NEC
MCID: PRN019
MIFTS: 61

Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

Categories: Blood diseases, Fetal diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Rare diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis:

Name: Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis 11 14
Necrotizing Enterocolitis 11 19 58 14 16 71
Enterocolitis, Necrotizing 19 43
Enterocolitis Necrotizing 11 53
Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Fetus or Newborn 11
Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis in Newborn 11
Perinatal Necrotising Enterocolitis 11
Nec 19

Characteristics:


Prevelance:

Necrotizing Enterocolitis: 1-5/10000 (Worldwide) 58

Age Of Onset:

Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Neonatal 58

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare gastroenterological diseases


Summaries for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

GARD: 19 Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a condition characterized by variable injury or damage to the intestinal tract, causing death of intestinal tissue. The condition most often occurs in premature newborns, but it may also occur in term or near-term babies. Signs and symptoms may include abdominal distension, bloody stools, vomiting bile-stained fluid, and pneumatosis intestinalis (gas in the bowel wall) identified on abdominal x-ray. Affected infants occasionally have temperature instability, lethargy, or other findings of sepsis. The exact cause of NEC is unknown.

MalaCards based summary: Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis, also known as necrotizing enterocolitis, is related to enterocolitis and short bowel syndrome. An important gene associated with Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis is HBEGF (Heparin Binding EGF Like Growth Factor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are ERK Signaling and Disease. The drugs Zinc cation and Dexamethasone acetate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, neutrophil and breast, and related phenotypes are premature birth and hyponatremia

Orphanet: 58 A rare intestinal disease characterized by potentially life-threatening inflammatory bowel necrosis predominantly affecting preterm neonates. Patients may present with feeding intolerance, lethargy, temperature instability, abdominal distention, blood-stained stools, diarrhea, bilious vomiting, apnea, and signs of sepsis. Radiographic features include pneumatosis intestinalis, portal venous gas, presence of fixed, dilated intestinal loops, bowel wall edema, and (in case of bowel perforation) pneumoperitoneum.

Related Diseases for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Diseases related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1000)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 enterocolitis 32.5 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL10 HBEGF FABP2
2 short bowel syndrome 32.4 IL6 IL1B EGF
3 viral meningitis 31.7 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CRP CCR6
4 intestinal perforation 31.7 TNF IL6 IL10 FABP2 CRP CCR6
5 patent ductus arteriosus 1 31.5 PRODH IL6 CXCL8 CRP
6 encephalitis 31.4 TNF TLR2 TJP1 IL6 IL1B IL10
7 asphyxia neonatorum 31.4 IL6 IL1B CRP
8 intestinal obstruction 31.2 TNF IL6 CRP
9 ileus 31.2 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CRP
10 nutritional deficiency disease 31.2 IL6 CRP CCR6
11 disseminated intravascular coagulation 31.0 TNF IL6 IL10 CRP
12 periventricular leukomalacia 31.0 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CRP
13 peritonitis 31.0 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B IL10
14 compartment syndrome 31.0 TNF IL6 CRP
15 human cytomegalovirus infection 30.9 TNF IL6 IL10 CCR6
16 chorioamnionitis 30.9 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
17 exudative vitreoretinopathy 1 30.9 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
18 adult respiratory distress syndrome 30.9 TNF PLA2G7 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
19 gastroenteritis 30.9 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
20 clostridium difficile colitis 30.9 IL1B CRP CCR6
21 mucormycosis 30.9 TNF IL6 IL10 CRP CCR6
22 food allergy 30.8 TNF IL10 CXCL8 CSN1S1 CCR6
23 pre-eclampsia 30.8 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B IL10 HBEGF
24 milk allergy 30.8 IL10 CSN1S1 CCR6
25 fasciitis 30.8 TNF IL6 CXCL8
26 amyloidosis 30.7 TNF IL6 IL1B CRP
27 bowel dysfunction 30.7 TNF LTF IL6 IL1B IL10 FABP2
28 neutropenia 30.6 TNF TLR4 THPO IL6 IL1B IL10
29 cerebral palsy 30.6 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
30 gestational diabetes 30.6 TNF IL6 IL1B CRP
31 deficiency anemia 30.6 TNF THPO IL6 IL1B IL10 CRP
32 thrombocytopenia 30.5 TNF TLR4 TLR2 THPO IL6 IL1B
33 appendicitis 30.5 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B IL10 FABP2
34 heart disease 30.5 TNF TLR4 TLR2 PRODH PLA2G7 IL6
35 diarrhea 30.5 TNF TLR4 OCLN IL6 IL1B IL10
36 respiratory failure 30.5 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
37 necrotizing fasciitis 30.5 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CRP
38 lung disease 30.5 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B IL10
39 common cold 30.4 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
40 toxic shock syndrome 30.4 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B IL10
41 gastroesophageal reflux 30.4 TNF IL6 IL1B EGF CXCL8
42 actinomycosis 30.3 TNF IL10 CRP
43 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 30.3 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B IL10
44 gas gangrene 30.3 TNF IL6 CRP
45 urinary tract infection 30.3 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B IL10
46 genital herpes 30.3 TNF TLR2 CCR6
47 cyclic neutropenia 30.3 TNF IL1B CXCL8
48 sudden infant death syndrome 30.3 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
49 shigellosis 30.3 LTF IL1B IL10 CCR6
50 cholecystitis 30.3 TLR4 EGF CRP

