Aliases & Classifications for Persian Gulf Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Persian Gulf Syndrome:

Name: Persian Gulf Syndrome 12 44 15 17 70
Gulf War Syndrome 12 54

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:4491
MeSH 44 D018923
SNOMED-CT 67 95877004
UMLS 70 C0282550

Summaries for Persian Gulf Syndrome

Disease Ontology : 12 A syndrome affecting returning military veterans and civilian workers of the Gulf War.

MalaCards based summary : Persian Gulf Syndrome, also known as gulf war syndrome, is related to multiple chemical sensitivity and chronic fatigue syndrome. An important gene associated with Persian Gulf Syndrome is ADCYAP1 (Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Transmission across Chemical Synapses and Arachidonic acid metabolism. The drugs Doxycycline and Anti-Bacterial Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, brain and eye.

Wikipedia : 73 Gulf War syndrome or Gulf War illness is a chronic and multi-symptomatic disorder affecting returning... more...

Related Diseases for Persian Gulf Syndrome

Diseases related to Persian Gulf Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 60)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 multiple chemical sensitivity 29.9 VIP PON2 PON1
2 chronic fatigue syndrome 10.4
3 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 10.2
4 post-traumatic stress disorder 10.2
5 acute stress disorder 10.2
6 holoprosencephaly 3 10.1 VIP ADCYAP1
7 hand skill, relative 10.1
8 exanthem 10.1
9 diarrhea 10.1
10 pathologic nystagmus 10.1
11 autonomic dysfunction 10.1
12 tremor 10.1
13 neurogenic bowel 10.0 VIP ACHE
14 autoimmune disease 10.0
15 osteoporosis 10.0
16 myasthenia gravis 10.0
17 sjogren syndrome 10.0
18 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 10.0
19 bone mineral density quantitative trait locus 8 10.0
20 bone mineral density quantitative trait locus 15 10.0
21 disease by infectious agent 10.0
22 foodborne botulism 10.0
23 anaplastic large cell lymphoma 10.0
24 sexual disorder 10.0
25 apraxia 10.0
26 antisynthetase syndrome 10.0
27 mild cognitive impairment 10.0
28 dissociative disorder 10.0
29 pertussis 10.0
30 lyme disease 10.0
31 conversion disorder 10.0
32 impotence 10.0
33 benign giant cell tumor 10.0
34 somatoform disorder 10.0
35 sleep disorder 10.0
36 fibromyalgia 10.0
37 combat disorder 10.0
38 bap1 tumor predisposition syndrome 10.0
39 chronic pain 10.0
40 dysautonomia 10.0
41 paresthesia 10.0
42 argyria 10.0
43 autoinflammatory syndrome 10.0
44 binswanger's disease 10.0 VIP ACHE
45 coronary heart disease 1 9.9 PON3 PON2 PON1
46 achalasia 9.8 VIP ACHE
47 atherosclerosis susceptibility 9.8 PON3 PON2 PON1
48 hemochromatosis, type 1 9.8 PON3 PON2 PON1
49 colonic pseudo-obstruction 9.7 BCHE ACHE
50 butyrylcholinesterase deficiency 9.7 BCHE ACHE

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Persian Gulf Syndrome:



Diseases related to Persian Gulf Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Persian Gulf Syndrome

Drugs & Therapeutics for Persian Gulf Syndrome

Drugs for Persian Gulf Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 86)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 564-25-0 54671203
2 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3
3 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
4 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 3
5 Antimalarials Phase 3
6 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
7 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
8
Curcumin Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 458-37-7 969516
9
Coal tar Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 8007-45-2
10
Lactoferrin Investigational Phase 2 151186-19-5
11 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
12 Muramidase Phase 2
13 Analgesics Phase 1, Phase 2
14 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 1, Phase 2
15 Antioxidants Phase 1, Phase 2
16 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
17 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
18 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 1, Phase 2
19
Rifaximin Approved, Investigational Phase 1 80621-81-4 6436173 46783403
20
Lactulose Approved Phase 1 4618-18-2 11333
21
Mifepristone Approved, Investigational Phase 1 84371-65-3 55245
22
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 1 185243-69-0
23 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 1
24 Contraceptives, Postcoital Phase 1
25 Hormone Antagonists Phase 1
26 Contraceptive Agents Phase 1
27 Contraceptives, Oral Phase 1
28 Immunologic Factors Phase 1
29 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 1
30 Hormones Phase 1
31
Ephedrine Approved 299-42-3 9294
32
Phenylephrine Approved 59-42-7 6041
33
Dobutamine Approved 34368-04-2 36811
34
Pseudoephedrine Approved 90-82-4 7028
35
Oxymetazoline Approved, Investigational 1491-59-4 4636
36
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
37
Naltrexone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 16590-41-3 5360515
38
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational 98-92-0 936
39
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational 1406-66-2
40
Ketamine Approved, Vet_approved Early Phase 1 6740-88-1 3821
41
Glutamic acid Approved, Nutraceutical 56-86-0 33032
42
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical 50-81-7 5785 54670067
43
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 59-02-9 14985
44
Pantothenic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 79-83-4 6613
45
Riboflavin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 83-88-5 493570
46
Thiamine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 70-16-6, 59-43-8 1130
47
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical 59-67-6 938
48
Coenzyme Q10 Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical 303-98-0 5281915
49
Aspartic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Early Phase 1 56-84-8 5960
50 Tocotrienol Investigational 6829-55-6

