MCID: PRP002
MIFTS: 39

Periapical Granuloma

Categories: Oral diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Periapical Granuloma

MalaCards integrated aliases for Periapical Granuloma:

Name: Periapical Granuloma 12 54 43 15 17 71
Apical Granuloma 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:4617
MeSH 43 D010484
SNOMED-CT 67 81407003
UMLS 71 C0031029

Summaries for Periapical Granuloma

MalaCards based summary : Periapical Granuloma, also known as apical granuloma, is related to periodontitis, chronic and periapical periodontitis. An important gene associated with Periapical Granuloma is TNFSF11 (TNF Superfamily Member 11), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and ERK Signaling. The drugs Mepivacaine and Anesthetics have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, endothelial and monocytes, and related phenotypes are hematopoietic system and immune system

Wikipedia : 74 Periapical granuloma, also sometimes referred to as a radicular granuloma or apical granuloma, is an... more...

Related Diseases for Periapical Granuloma

Diseases related to Periapical Granuloma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 287)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 periodontitis, chronic 30.8 TNFSF11 MMP8
2 periapical periodontitis 30.2 TNFSF11 TLR2 MMP8 MMP13 CXCL8
3 lepromatous leprosy 30.2 TLR2 IL4 IL2
4 leprosy 3 30.1 TLR2 IL4 IL2 CXCL8
5 periodontitis 29.6 TNFSF11 TLR2 MMP8 MMP13 IL4 CXCL8
6 bone inflammation disease 28.7 TNFSF11 TLR2 MMP13 IL4 IL2 CXCL8
7 gingivitis 28.7 TLR2 MMP8 IL4 IL2 CXCL8 CCL5
8 autoimmune disease 28.3 IL4 IL2 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL5
9 uveitis 27.9 IL4 IL2 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL4
10 mycobacterium chelonae 10.5 TLR2 CXCL8
11 mycobacterium marinum 10.4 TLR2 CXCL8
12 acute pericementitis 10.4 TNFSF11 TLR2
13 mycobacterium kansasii 10.4 TLR2 CXCL8
14 streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome 10.4 IL2 CXCL8
15 neurosyphilis 10.4 TLR2 CXCL8
16 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene allergic contact dermatitis 10.4 IL4 IL2
17 bone resorption disease 10.4
18 haemophilus influenzae 10.4 TLR2 CXCL8
19 virus associated hemophagocytic syndrome 10.3 IL4 IL2
20 toxicodendron dermatitis 10.3 IL2 CXCL8
21 mycobacterium abscessus 10.3 TLR2 CXCL8
22 fungal keratitis 10.3 TLR2 MMP8
23 jak3-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency 10.3 IL4 IL2
24 west nile virus infection 10.3 CCR5 CCL5
25 atopic keratoconjunctivitis 10.2 IL4 IL2
26 cervicitis 10.2 TLR2 IL2 CXCL8
27 eosinophilic pneumonia 10.2 IL4 CXCL8 CCL5
28 chronic apical periodontitis 10.2
29 mastitis 10.2 TLR2 CXCL8 CCL5
30 superficial basal cell carcinoma 10.2 TLR2 IL2
31 rosacea 10.2 TLR2 MMP8 CXCL8
32 stomatitis 10.2 IL4 IL2 CXCL8
33 preterm premature rupture of the membranes 10.2 TLR2 MMP8 CXCL8
34 amebiasis 10.2 TLR2 IL4 CXCL8
35 stevens-johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis 10.2 IL2 CXCR3 CCL5
36 primary systemic mycosis 10.2 TLR2 IL4 IL2
37 blepharoconjunctivitis 10.2 MMP8 IL4
38 onchocerciasis 10.2 IL4 IL2 CCL5
39 respiratory allergy 10.2 IL4 CXCL8 CCL5
40 respiratory syncytial virus infectious disease 10.2 CCL5 CCL3
41 chickenpox 10.2 TLR2 IL4 IL2
42 vulvovaginal candidiasis 10.2 TLR2 IL4 IL2
43 herpangina 10.2 TLR2 IL4 IL2
44 lichen disease 10.2 IL4 IL2 CXCL8
45 splenic disease 10.2 TLR2 IL4 IL2
46 paracoccidioidomycosis 10.2 TLR2 IL4 IL2
47 congenital cytomegalovirus 10.1 TLR2 CCL2
48 lymph node disease 10.1 TLR2 IL4 IL2
49 septic arthritis 10.1 TLR2 CXCR3 CXCL8
50 esophagitis 10.1 IL4 CXCL8 CCL5

