MCID: PLL002
MIFTS: 45

Pellagra

Categories: Mental diseases, Metabolic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Pellagra

MalaCards integrated aliases for Pellagra:

Name: Pellagra 12 74 52 58 36 43 15 71
Niacin-Tryptophan Deficiency 12
Niacin Deficiency 12

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare skin diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:8457
KEGG 36 H01582
ICD9CM 34 265.2
MeSH 43 D010383
ICD10 32 E52
MESH via Orphanet 44 D010383
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 E52
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0030783
Orphanet 58 ORPHA97352
UMLS 71 C0030783

Summaries for Pellagra

KEGG : 36 Pellagra is a remarkable chronic wasting disorder, the late stage of a severe cellular deficiency of niacin (vitamin B3). The classical triad of pellagra is dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia. Early symptoms include lassitude, weakness, loss of appetite, mild digestive disturbances and psychiatric distress. The dermatitis caused by pellagra is a bilaterally symmetrical eruption at cutaneous sites of solar exposure. It tends to be painful to touch during the acute phase and can eventually become so clinically striking that the patient may become ostracized. Untreated pellagra results in death from multiorgan failure. Pellagra used to be a disease of epidemic proportions in the developed world. In the 18th century, it was linked with poverty and subsistence on nutritionally marginal corn-based diets. In the 1940s and 1950s, with expanded biochemical knowledge, pellagra was reformulated as a deficiency disease due to inadequate niacin and its amino acid precursor tryptophan. It is currently seen in association with other conditions of chronic nutritional deficiencies, like alcoholism.

MalaCards based summary : Pellagra, also known as niacin-tryptophan deficiency, is related to human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease and pellagra-like syndrome, and has symptoms including gastrointestinal disturbance An important gene associated with Pellagra is SLC6A19 (Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 19), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism and Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins and cofactors. The drugs Etoposide and Vorinostat have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, liver and testes, and related phenotypes are Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) and Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2)

Disease Ontology : 12 A nutritional deficiency disease that is characterized by deficiency of niacin (vitamin B3), has symptom gastrointestinal disturbance, anorexia, diarrhea, dementia, hallucinations, depression, psychosis, and/or non-specific skin changes, and has material basis in deficiency of niacin, often from inadequate diet, malabsorption, or medication side effects.

Wikipedia : 74 Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3). Symptoms include inflamed... more...

Related Diseases for Pellagra

Diseases in the Pellagra family:

Pellagra-Like Syndrome

Diseases related to Pellagra via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 184)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease 29.1 IL10 IDO1 CD38
2 pellagra-like syndrome 12.5
3 hartnup disorder 11.8
4 hydroxykynureninuria 11.8
5 diarrhea 10.6
6 alcohol dependence 10.5
7 encephalopathy 10.5
8 exanthem 10.4
9 kwashiorkor 10.3
10 crohn's disease 10.3
11 deficiency anemia 10.3
12 alcohol use disorder 10.3
13 myoclonus 10.3
14 phototoxic dermatitis 10.3 PARP1 NNMT
15 dermatitis 10.3
16 anorexia nervosa 10.2
17 carcinoid syndrome 10.2
18 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 10.2
19 wernicke encephalopathy 10.2
20 eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome 10.1 KYNU IDO1
21 neutropenia 10.1
22 leukemia 10.1
23 pernicious anemia 10.1
24 hypoascorbemia 10.1
25 beriberi 10.1
26 keratosis 10.1
27 subacute delirium 10.1
28 neuropathy 10.1
29 porphyria 10.1
30 iron metabolism disease 10.1
31 nutritional deficiency disease 10.1
32 peripheral nervous system disease 10.1
33 stomatitis 10.1
34 spotted fever rickettsiosis 10.0 IL10 IDO1
35 esophageal cancer 10.0
36 acrodermatitis enteropathica, zinc-deficiency type 10.0
37 celiac disease 1 10.0
38 aceruloplasminemia 10.0
39 mycobacterium tuberculosis 1 10.0
40 hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 10.0
41 colitis 10.0
42 crohn's colitis 10.0
43 hemosiderosis 10.0
44 glossitis 10.0
45 hypothyroidism 10.0
46 constipation 10.0
47 acrodermatitis 10.0
48 pulmonary tuberculosis 10.0
49 purpura 10.0
50 laryngitis 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pellagra:



