Periodontitis, Chronic

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Oral diseases, Blood diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Periodontitis, Chronic

MalaCards integrated aliases for Periodontitis, Chronic:

Name: Periodontitis, Chronic 57 29
Chronic Periodontitis 55 73
Periodontitis, Adult 57



autosomal recessive


periodontitis, chronic:
Inheritance autosomal recessive inheritance
Onset and clinical course onset


External Ids:

OMIM 57 260950
MedGen 42 C0266929
ICD10 33 K05.3
UMLS 73 C0266929

Summaries for Periodontitis, Chronic

OMIM : 57 Chronic periodontitis, formerly called adult periodontitis, is the most frequently occurring form of periodontitis and is characterized by slowly progressing alveolar bone destruction and attachment loss. Although chronic periodontitis is most prevalent in adults and has a slow progression, it can occur in children and adolescents and may have periods of rapid progression (Armitage, 1999). (260950)

MalaCards based summary : Periodontitis, Chronic, also known as chronic periodontitis, is related to chronic apical periodontitis and periodontitis. An important gene associated with Periodontitis, Chronic is MMP8 (Matrix Metallopeptidase 8), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. The drugs sodium fluoride and Epinephrine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, testes and ovary, and related phenotypes are gingivitis and periodontitis

Wikipedia : 76 Chronic periodontitis is a common disease of the oral cavity consisting of chronic inflammation of the... more...

Related Diseases for Periodontitis, Chronic

Diseases in the Periodontitis family:

Periodontitis, Chronic Susceptibility to Localized Juvenile Periodontitis

Diseases related to Periodontitis, Chronic via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 143)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chronic apical periodontitis 32.3 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
2 periodontitis 27.8 IL1B IL6 MMP1 MMP8 TLR2 TNFRSF11B
3 periapical periodontitis 26.2 IL1B IL6 MMP8 TLR2 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
4 periapical granuloma 10.5 MMP8 TNFSF11
5 idiopathic hypercalciuria 10.4 IL1B TNFSF11
6 haemophilus influenzae 10.4 IL1B TLR2
7 suppurative otitis media 10.4 IL1B TLR2
8 polyarticular onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis 10.4 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
9 hemophilic arthropathy 10.4 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
10 multicentric reticulohistiocytosis 10.4 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
11 kummell's disease 10.4 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
12 paget disease of bone 5, juvenile-onset 10.4 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
13 scrub typhus 10.4 IL1B TLR2
14 familial expansile osteolysis 10.4 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
15 middle ear disease 10.4 IL1B TLR2
16 q fever 10.4 IL1B TLR2
17 multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome 10.4 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
18 extrapulmonary tuberculosis 10.4 IL1B TLR2
19 tendinopathy 10.4 MMP1 MMP8
20 tooth resorption 10.4 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
21 periodontitis, aggressive, 1 10.4 MMP1 MMP8
22 glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis 10.3 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
23 ischemic bone disease 10.3 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
24 corneal edema 10.3 IL1B MMP1
25 bone deterioration disease 10.3 IL1B MMP1
26 endosteal hyperostosis, autosomal dominant 10.3 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
27 keratitis, hereditary 10.3 IL1B TLR2
28 bone remodeling disease 10.2 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
29 pulmonary emphysema 10.2 MMP1 MMP8
30 carotid artery disease 10.2 MMP1 MMP8
31 osteonecrosis 10.1 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
32 recurrent corneal erosion 10.1 IL1B IL6
33 bagassosis 10.1 IL1B IL6
34 uremic pruritus 10.1 IL1B IL6
35 funisitis 10.1 IL1B IL6
36 glossitis 10.1 IL1B IL6
37 euthyroid sick syndrome 10.1 IL1B IL6
38 laryngitis 10.1 IL1B IL6
39 ascaris lumbricoides infection 10.1 IL1B IL6
40 acute vascular insufficiency of intestine 10.1 IL1B IL6
41 poems syndrome 10.1 IL1B IL6
42 central nervous system vasculitis 10.1 IL1B IL6
43 osteosclerotic myeloma 10.1 IL1B IL6
44 stachybotrys chartarum 10.1 IL1B IL6
45 vaginal disease 10.1 IL1B IL6
46 endometrial disease 10.1 IL1B IL6
47 cysticercosis 10.1 IL1B IL6
48 vaginitis 10.1 IL1B IL6
49 primary amebic meningoencephalitis 10.1 IL1B IL6
50 hydrarthrosis 10.1 IL1B IL6

Comorbidity relations with Periodontitis, Chronic via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Dental Caries
Heart Disease

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Periodontitis, Chronic:

Diseases related to Periodontitis, Chronic

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Periodontitis, Chronic

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

gingival inflammation

adolescent onset

alveolar bone destruction

Clinical features from OMIM:


Human phenotypes related to Periodontitis, Chronic:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 gingivitis 32 HP:0000230
2 periodontitis 32 HP:0000704

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Periodontitis, Chronic:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immune system MP:0005387 9.7 MMP1 MMP8 TLR2 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11 IL1B
2 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.43 MMP8 TLR2 TNFSF11 IL1B IL6 MMP1
3 skeleton MP:0005390 9.02 TLR2 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11 IL1B IL6

Drugs & Therapeutics for Periodontitis, Chronic

Drugs for Periodontitis, Chronic (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 240)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 sodium fluoride Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 7681-49-4
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 51-43-4 5816
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 329-65-7 838
Chlorhexidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 55-56-1 9552079 2713
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 9004-61-9 53477741
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 26787-78-0 33613
Metronidazole Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable 443-48-1 4173
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85721-33-1 2764
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
10 Estradiol valerate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 979-32-8
Ethinyl Estradiol Approved Phase 4 57-63-6 5991
Moxifloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 354812-41-2, 151096-09-2 152946
Norgestimate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 35189-28-7 6540478
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 4 28014-46-2
Montelukast Approved Phase 4 158966-92-8 5281040
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 10118-90-8 5281021
Edetic Acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 60-00-4, 62-33-9 6049
Pentetic acid Approved Phase 4 67-43-6
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 79902-63-9 54454
Albendazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54965-21-8 2082
Zoledronic acid Approved Phase 4 118072-93-8 68740
Alendronate Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 121268-17-5, 66376-36-1 2088
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 564-25-0 54671203
Coal tar Approved Phase 4,Not Applicable 8007-45-2
Hydrogen peroxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 7722-84-1 784
Melatonin Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 73-31-4 896
27 Lycopene Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2 502-65-8 446925
28 Listerine Phase 4,Phase 3
29 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
30 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Not Applicable,Early Phase 1
31 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
32 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
33 Epinephryl borate Phase 4,Not Applicable
34 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
35 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 4,Phase 2,Not Applicable
36 Chlorhexidine gluconate Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
37 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Not Applicable
38 Viscosupplements Phase 4,Not Applicable
39 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
40 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
41 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
42 Propolis Phase 4,Not Applicable
43 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
44 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
45 Disinfectants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Not Applicable
46 Tolonium Chloride Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Not Applicable
47 Contraceptive Agents Phase 4
48 Contraceptives, Oral Phase 4
49 Contraceptives, Oral, Combined Phase 4
50 Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 335)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Clinical and Microbiological Effects of an Essential Oils Solution Used as an Adjunct to Daily Oral Hygiene Practices in Chronic Periodontitis Patients in Supportive Care Unknown status NCT01195493 Phase 4
2 Effect of Probiotic Lozenges on Halitosis in Patients With Chronic Periodontitis Unknown status NCT02789436 Phase 4 L. reuteri Prodentis® lozenges
3 Study of Scaling and Root Planing With PerioWave Versus Scaling and Root Planing Alone in Chronic Periodontitis Unknown status NCT00297531 Phase 4
4 SRP in Combination With PERIOWAVE in Comparison to SRP Alone in Chronic Periodontitis Unknown status NCT00296881 Phase 4
5 Clinical, Microbiological and Biochemical Effects of the Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Unknown status NCT01532674 Phase 4
6 Efficacy and Safety of a Commercially Available Injectable Hyaluronic Acid Dental Filler for Periodontal Pockets Unknown status NCT02391974 Phase 4
7 Role of Stress Reduction Protocol on Outcome of Periodontal Therapy Unknown status NCT02487862 Phase 4
8 Metronidazole and Amoxicillin for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetic Subjects With Periodontitis Unknown status NCT02135952 Phase 4 MTZ+AMX
9 Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Chronic Periodontitis. Completed NCT01997853 Phase 4 Omega 3 fatty acid;Placebo
10 Comparison of Moxifloxacin With Ciprofloxacin/Metronidazole on Patients With Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT00805558 Phase 4 moxifloxacin;Ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole
11 Role of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT02014532 Phase 4 Montelukast;Placebo