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Periapical Granuloma:



Diseases related to Periapical Granuloma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Periapical Granuloma

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Periapical Granuloma:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.81 CCL5 CCR5 CDH5 CXCR3 IL2 IL4
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.7 CCL2 CCL5 CCR5 CDH5 CXCR3 IL2
3 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.17 CCR5 CXCR3 IL2 MMP8 NOS2 TLR2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Periapical Granuloma

Drugs for Periapical Granuloma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Mepivacaine Approved, Vet_approved 96-88-8 4062
2 Anesthetics
3 Anesthetics, Local

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Evaluation of Anesthetic Efficacy in Extraction on Mandibular Molars With Periapical Granuloma Unknown status NCT03106168
2 Adjunctive Non-Surgical Therapy of Inflamed Periodontal Pockets Using Diode Lasers During Maintenance Therapy Completed NCT01215201

Search NIH Clinical Center for Periapical Granuloma

Cochrane evidence based reviews: periapical granuloma

Genetic Tests for Periapical Granuloma

Anatomical Context for Periapical Granuloma

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Periapical Granuloma:

40
Bone, Endothelial, Monocytes, Neutrophil, Whole Blood, Skin, Testes

Publications for Periapical Granuloma

Articles related to Periapical Granuloma:

(show top 50) (show all 202)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
RANKL in human periapical granuloma: possible involvement in periapical bone destruction. 54 61
16700737 2006
2
Co-production of vascular endothelial cadherin and inducible nitric oxide synthase by endothelial cells in periapical granuloma. 61 54
16507070 2006
3
Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is expressed in periapical lesions: an immunohistochemical study. 54 61
15876293 2005
4
Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in pulpal and periapical inflammation and periapical root-canal exudates. 54 61
12453017 2002
5
Differential in situ distribution of interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and Rantes in human chronic periapical granuloma. 54 61
11155167 2000
6
A Retrospective Brazilian Multicenter Study of Biopsies at the Periapical Area: Identification of Cases of Nonendodontic Periapical Lesions. 61
32061420 2020
7
Accuracy of computer-assisted image analysis in the diagnosis of maxillofacial radiolucent lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
31709811 2020
8
Potential role of TP63 in apical periodontitis development. 61
31025362 2019
9
Macrophage phenotypes and Gas6/Axl signaling in apical lesions. 61
31528256 2019
10
Dental Infection Cause of Flap Loss in Cleft Palate Repair. 61
31299809 2019
11
Difficulties in the diagnosis of periapical translucencies and in the classification of cemento-osseous dysplasia. 61
31291935 2019
12
Regenerative Endodontic Procedures Posttrauma: Immunohistologic Analysis of a Retrospective Series of Failed Cases. 61
30833096 2019
13
Dental Infection Cause of Flap Loss in Cleft Palate Repair. 61
30998590 2019
14
JAK2/STAT3 is associated with the inflammatory process in periapical granuloma. 61
31933733 2019
15
Immunohistochemical Analysis of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Periapical Lesions. 61
30477664 2018
16
Immunohistochemical analysis of neutrophils, interleukin-17, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and neoformed vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma. 61
29964301 2018
17
Increased interleukin 1α and interleukin 1β expression is involved in the progression of periapical lesions in primary teeth. 61
30012121 2018
18
[Progress in the diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia]. 61
29690701 2018
19
Apical periodontitis: preliminary assessment of microbiota by 16S rRNA high throughput amplicon target sequencing. 61
29609564 2018
20
Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 and matrix metalloproteinase-13 in mast cells of human periapical lesions. 61
31938366 2018
21
[Efficiency of chronic apical periodontitis treatment with use of Granulotec endodontic sealer]. 61
30589425 2018
22
Large Draining Focal Fibrous Hyperplasia Secondary to Periapical Granuloma. 61
29967701 2018
23
Inflammatory cell expression of Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) within refractory periapical granuloma. 61
30631444 2018
24
Histological and immunohistochemical study on the apical granuloma. 61
30534820 2018
25
Retrospective analysis of jaw biopsies in young adults. A study of 1599 cases in Southern Brazil. 61
29053654 2017
26
Distribution of macrophages and plasma cells in apical periodontitis and their relationship with clinical and image data. 61
29075406 2017
27
A scientific survey on 1550 cases of oral lesions diagnosed in a Brazilian referral center. 61
28813105 2017
28
Retrospective analysis of nonendodontic periapical lesions misdiagnosed as endodontic apical periodontitis lesions in a population of Taiwanese patients. 61
27853924 2017
29
An oral lesion as the primary clinical manifestation of sarcoidosis. 61
28300422 2017
30
Differential diagnosis of periapical cyst using collagen birefringence pattern of the cyst wall. 61
28503476 2017
31
Correlation of Vascular and Inflammatory Index in Oral Pyogenic Granuloma and Periapical Granuloma - An Insight into Pathogenesis. 61
28658902 2017
32
Transforming growth factor beta-1 expression in macrophages of human chronic periapical diseases. 61
28362997 2017
33
Expression of the stem cell factor in fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages in periapical tissues in human chronic periapical diseases. 61
28290616 2017
34
Immediate Placement of Zirconia Implants in Teeth with Periapical Lesions: A Case Report. 61
28511528 2017
35
Expression of transforming growth factor-β in mast cells in human chronic periapical diseases. 61
31966796 2017
36
Immunomodulatory activity of interleukin-27 in human chronic periapical diseases. 61
28386371 2017
37
Clinical and radiological analysis of a series of periapical cysts and periapical granulomas diagnosed in a Brazilian population. 61
28149477 2017
38
Characterisation of apical bone lesions: Comparison of MRI and CBCT with histological findings - a case series. 61
28555209 2017
39
[Mandibular osteitis on a periapical granuloma mimicking an osteosarcoma: a case report]. 61
30239180 2016
40
The root of the problem: Occurrence of typical and atypical periapical pathoses. 61
27046538 2016
41
Incidence of Mast Cells in Gingival and Periapical Inflammation- A Kaleidoscopic Study. 61
27437338 2016
42
Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 Immunoexpression in Periapical Lesions from Primary Endodontic Infection: Possible Relationship with the Histopathological Diagnosis and the Presence of Pain. 61
26846622 2016
43
A 5 year retrospective study of biopsied jaw lesions with the assessment of concordance between clinical and histopathological diagnoses. 61
27194866 2016
44
DNA Methylation of MMP9 Is Associated with High Levels of MMP-9 Messenger RNA in Periapical Inflammatory Lesions. 61
26549219 2016
45
Kaleidoscope of oral artifacts: A vivid picture through light and polarizing microscope. 61
26960631 2016
46
The Effect of Root Coating with Titanium on Prevention of Root Resorption in Avulsed Teeth: An Animal Study. 61
27790261 2016
47
Decompression of a Large Periapical Lesion: A Case Report of 4-Year Follow-Up. 61
28058049 2016
48
Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Mandible: Case Report and Review of the Literature. 61
26600778 2015
49
Jaw Intraosseous Lesions Biopsied Extracted From 1998 to 2010 in an Iranian Population. 61
26328061 2015
50
Expression and immunohistochemical localization of leptin receptor in human periapical granuloma. 61
25081278 2015

Variations for Periapical Granuloma

Expression for Periapical Granuloma

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Periapical Granuloma.