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis:



Diseases related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Human phenotypes related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis:

58 30 (show all 29)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 premature birth 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0001622
2 hyponatremia 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0002902
3 neutropenia 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0001875
4 small for gestational age 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0001518
5 abdominal distention 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0003270
6 leukocytosis 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0001974
7 food intolerance 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0012537
8 bloody diarrhea 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0025085
9 hypotension 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0002615
10 vomiting 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0002013
11 ascites 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0001541
12 thrombocytopenia 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0001873
13 increased serum lactate 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0002151
14 apnea 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0002104
15 lethargy 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0001254
16 metabolic acidosis 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0001942
17 abnormal heart morphology 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0001627
18 gastroschisis 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0001543
19 edema 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000969
20 peritonitis 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0002586
21 disseminated intravascular coagulation 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0005521
22 shock 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0031273
23 temperature instability 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0005968
24 bradycardia 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0001662
25 hyperglycemia 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0003074
26 neonatal sepsis 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0040187
27 diarrhea 58 Frequent (79-30%)
28 acidosis 58 Occasional (29-5%)
29 abnormal glucose homeostasis 58 Occasional (29-5%)

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 10.14 CCR6 CRP CSN1S1 CXCL8 EGF FABP2
2 no effect GR00402-S-2 10.14 CCR6 CRP CSN1S1 EGF FABP2 GOT2

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.16 CCR6 CRP CSN1S1 FABP2 HBEGF IL10
2 nervous system MP:0003631 10.15 CCR6 GOT2 HBEGF IL10 IL1B IL6
3 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.95 IL10 IL1B IL6 LTF TLR2 TLR4
4 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.92 FABP2 IL10 IL6 LTF TJP1 TLR2
5 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.9 CCR6 CRP GOT2 HBEGF IL10 IL1B
6 immune system MP:0005387 9.83 CCR6 CRP EGF FABP2 GOT2 IL10
7 skeleton MP:0005390 9.32 HBEGF IL10 IL1B IL6 OCLN PRODH