12 The Response of Pathogens to the Respective or Combined Treatment of SRP and Local Minocycline in Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT02355977 Phase 4 minocycline
13 Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis With Repeated Adjunctive Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Completed NCT02734784 Phase 4
14 Effect of Scaling and Root Planing Along With Topical Application of Commercially Available Curcuma Longa Gel on Superoxide Dismutase and Malondialdehyde Levels in Saliva of Chronic Periodontitis Patients Completed NCT02442453 Phase 4 Topical application of curenext gel;Placebo
15 Simvastatin Gel With Perforated Resorbable Membranes in Treatment of Intrabony Defects in Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT03419429 Phase 4 Simvastatin
16 Locally Delivered Aloe Vera Gel in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT02437747 Phase 4 SRP + Aloe
17 Role of Herbal Immunomodulators in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT01997814 Phase 4 herbal immunomodulator;Placebo
18 Adjunctive Photodynamic Therapy in Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT01034501 Phase 4
19 Effects of the Variation in the Time of Systemic Administration of Metronidazole and Amoxicillin Associated to the Non-surgical Therapy of Chronic Periodontitis. Completed NCT01211223 Phase 4 Administration of Metronidazole plus Amoxicillin
20 Melatonin as an Adjunctive Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis. Completed NCT03368430 Phase 4 Placebo
21 Propolis Improves Glycemic Control in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT02794506 Phase 4 Propolis;Placebo
22 "Effect of Scaling and Root Planing on Liver Function Test (Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase) in Systemically Healthy - Chronic Periodontitis Subjects: a Clinical Trial." Completed NCT02583841 Phase 4
23 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in Multiple Applications as a Coadjuvant in the Surgical Therapy of Access to Scaling Completed NCT03498404 Phase 4
24 Study of Scaling and Root Planing (SRP) With PerioWave vs. SRP Alone in Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT00297518 Phase 4
25 MTZ Plus AMX in the Treatment of Smokers and Non-smokers Completed NCT01837199 Phase 4 Metronidazole plus Amoxicillin
26 Effect on Teeth and Gum Cleaning in Patients With Gum and Kidney Disease Completed NCT02901743 Phase 4
27 Effect of Arthrospira Platensis (Spirulina) as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing on Salivary Antioxidant Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects Completed NCT02886676 Phase 4 Spirulina capsules
28 Impact of Periodontal Treatment on Serum Levels of Hepcidin and Hemoglobin Completed NCT02641210 Phase 4 Albendazole
29 Moxifloxacin in Situ Gel to Treat Periodontal Pocket. Completed NCT02016157 Phase 4 Moxifloxacin
30 Long-term Safety of Minocycline in Patients With Gum Disease Completed NCT00668746 Phase 4 Minocycline HCl microspheres
31 Treatment of Intrabony Periodontal Defects With Enamel Matrix Derivatives and Autogenous Bone Graft Completed NCT02218515 Phase 4
32 Changes of GCF Levels of RANKL and Osteoprotegerin in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Completed NCT02808988 Phase 4
33 Local Minocycline to Reduce Future Inflammation and Bone Loss in Periodontal Maintenance Patients Completed NCT01647282 Phase 4 locally-applied minocycline HCl (1 mg)
34 A Clinical Trial to Study the Effect of Lycopene in Patients With Gum Disease and type2 Diabetes Mellitus Completed NCT02263352 Phase 4 Lycored soft gels Jagsonpal Pharma, Systemic 8mgms/day
35 Atorvastatin as an Adjunct to DFDBA in Intrabony Defects Completed NCT03009097 Phase 4 DFDBA with atorvastatin
36 Estimation of Interleukin-21 Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Patients With Periodontal Health and Disease Following Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy: A Clinico-biochemical Study Completed NCT02861937 Phase 4
37 Antimicrobial Therapy as Adjunct to Periodontal Treatment: Effect of Timing Completed NCT02197260 Phase 4 3/d 500 mg metronidazole plus 375 mg amoxicillin for 7 days
38 Evaluation of the Efficacy of 0.8% Hyaluronic Acid Gel Completed NCT03311906 Phase 4 0.8% Hyaluronic Acid
39 Full-mouth and Partial-mouth Scaling and Root Planing in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects Completed NCT02062047 Phase 4 Chlorhexidine
40 Photodynamic Therapy During Supportive Periodontal Therapy Completed NCT02666573 Phase 4
41 Sodium Alendronate in Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy Completed NCT02470611 Phase 4 Sodium alendronate
42 Locally Delivered Doxycycline Adjunct to Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy. Completed NCT02487186 Phase 4 Doxicicline
43 Adjunctive Hydrogen Peroxide for Periodontal Therapy Recruiting NCT03262701 Phase 4 Hydrogen Peroxide Gel, 13 weeks;Hydrogen Peroxide Gel, 26 weeks
44 Enamel Matrix Proteins in the Treatment of Intrabony Defects in Patients With Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis Recruiting NCT03025204 Phase 4
45 Treatment of Periodontitis in Obese Individuals Recruiting NCT03103204 Phase 4
46 Dose and Duration of Metronidazole and Amoxicillin for Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis Active, not recruiting NCT02735395 Phase 4 Metronidazole 250 (7 days);Metronidazole 400 (7 days);Metronidazole 250 (14 days);Metronidazole 400 (14 days);Amoxicillin
47 Adjunctive Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis Unknown status NCT01330082 Phase 2, Phase 3
48 Simvastatin and Metformin in Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT02372656 Phase 2, Phase 3 Placebo gel;1% Metformin;1.2% Simvastatin
49 1.2% Atorvastatin and 1.2% Simvastatin in Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT02060032 Phase 2, Phase 3 1.2% Atorvastatin local drug delivery;1.2% simvastatin local drug delivery;Placebo local drug delivery
50 Efficacy of Locally Delivred 1.2% Rosuvastatin Gel in Chronic Periodontitis Completed NCT02283515 Phase 2, Phase 3 Rosuvastatin