Pathways for Periapical Granuloma

Pathways related to Periapical Granuloma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 38)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.95 TNFSF11 TLR2 NOS2 MMP8 IL4 IL2
2
Show member pathways
13.71 TNFSF11 NOS2 IL4 IL2 CXCR3 CXCL8
3
Show member pathways
13.59 TNFSF11 NOS2 IL4 IL2 CXCR3 CXCL8
4
Show member pathways
13.44 IL4 IL2 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
5
Show member pathways
13.34 MMP8 MMP13 CXCR3 CXCL8 CDH5 CCR5
6
Show member pathways
13.29 TNFSF11 NOS2 IL4 IL2 CXCL8 CCR5
7
Show member pathways
13.26 TNFSF11 TLR2 IL4 IL2 CXCR3 CXCL8
8
Show member pathways
13.2 TNFSF11 IL4 IL2 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5
9
Show member pathways
13.01 TLR2 NOS2 IL2 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL4
10
Show member pathways
12.91 TLR2 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
11
Show member pathways
12.85 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
12
Show member pathways
12.75 TLR2 IL2 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL2
13 12.55 TNFSF11 TLR2 IL4 IL2 CCL5 CCL2
14
Show member pathways
12.51 TLR2 IL4 IL2 CCR5
15
Show member pathways
12.32 TLR2 MMP13 IL4 CXCL8 CCL2
16
Show member pathways
12.27 IL4 IL2 CCL5 CCL2
17
Show member pathways
12.21 TLR2 NOS2 IL4 CCR5
18
Show member pathways
12.13 TLR2 NOS2 IL4 CXCL8
19 12.01 NOS2 IL4 IL2 CXCL8 CCL2
20 11.96 NOS2 IL4 CXCL8 CCL2
21 11.93 IL2 CXCL8 CCL2
22
Show member pathways
11.93 NOS2 IL4 IL2 CCR5 CCL4 CCL3
23
Show member pathways
11.89 IL2 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL5 CCL4
24 11.86 TNFSF11 CXCL8 CCL4
25 11.84 TLR2 NOS2 CXCL8
26 11.8 IL4 IL2 CXCR3 CCL3
27 11.78 MMP13 CDH5 CCL2
28 11.77 TNFSF11 TLR2 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL3 CCL2
29 11.74 IL4 IL2 CXCL8
30
Show member pathways
11.7 IL4 IL2 CXCL8
31
Show member pathways
11.61 NOS2 IL2 CXCL8
32 11.5 TLR2 CXCL8 CCL2
33 11.47 TLR2 NOS2 CCL2
34 11.43 IL4 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
35
Show member pathways
11.34 IL2 CCL4 CCL3
36 10.88 CCL3 CCL2
37 10.86 IL4 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
38 10.81 TNFSF11 IL4 IL2 CXCL8 CDH5 CCL5

GO Terms for Periapical Granuloma

Cellular components related to Periapical Granuloma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.85 TNFSF11 MMP8 MMP13 IL4 IL2 CXCL8
2 cell GO:0005623 9.56 NOS2 IL2 CXCR3 CDH5 CCR5 CCL5
3 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.32 TNFSF11 MMP8 MMP13 IL4 IL2 CXCL8