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 31)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 CSP #475 - Persian Gulf - Antibiotic Treatment Trial of Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Completed NCT00007735 Phase 3 Doxycycline (200mg/day) or Placebo
2 CSP#470 - A Randomized, Multi-Center, Controlled Trial of Multi-Modal Therapy in Veterans With Gulf War Illnesses Completed NCT00007748 Phase 3
3 Nasal Irrigation for Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Fatigue in Patients With Gulf War Illness Completed NCT01700725 Phase 2 Nasal Irrigation - Xylitol
4 Acupuncture in the Treatment of Gulf War Illness Completed NCT01305811 Phase 1, Phase 2
5 Carnosine Versus Placebo Treatment Study in Gulf War Illness (GWI) Completed NCT00810368 Phase 2 Carnosine;Placebo
6 Investigating Clinical Benefits of a Novel Sleep-focused Mind-body Program on Gulf War Illness (GWI) Symptoms: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT01543997 Phase 2
7 Testing the Model: A Phase I/II Randomized Double Blind Placebo Control Trial of Targeted Therapeutics: Liposomal Glutathione and Curcumin Recruiting NCT02848417 Phase 1, Phase 2 Curcumin;Glutathione
8 Bacterial Overgrowth Associated With Chronic Multisymptom Illness Complex Unknown status NCT00956150 Phase 1 Rifaximin;Placebo
9 Understanding Gulf War Illness: An Integrative Modeling Approach Recruiting NCT04255498 Phase 1 Etanercept;Mifepristone
10 A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mindfulness Based Intervention for Gulf War Syndrome Completed NCT01267045
11 Follow-up of Psychological and Neurocognitive Gulf War Outcome: Relation to Stress Completed NCT00018707
12 START & STOPP in GWI Stress Test Activated Reversible Tachycardia & Stress Test Originated Phantom Perception in Gulf War Illness Completed NCT03560830
13 Telemedicine Treatment for Veterans With Gulf War Illness Completed NCT00129454
14 Cardiovascular Hyporeactivity and Fatiguing Illness in Gulf War Veterans Completed NCT00100412 Graded dobutamine infusions;Graded phenylephrine injections
15 Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Defects in Gulf War Syndrome Completed NCT01264471
16 Alleviating Headache and Pain in GWI With Neuronavigation Guided rTMS Completed NCT03030794
17 Glutamate Neuro-Excitotoxicity in GWI Completed NCT03342482
18 Olfactory Functioning in Gulf War Veterans Completed NCT00007514
19 Effectiveness of Acupressure Treatment in Pain Management and Fatigue Relief for Gulf War Veterans Completed NCT02075489
20 An Open-label Clinical Outcomes Study to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of Sentra AM® and Sentra PM® for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Gulf War Fibromyalgia Completed NCT01437891
21 Effects of Low Dose Naltrexone in Fibromyalgia Completed NCT00568555 Low Dose Naltrexone;Placebo - sugar pill
22 Exercise in Gulf War Illness (GWI) Completed NCT01291758
23 CNDP1 Polymorphisms in Gulf War Illness (GWI) Completed NCT00810225
24 Inspiratory Flow Dynamics During Sleep in Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) and the Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Completed NCT00252629
25 Central Nervous System Modulation of Visceral Pain in Persian Gulf War Syndrome Completed NCT00100425
26 Assessing Neuroinflammation in Gulf War Illness With Whole-Brain Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Recruiting NCT04638998
27 Investigating Pain in Gulf War Illness With Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation. Recruiting NCT03547869
28 Beyond Benefits of Q10: Mitochondrial Cocktail for Gulf War Illness Recruiting NCT02804828
29 Effects of a Single Dose of Intravenous Ketamine on Symptoms of Gulf War Illness in 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans Recruiting NCT04712071 Early Phase 1 Ketamine Hydrochloride
30 Long Term Efficacy of Neuronavigation Guided rTMS in Alleviating Gulf War Illness Related Headaches and Pain Symptoms Recruiting NCT04182659
31 Gulf War 1 Veteran Patient Satisfaction With VA Primary Care: A Survey Study. Withdrawn NCT01703767

