in normal individuals. 61
31868722 2020
48
Effects of Trigger Point Dry Needling on Neuromuscular Performance and Pain of Individuals Affected by Patellofemoral Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial. 61
32753943 2020
49
Lower extremity alignment due to patellofemoral syndrome and dynamic postural balance. 61
32054433 2020
50
Twelve-Week Gait Retraining Reduced Patellofemoral Joint Stress during Running in Male Recreational Runners. 61
32258162 2020

Variations for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Expression for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome.

Pathways for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

GO Terms for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Cellular components related to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.35 TAC1 CGB8 CGB7 CGB3 C6orf58
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.02 TAC1 CGB8 CGB7 CGB3 C6orf58

Biological processes related to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 9.67 TAC1 CGB8 CGB7 CGB3
2 apoptotic process GO:0006915 9.62 RNF34 CGB8 CGB7 CGB3
3 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.46 TAC1 CGB8 CGB7 CGB3
4 peptide hormone processing GO:0016486 9.26 CGB8 CGB3
5 hormone-mediated signaling pathway GO:0009755 9.13 CGB8 CGB7 CGB3
6 female gamete generation GO:0007292 8.8 CGB8 CGB7 CGB3

Molecular functions related to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.8 CGB8 CGB7 CGB3

Sources for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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