Biological processes related to Periapical Granuloma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 56)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.27 TLR2 IL4 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL5
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.19 IL2 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL5 CCL4
3 cell adhesion GO:0007155 10.1 IL2 CXCR3 CDH5 CCL4 CCL2
4 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.07 TNFSF11 TLR2 MMP8 IL4 CDH5 CCL3
5 positive regulation of GTPase activity GO:0043547 10.01 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
6 MAPK cascade GO:0000165 10.01 IL2 CCR5 CCL5 CCL3 CCL2
7 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 10 IL2 CCR5 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
8 positive regulation of cell migration GO:0030335 9.97 IL4 CDH5 CCL5 CCL3
9 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0070374 9.96 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
10 cellular response to tumor necrosis factor GO:0071356 9.96 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
11 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.94 NOS2 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL2
12 response to toxic substance GO:0009636 9.91 TLR2 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
13 cell chemotaxis GO:0060326 9.91 CXCR3 CCR5 CCL5 CCL3 CCL2
14 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.91 TLR2 NOS2 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL5
15 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 9.89 CDH5 CCL5 CCL3
16 calcium-mediated signaling GO:0019722 9.89 TNFSF11 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL3
17 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 9.87 TLR2 IL2 CCL3
18 chemotaxis GO:0006935 9.87 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
19 cellular response to interleukin-1 GO:0071347 9.85 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
20 cellular response to interferon-gamma GO:0071346 9.85 TLR2 NOS2 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
21 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.84 IL4 IL2 CCL5
22 cellular response to organic cyclic compound GO:0071407 9.84 CCL5 CCL3 CCL2
23 lymphocyte chemotaxis GO:0048247 9.84 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
24 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.83 IL4 IL2 CCL5
25 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 9.83 TLR2 CCL5 CCL3 CCL2
26 neutrophil chemotaxis GO:0030593 9.83 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
27 protein kinase B signaling GO:0043491 9.81 CCL5 CCL3 CCL2
28 cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus GO:0044344 9.8 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL2
29 positive regulation of calcium ion transport GO:0051928 9.8 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
30 monocyte chemotaxis GO:0002548 9.8 TNFSF11 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
31 eosinophil chemotaxis GO:0048245 9.78 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
32 macrophage chemotaxis GO:0048246 9.75 CCL5 CCL3 CCL2
33 negative regulation by host of viral transcription GO:0043922 9.74 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
34 positive regulation of calcium ion import GO:0090280 9.72 CCL3 CCL2
35 positive regulation of calcium-mediated signaling GO:0050850 9.72 CCL4 CCL3
36 dendritic cell chemotaxis GO:0002407 9.72 CCR5 CCL5
37 positive regulation of natural killer cell chemotaxis GO:2000503 9.72 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
38 positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process GO:0051770 9.71 TLR2 CCL2
39 negative regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0045744 9.71 CXCL8 CCL5
40 cell activation GO:0001775 9.71 TLR2 CCL3
41 positive regulation of microglial cell activation GO:1903980 9.7 MMP8 CCL3
42 neutrophil activation GO:0042119 9.7 CXCL8 CCL5
43 PERK-mediated unfolded protein response GO:0036499 9.7 CXCL8 CCL2
44 chemokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070098 9.7 CXCR3 CXCL8 CCR5 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
45 T cell chemotaxis GO:0010818 9.69 CXCR3 CCL3
46 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.69 TLR2 CXCL8
47 response to cholesterol GO:0070723 9.68 CCR5 CCL3
48 positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypes GO:0048304 9.68 IL4 IL2
49 negative regulation of T-helper 17 cell differentiation GO:2000320 9.68 IL4 IL2
50 signaling GO:0023052 9.68 CCR5 CCL3

Molecular functions related to Periapical Granuloma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 identical protein binding GO:0042802 9.91 TNFSF11 TLR2 CXCR3 CCR5 CCL5 CCL4
2 CCR5 chemokine receptor binding GO:0031730 9.5 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
3 CCR chemokine receptor binding GO:0048020 9.46 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
4 CCR1 chemokine receptor binding GO:0031726 9.43 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3
5 phospholipase activator activity GO:0016004 9.4 CCL5 CCL3
6 chemokine activity GO:0008009 9.35 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL4 CCL3 CCL2
7 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.23 TNFSF11 IL4 IL2 CXCL8 CCL5 CCL4

Sources for Periapical Granuloma

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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