Search NIH Clinical Center for Periodontitis, Chronic

Genetic Tests for Periodontitis, Chronic

Genetic tests related to Periodontitis, Chronic:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Periodontitis, Chronic 29

Anatomical Context for Periodontitis, Chronic

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Periodontitis, Chronic:

Bone, Testes, Ovary, Liver, Endothelial, Neutrophil, Monocytes

Publications for Periodontitis, Chronic

Articles related to Periodontitis, Chronic:

# Title Authors Year
Comparative antibody titers to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in juvenile periodontitis, chronic periodontitis and periodontally healthy subjects. ( 7033301 )

Variations for Periodontitis, Chronic

Expression for Periodontitis, Chronic

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Periodontitis, Chronic.

Pathways for Periodontitis, Chronic

Pathways related to Periodontitis, Chronic according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 37)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
3 12.34 IL1B TLR2 TNFSF11
Show member pathways
12.27 IL1B TLR2 TNFSF11
Show member pathways
12.23 IL1B IL6 TLR2
Show member pathways
12.03 IL1B IL6 TLR2
7 12 IL1B IL6 TLR2
Show member pathways
11.99 IL1B IL6 TLR2
Show member pathways
11.94 IL1B IL6 TLR2
10 11.93 IL6 MMP1 TLR2
Show member pathways
11.79 IL1B IL6 MMP1 TLR2
12 11.76 IL1B TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
13 11.69 IL1B IL6 MMP1
14 11.56 IL1B IL6 TLR2
15 11.47 IL1B IL6
16 11.38 IL6 MMP1
17 11.36 IL1B IL6
18 11.34 IL6 TNFSF11
19 11.34 IL1B IL6
20 11.34 IL1B TLR2
Show member pathways
11.34 IL1B IL6 MMP1
Show member pathways
11.28 IL1B TNFRSF11B
23 11.24 IL1B IL6 TLR2
24 11.19 IL1B IL6
25 11.18 IL1B IL6
26 11.18 IL1B IL6
27 11.15 IL6 MMP1
28 11.12 IL1B IL6
29 11.12 IL1B IL6 TLR2
30 11.1 IL1B IL6
31 11.08 IL1B IL6
32 11.08 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
33 10.99 IL1B TLR2
34 10.98 IL1B IL6 MMP1 TLR2 TNFSF11
35 10.91 IL1B IL6 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
36 10.73 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
37 10.64 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11

GO Terms for Periodontitis, Chronic

Cellular components related to Periodontitis, Chronic according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.35 IL1B IL6 MMP8 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.1 IL1B IL6 MMP1 MMP8 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11

Biological processes related to Periodontitis, Chronic according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 9.85 IL1B IL6 TLR2 TNFSF11
2 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.73 IL1B IL6 TLR2
3 regulation of signaling receptor activity GO:0010469 9.71 IL1B IL6 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
4 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.65 IL1B TLR2 TNFRSF11B
5 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.62 IL1B IL6 TLR2 TNFRSF11B
6 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.57 IL1B IL6
7 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.56 IL1B IL6 MMP1 TNFSF11
8 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901224 9.54 IL1B TLR2
9 positive regulation of DNA binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 9.54 IL1B IL6 TNFSF11
10 monocyte chemotaxis GO:0002548 9.52 IL6 TNFSF11
11 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 9.51 IL1B TLR2
12 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.49 IL1B TLR2
13 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 9.46 IL6 TLR2
14 negative regulation of bone resorption GO:0045779 9.43 IL6 TNFRSF11B
15 immune response GO:0006955 9.35 IL1B IL6 TLR2 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11
16 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.33 IL1B IL6 TLR2
17 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 8.92 IL1B IL6 TLR2 TNFSF11

Molecular functions related to Periodontitis, Chronic according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 8.92 IL1B IL6 TNFRSF11B TNFSF11

Sources for Periodontitis, Chronic

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 Tocris
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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