Drugs & Therapeutics for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Drugs for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 117)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Zinc cation Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 7440-66-6, 23713-49-7 32051
2
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 1177-87-3 3680
3
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 3003 5743
4
Iron Approved Phase 4 7439-89-6 29936
5
Zinc sulfate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 7733-02-0
6
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 447043
7
Ampicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 69-53-4 6249
8
Cholecalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 67-97-0, 1406-16-2 5280795 10883523
9
Beta carotene Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 6811-73-0, 7235-40-7 10256668 5280489
10
Picolinic acid Investigational Phase 4 98-98-6 1018
11 Hormones Phase 4
12 Protective Agents Phase 4
13 Trace Elements Phase 4
14 Micronutrients Phase 4
15 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
16 Carotenoids Phase 4
17 Iron Chelating Agents Phase 4
18 Calciferol Phase 4
19 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
20 Provitamins Phase 4
21 Antiemetics Phase 4
22 glucocorticoids Phase 4
23 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
24 Gentamicins Phase 4
25
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 3 59467-70-8 4192
26
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 26787-78-0 33613
27
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 137-58-6 3676
28
Clarithromycin Approved Phase 3 81103-11-9 84029
29
Cysteine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3 52-90-4 594 5862
30
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 22737-96-8, 68-26-8 5280382 445354
31 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2, Phase 3
32 Amino-acid, glucose, and electrolyte solution Phase 2, Phase 3
33 Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Phase 2, Phase 3
34 Retinol palmitate Phase 3
35 Anesthetics Phase 3
36
Pentoxifylline Approved, Investigational Phase 2 6493-05-6 4740
37
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 53-86-1 3715
38
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 2 103-90-2 1983
39
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 2 15687-27-1 3672
40
Meropenem Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 119478-56-7, 96036-03-2 441130
41
Lactulose Approved Phase 2 4618-18-2 11333
42
Lenograstim Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 135968-09-1
43
Cefoxitin Approved Phase 2 35607-66-0 441199
44
Cefotaxime Approved Phase 2 63527-52-6 5742673 456256
45
Erythromycin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 114-07-8 12560
46
Melatonin Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 73-31-4 896
47 Radiation-Protective Agents Phase 2
48 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phase 2
49 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2
50 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 164)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Effect of Co-administered β-Carotene, Vitamin D3, Zinc and Antenatal Steroid Therapy on Hyaline Membrane Disease and Feeding Intolerance in Premature Neonates Unknown status NCT03366584 Phase 4 Dexamethasone
2 Oral Zinc Supplementation Improving Growth and Reducing Morbidity on Very Low Birth Weight Infant Unknown status NCT04050488 Phase 4 Zinc Sulfate;Placebos
3 The Effect of Withholding Feeds During Red Blood Cell Transfusion on Development of TRAGI in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Unknown status NCT02132819 Phase 4
4 Effect of Melatonin on Feeding Intolerance and Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants Completed NCT04304807 Phase 4 Melatonin 20 mg;Traditional antibiotic treatment
5 NICU Antibiotics and Outcomes Trial Recruiting NCT03997266 Phase 4 Ampicillin;Gentamycin;Normal saline
6 The Efect of Azithromicyn on Bronchopulmonary Displasia in Extremely Preterm and Very Preterm Infant Recruiting NCT05311228 Phase 4 Azithromycin Powder
7 Role Of Saccharomyces Boulardii in Preventin Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Unknown status NCT01315821 Phase 3 Saccharomyces boulardii;Placebo
8 Effect of Cysteine Supplementation on Glutathione Production in Critically Ill Neonates Unknown status NCT00254176 Phase 2, Phase 3
9 Can Bovine Lactoferrin Prevent Neonatal Infections in Low Birth Weight Babies in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Unknown status NCT03431558 Phase 3 Glucon-D 99.4% (Placebo)
10 Role of Probiotics for Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT02650869 Phase 3
11 The Use of Probiotics in the Management of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in HIV-exposed Premature and Very-low Birth Weight Infants Completed NCT01868737 Phase 3
12 Effect of Vitamin A in the Treatment of Sepsis and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Hospitalized Neonates Completed NCT00707785 Phase 3
13 Nosocomial Infections and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Neonates Treated With Lactobacillus Acidophilus and Bifidobacterium Infantis in An Intensive Care Unit : A Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT01340469 Phase 3
14 Role Of Lactobacillus Reuteri in Preventing Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Completed NCT01531179 Phase 3 Lactobacillus reuteri;Placebo
15 The Efficacy of Symbiotic Preparation on Cytokines Which Act on Necrotising Enterocolitis Pathogenesis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Completed NCT01899677 Phase 3 symbiotic
16 Evaluation of Bowel Perfusion With Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Necrotizing Enterocolitis Recruiting NCT03549507 Phase 3 Sulfur hexafluoride lipid-type A microspheres
17 A Randomized, Double Blind, Parallel-group, Placebo Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of IBP-9414 in Premature Infants 500-1500g Birth Weight in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis - The Connection Study Recruiting NCT03978000 Phase 3 IBP-9414;Placebo