Diseases related to Pellagra

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pellagra

Symptoms:

12
  • gastrointestinal disturbance

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Pellagra according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (show all 21)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-118 9.72 HCAR1 HCAR2 NMNAT1
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-128 9.72 HCAR2
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-132 9.72 HCAR1
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-133 9.72 NMNAT1
5 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-136 9.72 NMNAT1
6 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-161 9.72 NMNAT1
7 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-173 9.72 NMNAT1
8 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-177 9.72 HCAR2
9 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-180 9.72 NMNAT1
10 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-190 9.72 HCAR1
11 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-2 9.72 NMNAT1
12 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-200 9.72 NMNAT1
13 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-214 9.72 HCAR2
14 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-32 9.72 HCAR2
15 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-4 9.72 NMNAT1
16 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-46 9.72 NMNAT1
17 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-52 9.72 HCAR2
18 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-74 9.72 HCAR1 HCAR2
19 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-83 9.72 HCAR1 NMNAT1
20 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-85 9.72 HCAR1
21 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-88 9.72 HCAR1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Pellagra:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.44 ACMSD CD38 DGAT2 HCAR1 HCAR2 IDO1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pellagra

Drugs for Pellagra (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 25)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Etoposide Approved Phase 1 33419-42-0 36462
2
Vorinostat Approved, Investigational Phase 1 149647-78-9 5311
3
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational Phase 1 98-92-0 936
4
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 1 59-30-3 6037
5
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 1 59-67-6 938
6
Psilocybin Investigational Phase 1 520-52-5
7 Tin Fluorides Phase 1
8 Etoposide phosphate Phase 1
9 Topoisomerase Inhibitors Phase 1
10 Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Phase 1
11 Vitamins Phase 1
12 Trace Elements Phase 1
13 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 1
14 Micronutrients Phase 1
15 Vitamin B Complex Phase 1
16 Vitamin B3 Phase 1
17 Nutrients Phase 1
18 Vasodilator Agents Phase 1
19 Vitamin B9 Phase 1
20 Folate Phase 1
21 Antimetabolites Phase 1
22 Nicotinic Acids Phase 1
23 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 1
24 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 1
25 Hallucinogens Phase 1

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Phase I Study of Vorinostat in Combination With Niacinamide, and Etoposide for the Treatment of Patients With Relapsed and Refractory Lymphoid Malignancies Completed NCT00691210 Phase 1 Vorinostat;Niacinamide;Etoposide
2 Psilocybin Treatment in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Preliminary Efficacy Study and Exploratory Investigation of Neural Correlates. Recruiting NCT03356483 Phase 1 Psilocybin (0.25mg/kg);Niacin (250mg)
3 Towards Optimal Personalized Diet and Vitamin Supplementation in NET Patients; a Pilot Study Completed NCT02481804
4 GPR109A and Parkinson's Disease: Role of Niacin in Outcome Measures Active, not recruiting NCT03462680
5 NAPS: Niacin for Parkinsons Disease Not yet recruiting NCT03808961
6 Study on Nutritional Deficiencies and Related Factors in Patients With Recurrent Miscarriage Not yet recruiting NCT04064931

Search NIH Clinical Center for Pellagra

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Niacin
Niacinamide
NICOTINAMIDE HYDRIODIDE
Thiamine hydrochloride
Thiamine Mononitrate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: pellagra

Genetic Tests for Pellagra

Anatomical Context for Pellagra

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Pellagra:

40
Skin, Liver, Testes, Small Intestine, T Cells, Brain, Spinal Cord

Publications for Pellagra

Articles related to Pellagra:

(show top 50) (show all 1034)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Chapter 6: Vitamins and Oral Health. 61
31940621 2020
2
Gastrointestinal: Life-threatening diarrhea due to pellagra in an elderly patient. 61
31802543 2019
3
Image Gallery: Pellagra. 61
31432495 2019
4
Role of Nicotinamide in Genomic Stability and Skin Cancer Chemoprevention. 61
31779194 2019
5
[Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional deficiencies]. 61
31746568 2019
6
Pellagra, an Almost-Forgotten Differential Diagnosis of Chronic Diarrhea: More Prevalent Than We Think. 61
31599018 2019
7
Cutaneous Metastasis of Internal Tumors. 61
31466594 2019
8
Pellagra and anorexia nervosa: a case report. 61
31531763 2019
9
Pellagra in the USA: unusual manifestations of a rare entity. 61
31570356 2019
10
Nicotinamide and NAFLD: Is There Nothing New Under the Sun? 61
31510030 2019
11
Verrucous dermatophytosis on photoexposed areas resembling pellagra in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 61
31317873 2019
12
Public Health Aspects in the Prevention and Control of Vitamin Deficiencies. 61
31598578 2019
13
Metabolic diseases in Andean paleopathology: Retrospect and prospect. 61
31377145 2019
14
Association of Schizophrenia Risk With Disordered Niacin Metabolism in an Indian Genome-wide Association Study. 61
31268507 2019
15
Photosensitivity in drug induced pellagra. 61
29192472 2019
16
[Skin Manifestations of Pellagra]. 61
30988221 2019
17
Vitamin D: part II; cod liver oil, ultraviolet radiation, and eradication of rickets. 61
30627846 2019
18
Pellagra and Alcohol Dependence Syndrome: Findings From a Tertiary Care Addiction Treatment Centre in India. 61
30721993 2019
19
Pellagra and pellagra-like erythema in a hospital setting in Lomé, Togo : retrospective study from 1997 to 2017. 61
31031251 2019
20
From the Editor Pellagra, Osler, Roberts, Goldberger, the Atherosclerotic Diet, Niacin, the Beginning of the Atherosclerotic Epidemic, and the First Lipid-Altering Drug. 61
30563617 2019
21
Pellagra in isoniazid preventive and antiretroviral therapy. 61
31193074 2019
22
Autophagy in malnutrition-associated dermatoses. 61
30379352 2019
23
Pellagra, a re-emerging disease: a case report of a girl from a community ravaged by insurgency. 61
31692657 2019
24
Nicotinamide and Demographic and Disease transitions: Moderation is Best. 61
31320805 2019
25
A case of isoniazid-induced pellagra aggravated by secondary anorexia presenting with an amino acid and vitamin-deficient profile. 61
30355542 2018
26
What disease did goethe witness during his journey through the Italian Alps? Was it pellagra or another disease of malnutrition? 61
30043409 2018
27
Recognising the return of nutritional deficiencies: a modern pellagra puzzle. 61
30567139 2018
28
Malnutrition and skin disease in Far East prisoners-of-war in World War II. 61
29855062 2018
29
Pellagra Secondary to GI Malignancy and Fluorouracil-Based Chemotherapy. 61
30303760 2018
30
Azathioprine-induced pellagra in neuromyelitis optica: A case report and review of literature. 61
30059893 2018
31
Prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the socioeconomic transition of rural Mayas of Yucatan from 1962 to 2000. 61
29463112 2018
32
Zinc and Skin Disorders. 61
29439479 2018
33
Pellagra. 61
29174751 2018
34
Half and Half Nails in a Healthy Person. 61
30064606 2017
35
Paleopathological rigor and differential diagnosis: Case studies involving terminology, description, and diagnostic frameworks for scurvy in skeletal remains. 61
29198404 2017
36
Joseph Goldberger-Public Health Champion and Investigator of Pellagra. 61
29238837 2017
37
Pellagra affecting a patient with Crohn's disease. 61
29364456 2017
38
Alcoholic Pellagra as a Cause of Altered Mental Status in the Emergency Department. 61
28736097 2017
39
Depletion of Epidermal Langerhans Cells in the Skin Lesions of Pellagra Patients. 61
28291135 2017
40
'Shrouded in a dark fog': comparison of the diagnosis of pellagra in Venice and general paralysis of the insane in the United Kingdom, 1840-1900. 61
28468544 2017
41
An Outbreak of Pellagra in the Kasese Catchment Area, Dowa, Malawi. 61
28219990 2017
42
Severe pellagra masked by concurrent plaque psoriasis: a case report of a hidden diagnosis. 61
28537863 2017
43
Photosensitive disorders in HIV. 61
29568622 2017
44
Diets derived from maize monoculture cause maternal infanticides in the endangered European hamster due to a vitamin B3 deficiency. 61
28100816 2017
45
Pellagra Secondary to Medication and Alcoholism: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. 61
27491713 2016
46
Pellagra: a rare complication of isoniazid therapy. 61
27393553 2016
47
Skin diseases among elderly patients attending skin clinic at the Regional Dermatology Training Centre, Northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study. 61
26905256 2016
48
Niacin (Vitamin B3) Supplementation in Patients with Serotonin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor. 61
26335390 2016
49
Louis Sambon and the Clash of Pellagra Etiologies in Italy and the United States, 1905-14. 61
25740951 2016
50
A case of alcoholic pellagra encephalopathy presenting with spinal myoclonus. 61
29595842 2015