18 Nordic Study on Human Milk Fortification in Extremely Preterm Infants: a Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT03797157 Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Treatment of Classic Mid-trimester Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM) With Oligo/Anhydramnion Between 22/0-26/0 Week of Gestation by Means of Continuous Amnioinfusion: a Multicenter Prospectiv Randomized Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04696003 Phase 3
20 Heat Killed Probiotics in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) in Premature Neonates Unknown status NCT02796703 Phase 2
21 Prebiotics vs. Placebo in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Premature Neonates Unknown status NCT00437567 Phase 2
22 Pentoxifylline in the Treatment of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Premature Neonates Unknown status NCT00271336 Phase 2 Pentoxifylline
23 The Role of Lactobacillus Reuteri (L. Reuteri) in Preventing Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) in Pre-term Infants Less Than 34 Weeks of Gestation Unknown status NCT04541771 Phase 2 Lactobacillus Reuteri DSM 17938;Placebo
24 Erythropoietin Protects Very Preterm Infants Against Necrotizing Enterocolitis Completed NCT03919500 Phase 2 EPO;Normal saline
25 Efficacy of Enteral Administration of the Docosahexaenoic Acid on Necrotizing Enterocolitis, Cytokines and Hospital Stay in Preterm Neonates Completed NCT01745510 Phase 1, Phase 2
26 Incidence of Severe Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Newborns <1500g Using Probiotics Lactobacillus Boucardii. Completed NCT02226263 Phase 2
27 Early Treatment Versus Delayed Conservative Treatment of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterm infants-a Multicenter Trial Completed NCT01958320 Phase 2 NSAID
28 A Randomized, Double Blind, Parallel-group, Dose Escalation Placebo-controlled Multicenter Study to Investigate the Safety and Tolerability of IBP-9414 Administered in Preterm Infants. Completed NCT02472769 Phase 2 IBP-9414;Placebo
29 Prophylactic Probiotics to Extremely Low Birth Weight Prematures Completed NCT01603368 Phase 2
30 Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetic Study of Meropenem in Young Infants (<91 Days) With Suspected or Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections Completed NCT00621192 Phase 1, Phase 2 meropenem
31 The Effects of Lactulose Supplementation to Enteral Feedings in Premature Infants - A Pilot Study Completed NCT00616876 Phase 2 Lactulose
32 Early Supplementation of Enteral Microlipid With and Without Fish Oil in Premature Infants With Enterostomies Completed NCT01674478 Phase 2
33 Enteral Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor and Erythropoietin Early in Life Increases Feeding Tolerance in Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT01441427 Phase 1, Phase 2 recombinant human G-CSF, and rhEPO;rh G-CSF;rh EPO;rh G-GSF and rh EPO together;Placebo
34 Antibiotic Effects on the Developing Microbiome, Metabolome and Morbidities in Preterm Neonates Completed NCT02784821 Phase 2 Antibiotic;Antibiotics - pre-emptive
35 Efficacy Of Oral Melatonin To Prevent Necrotizing Enterocolitis Among Preterm Infants In A Tertiary Level Hospital In The Philippines: A Randomized Control Trial Recruiting NCT05033639 Phase 1, Phase 2 Melatonin 6 MG
36 RIC-NEC Phase II Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial: Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Necrotizing Enterocolitis Not yet recruiting NCT05279664 Phase 2
37 Phase 2 Study of Oral Probiotics Reduce the Incidence and Severity of Necrotizing Enterocolitis for Very Low Birth Weight Infants -Multi-Center Randomized Control Trial Terminated NCT00540033 Phase 2
38 An Assessment of Urinary Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Early Predictor of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Withdrawn NCT01805206 Phase 2
39 Enteral Administration of a Simulated Amniotic Fluid In Preventing Feeding Intolerance And Necrotizing Enterocolitis In Very Low Birth Weight Neonates Unknown status NCT02405637 Phase 1 simulated amniotic fluid 20cc/kg/day enterally;distilled water
40 Safety and Effectiveness Phase 1 Study of Autologous Umbilical Cord Blood Transfusion for the Prevention and Treatment of Prematurity Complications In Preterm Neonates Unknown status NCT02050971 Phase 1
41 Simulated Amniotic Fluid Like Solution Enterally Administrated in Neonates Recovering From GIT Surgeries Unknown status NCT03302338 Phase 1 SAFE group;placebo group
42 Effects of Delayed Cord Clamping in Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) Infants Completed NCT00840983 Phase 1
43 A Phase Ib Randomized, Placebo Controlled Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Once Daily Dosing of STP206 in Premature Very Low Birth Weight and Extremely Low Birth Weight Neonates Completed NCT01954017 Phase 1
44 Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Multiple Dose Metronidazole in Premature Infants Completed NCT01222585 Phase 1 Metronidazole
45 Assessment of Splanchnic Oxygenation and Circulation in Neonates at Risk for Necrotizing Enterocolitis Using NIRS and Doppler Unknown status NCT01833000
46 Inflammatory Mediators and Intestinal Genes Expression Associated With Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants Unknown status NCT04073342
47 Investigation of the Relationship Between Erythrocyte Transfusion and Nutrition and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Infants: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT04083638
48 A Clinical Study on the Impact of Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Neonates Unknown status NCT03700957
49 Evaluation of the Risk of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Fetuses With Intrauterine Growth Restriction. Unknown status NCT03869827
50 The Efficacy and Mechanisms of Oral Probiotics in Preventing Necrotizing Enterocolitis Among Very Low Birth Weight Infants With Formula-feeding Unknown status NCT02552706