Variations for Pellagra

Expression for Pellagra

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pellagra.

Pathways for Pellagra

Pathways related to Pellagra according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.83 SLC5A8 QPRT NNMT NMNAT1 NAPRT NAMPT
2
Show member pathways
12.47 SLC5A8 QPRT NNMT NMNAT1 NAPRT NAMPT
3 12.25 NMNAT1 NAMPT INS IDO1
4
Show member pathways
11.74 KYNU IDO1 ACMSD
5
Show member pathways
11.58 QPRT NMNAT1 KYNU IDO1 ACMSD
6
Show member pathways
11.57 KYNU IDO1 ACMSD
7
Show member pathways
11.45 QPRT PARP1 NNMT NMNAT1 NAPRT NAMPT
8
Show member pathways
11.18 SLC5A8 QPRT NNMT NMNAT1 NAPRT NAMPT
9 10.45 PARP1 NAMPT
10 9.81 HCAR3 HCAR2 HCAR1

GO Terms for Pellagra

Biological processes related to Pellagra according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.63 NAMPT IDO1 CD38
2 positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus GO:1900182 9.51 PARP1 INS
3 NAD metabolic process GO:0019674 9.5 QPRT NMNAT1 CD38
4 negative regulation of lipid catabolic process GO:0050995 9.49 INS HCAR2
5 fatty acid homeostasis GO:0055089 9.48 INS DGAT2
6 NAD biosynthesis via nicotinamide riboside salvage pathway GO:0034356 9.46 SLC5A8 NNMT NAPRT NAMPT
7 'de novo' NAD biosynthetic process from tryptophan GO:0034354 9.43 KYNU IDO1
8 tryptophan catabolic process GO:0006569 9.43 KYNU IDO1 ACMSD
9 tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine GO:0019441 9.4 KYNU IDO1
10 ATP generation from poly-ADP-D-ribose GO:1990966 9.37 PARP1 NMNAT1
11 NAD biosynthetic process GO:0009435 9.35 QPRT NMNAT1 NAPRT NAMPT KYNU
12 pyridine nucleotide biosynthetic process GO:0019363 9.02 QPRT NMNAT1 NAPRT NAMPT KYNU

Molecular functions related to Pellagra according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transferase activity GO:0016740 9.56 QPRT PARP1 NNMT NMNAT1 NAPRT NAMPT
2 transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups GO:0016757 9.46 QPRT PARP1 NAPRT NAMPT
3 nicotinate-nucleotide diphosphorylase (carboxylating) activity GO:0004514 8.8 QPRT NAPRT NAMPT

Sources for Pellagra

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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