Search NIH Clinical Center for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: enterocolitis, necrotizing

Genetic Tests for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Anatomical Context for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Organs/tissues related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis:

MalaCards : Heart, Neutrophil, Breast, Brain, Small Intestine, Myeloid, Bone Marrow

Publications for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Articles related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis:

(show top 50) (show all 7972)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Non-invasive markers for early diagnosis and determination of the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis. 53 62
20485148 2010
2
Oral lactoferrin for the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. 53 62
20464748 2010
3
A systematic review of serologic tests in the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis. 53 62
19944232 2009
4
Heat susceptibility of interleukin-10 and other cytokines in donor human milk. 53 62
19366315 2009
5
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor is a potent dilator of terminal mesenteric arterioles. 53 62
19389413 2009
6
Can lactoferrin prevent neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis? 53 62
19485792 2009
7
Preclinical neonatal rat studies of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in protection of the intestines from necrotizing enterocolitis. 53 62
19127210 2009
8
Oral lactoferrin for the treatment of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates. 53 62
19160324 2009
9
Effects of sepsis on neonatal thrombopoiesis. 53 62
18552713 2008
10
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor gene disruption is associated with delayed intestinal restitution, impaired angiogenesis, and poor survival after intestinal ischemia in mice. 53 62
18558204 2008
11
Bile acids modulate tight junction structure and barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers via EGFR activation. 53 62
18239063 2008
12
Role of epidermal growth factor and other growth factors in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis. 53 62
18346534 2008
13
Tissue distribution and plasma clearance of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in adult and newborn rats. 53 62
16364500 2006
14
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and necrotizing enterocolitis. 53 62
16084404 2005
15
Lactoferrin-enhanced anoikis: a defense against neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. 53 62
15950395 2005
16
Epidermal growth factor and necrotizing enterocolitis. 53 62
15183666 2004
17
Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. 53 62
14765365 2004
18
Intraluminal casein model of necrotizing enterocolitis for assessment of mucosal destruction, bacterial translocation, and the effects of allopurinol and N-acetylcysteine. 53 62
12598971 2002
19
Diminished epidermal growth factor levels in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. 53 62
10693661 2000
20
Klebsiella pneumoniae with extended spectrum beta-lactamase activity associated with a necrotizing enterocolitis outbreak. 53 62
10571430 1999
21
Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein in neonates with necrotizing enterocolitis: a pilot study. 53 62
10549746 1999
22
Epidermal growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptors, intestinal growth, and adaptation. 53 62
10483903 1999
23
The role of recombinant platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase in a neonatal rat model of necrotizing enterocolitis. 53 62
9396557 1997
24
Clinical applications of epidermal growth factor. 53 62
8590139 1995
25
Presence of platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase in milk. 53 62
8228643 1993
26
Effect of necrotizing enterocolitis on urinary epidermal growth factor levels. 53 62
2058613 1991
27
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and necrotizing enterocolitis in a pediatric patient with medulloblastoma and COVID-19 infection. 62
35841310 2023
28
Association of inotrope use with neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants <29 weeks gestation: a retrospective cohort study. 62
33827395 2022
29
Clinical impact of severe acute kidney injury on post-operative and brain injury outcomes in preterm infants following surgical necrotizing enterocolitis. 62
36093832 2022
30
Effects of less invasive surfactant administration versus intubation-surfactant-extubation on bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: a single-center, retrospective study from China. 62
36471386 2022
31
Prophylactic versus therapeutic caffeine for apnea of prematurity: a randomized controlled trial. 62
33771081 2022
32
Predicting clinical outcomes using artificial intelligence and machine learning in neonatal intensive care units: a systematic review. 62
35562414 2022
33
A comparison of the effect of bi-level positive airway pressure and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. 62
33573450 2022
34
Gastroschisis: a systematic review of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. 62
33899664 2022
35
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Stability Modified by Glutaredoxin-1 in Necrotizing Enterocolitis. 62
36049244 2022
36
Astaxanthin Reduces the Severity of Intestinal Damage in a Neonatal Rat Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis. 62
33853144 2022
37
Reducing Risk Factors for Necrotizing Enterocolitis: What Is the Recent Evidence and Biologic Plausibility Supporting Probiotics? 62
35446273 2022
38
Gestational age-specific hematological patterns in preterm infants following necrotizing enterocolitis. 62
36062737 2022
39
Review of Necrotizing Enterocolitis and Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation Clinical Presentation, Treatment, and Outcomes. 62
36328610 2022
40
Heme induces intestinal epithelial cell ferroptosis via mitochondrial dysfunction in transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis. 62
36383399 2022
41
Age disparities in intestinal stem cell quantities: a possible explanation for preterm infant susceptibility to necrotizing enterocolitis. 62
36208323 2022
42
Sildenafil attenuates intestinal injury in necrotizing enterocolitis independently of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. 62
35794042 2022
43
Transfusion-associated necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in extremely preterm infants: experience of a tertiary neonatal center in UK. 62
33472464 2022
44
Impact of a Standardized Nutrition Bundle Including Donor Human Milk on Hospital Outcomes in Very Low Birth-Weight (VLBW) Infants in a Safety-Net Hospital. 62
36413779 2022
45
Cesarean delivery at term for non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing: risk factors and predictability. 62
33969774 2022
46
Bacterial endotoxin-induced maternal inflammation leads to fetal intestinal injury and affects microbial colonization in the neonatal period. 62
34058958 2022
47
Effect of hydrolyzed formulas on gastrointestinal tolerance in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 62
36104076 2022
48
Metabolic differences among newborns born to mothers with a history of leukemia or lymphoma. 62
33980115 2022
49
The role of the first trimester screen in the face of normal cell free DNA. 62
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Dual medication therapy (acetaminophen and ibuprofen) for the management of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 62
36008521 2022

Variations for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Expression for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Pathways for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Pathways related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 60)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.84 TNF THPO IL6 IL1B IL10 HBEGF
2
Show member pathways
13.81 TLR4 TLR2 TJP1 LTF IL6 IL1B
3
Show member pathways
13.44 CCR6 CXCL8 EGF IL10 IL1B IL6
4
Show member pathways
12.96 TNF TJP1 THPO PLA2G7 IL6 IL1B
5
Show member pathways
12.89 CXCL8 IL1B IL6 TLR2 TLR4 TNF
6
Show member pathways
12.76 TNF TLR4 TLR2 THPO IL6 IL1B
7 12.72 IL6 IL1B IL10 HBEGF EGF
8
Show member pathways
12.65 TNF TLR2 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
9
Show member pathways
12.64 TNF THPO IL6 IL1B IL10 HBEGF
10
Show member pathways
12.59 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
11
Show member pathways
12.49 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
12
Show member pathways
12.38 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
13
Show member pathways
12.3 CXCL8 IL6 TLR2 TNF
14 12.26 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 EGF
15 12.24 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
16 12.14 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
17 12.08 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
18 12.05 TNF THPO IL6 IL10
19 12.04 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
20 11.96 IL6 IL10 CXCL8 CCR6
21 11.95 THPO IL6 HBEGF EGF
22 11.94 TNF IL1B IL10 CXCL8
23
Show member pathways
11.93 TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B
24 11.87 CCR6 IL10 IL1B TNF
25 11.82 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
26
Show member pathways
11.78 IL6 CXCL8 CRP
27 11.77 TLR4 IL6 IL10
28
Show member pathways
11.75 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8
29 11.74 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL10 CRP
30 11.73 IL6 IL10 CXCL8
31
Show member pathways
11.73 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B IL10
32 11.65 TNF IL6 IL1B EGF CXCL8
33 11.64 TNF TLR4 IL6 CXCL8
34 11.62 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL10 CXCL8
35 11.61 IL1B TLR2 TLR4 TNF
36 11.59 TNF IL10 CXCL8
37 11.59 TNF TLR4 IL6 IL1B IL10
38
Show member pathways
11.54 IL10 IL6 TLR2 TLR4 TNF
39 11.53 TNF IL6 IL1B
40 11.51 TNF TLR4 IL6
41 11.47 HBEGF EGF CXCL8
42 11.39 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
43 11.37 TNF IL6 IL1B
44 11.35 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8
45 11.33 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
46 11.31 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8
47 11.28 TNF IL6 IL10 CXCL8
48 11.21 HBEGF IL1B PLA2G7 TLR2
49 11.19 TLR4 IL6 EGF
50 11.13 TLR4 IL6 IL1B IL10

GO Terms for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

Cellular components related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 10.03 CRP CSN1S1 CXCL8 EGF HBEGF IL10
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.68 TNF THPO PLA2G7 LTF IL6 IL1B

Biological processes related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 45)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.59 TNF TLR4 TLR2 THPO IL6 IL1B
2 negative regulation of cell population proliferation GO:0008285 10.41 TNF TLR2 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
3 inflammatory response GO:0006954 10.4 CRP CXCL8 IL1B IL6 TLR2 TLR4
4 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 10.28 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
5 positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling GO:0051897 10.27 TNF THPO HBEGF EGF
6 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 10.25 TNF TLR2 IL6 IL1B CRP
7 positive regulation of MAP kinase activity GO:0043406 10.21 TNF TLR4 IL1B EGF
8 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.21 CRP CXCL8 EGF IL1B IL6 OCLN
9 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901224 10.2 IL1B TLR2 TLR4 TNF
10 humoral immune response GO:0006959 10.19 TNF LTF IL6 CCR6
11 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 10.19 TNF TLR4 TLR2 PLA2G7 IL1B
12 immune response GO:0006955 10.18 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B IL10
13 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 10.17 TNF TLR4 IL1B
14 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:0048661 10.17 TNF TLR4 IL6 HBEGF
15 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production GO:0032733 10.16 TLR4 TLR2 IL6
16 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 10.16 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B
17 positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT GO:0046427 10.15 IL10 IL6 TNF
18 maintenance of blood-brain barrier GO:0035633 10.13 TJP1 OCLN IL6
19 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division GO:0045840 10.13 TNF IL1B EGF
20 liver regeneration GO:0097421 10.12 TNF IL6 IL10
21 positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response GO:1900017 10.11 TNF TLR4 IL6
22 negative regulation of neurogenesis GO:0050768 10.11 TNF IL6 IL1B
23 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 10.11 IL1B IL6 LTF TLR2 TLR4 TNF
24 positive regulation of glial cell proliferation GO:0060252 10.08 TNF IL6 IL1B
25 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 10.08 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL1B
26 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 10.06 TNF IL1B IL10
27 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 10.02 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B
28 positive regulation of oxidative stress-induced neuron death GO:1903223 10 TNF TLR4
29 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 10 IL1B IL6 TNF
30 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 9.99 TNF IL10
31 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.99 TNF IL6 CRP
32 positive regulation of fever generation GO:0031622 9.98 IL1B TNF
33 positive regulation of blood-brain barrier permeability GO:1905605 9.98 OCLN TJP1
34 4-hydroxyproline catabolic process GO:0019470 9.96 GOT2 PRODH
35 sequestering of triglyceride GO:0030730 9.96 IL1B TNF
36 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.94 IL1B TNF
37 positive regulation of matrix metallopeptidase secretion GO:1904466 9.93 TLR4 TLR2
38 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.93 TLR2 IL10 CXCL8
39 chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus GO:0002439 9.92 IL10 TNF
40 positive regulation of cellular response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulus GO:1903974 9.92 TLR2 TLR4
41 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.91 IL1B IL6 TNF
42 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 9.81 TNF TLR4 TLR2 IL6 IL1B
43 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.77 TNF TLR4 THPO IL6 IL1B IL10
44 response to external stimulus GO:0009605 9.75 CXCL8 TLR2 TLR4
45 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.28 TNF TLR4 TLR2 TJP1 THPO IL1B

Molecular functions related to Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.65 THPO IL6 IL10 HBEGF EGF
2 lipopolysaccharide binding GO:0001530 9.63 TLR4 TLR2 LTF
3 lipopolysaccharide immune receptor activity GO:0001875 9.56 TLR4 TLR2
4 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.36 TNF THPO IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8

Sources for Perinatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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