Search NIH Clinical Center for Persian Gulf Syndrome

Cochrane evidence based reviews: persian gulf syndrome

Genetic Tests for Persian Gulf Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Persian Gulf Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Persian Gulf Syndrome:

40
Liver, Brain, Eye, Cortex, Cingulate Cortex, Thalamus, Hypothalamus

Publications for Persian Gulf Syndrome

Articles related to Persian Gulf Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 301)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Paraoxonase cluster polymorphisms are associated with sporadic ALS. 61 54
16822964 2006
2
Do cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG) fragments induce vasoactive neuropeptide mediated fatigue-related autoimmune disorders? 54 61
15922114 2005
3
Case-control study of genotypes in multiple chemical sensitivity: CYP2D6, NAT1, NAT2, PON1, PON2 and MTHFR. 61 54
15256524 2004
4
Low paraoxonase in Persian Gulf War Veterans self-reporting Gulf War Syndrome. 54 61
11027539 2000
5
Human serum paraoxonase. 61 54
9703197 1998
6
Effect of the molecular polymorphisms of human paraoxonase (PON1) on the rate of hydrolysis of paraoxon. 54 61
9313934 1997
7
Depleted uranium and Gulf War Illness: Updates and comments on possible mechanisms behind the syndrome. 61
31796256 2020
8
A Review on Toxicodynamics of Depleted Uranium. 61
32802091 2019
9
Meta-analysis of depleted uranium levels in the Middle East region. 61
29890359 2018
10
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by mineral oil: a health problem. 61
29619588 2018
11
Perspective: Scientific and ethical concerns pertaining to animal models of autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). 61
29526635 2018
12
The value of Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvant (ASIA) - Shedding light on orphan diseases in autoimmunity. 61
29526630 2018
13
A comprehensive analysis of Italian web pages mentioning squalene-based influenza vaccine adjuvants reveals a high prevalence of misinformation. 61
29172967 2018
14
Depleted Uranium and Human Health. 61
28462701 2018
15
Evidence Refuting the Existence of Autoimmune/Autoinflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants (ASIA). 61
28888842 2017
16
[Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. A new clinical entity?] 61
28440992 2017
17
Electrophysiological correlates of semantic memory retrieval in Gulf War Syndrome 2 patients. 61
28131230 2017
18
TRPA1 channel mediates organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy. 61
28894590 2017
19
[ASIA syndrome: breast implant and Still's disease]. 61
29044021 2017
20
Multifaceted effects of aluminium in neurodegenerative diseases: A review. 61
27479193 2016
21
[Autoimmune/infl ammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants, ASIA]. 61
29533585 2016
22
Metals and Neurodegeneration. 61
27006759 2016
23
Human adjuvant-related syndrome or autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. Where have we come from? Where are we going? A proposal for new diagnostic criteria. 61
25813870 2015
24
Word-finding impairment in veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. 61
26114921 2015
25
A novel use for testosterone to treat central sensitization of chronic pain in fibromyalgia patients. 61
26004314 2015
26
Health in the news: an analysis of magazines coverage of health issues in veterans and military service organizations. 61
25939108 2015
27
Of poppies and men – from trench nephritis to Gulf War syndrome. 61
26054101 2015
28
Gulf War illness: an overview of events, most prevalent health outcomes, exposures, and clues as to pathogenesis. 61
26598939 2015
29
Gastrointestinal problems in modern wars: clinical features and possible mechanisms. 61
26301101 2015
30
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA): clues and pitfalls in the pediatric background. 61
25395340 2014
31
Gulf War Syndrome: a review of current knowledge and understanding. 61
25895403 2014
32
[The Gulf War Syndrome twenty years on]. 61
23351934 2013
33
Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity. 61
23609067 2013
34
Depleted uranium induces disruption of energy homeostasis and oxidative stress in isolated rat brain mitochondria. 61
23629690 2013
35
Autoimmunity in connection with a metal implant: a case of autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. 61
26000140 2013
36
Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld's syndrome): clinical and immunological spectrum. 61
23557271 2013
37
Objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction and the role of stress in the Gulf War syndrome. 61
23407742 2013
38
Autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA)--animal models as a proof of concept. 61
23992328 2013
39
Gulf War syndrome as a part of the autoimmune (autoinflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvant (ASIA). 61
22235052 2012
40
Still's disease, lupus-like syndrome, and silicone breast implants. A case of 'ASIA' (Shoenfeld's syndrome). 61
22235044 2012
41
Chemicals of military deployments: revisiting Gulf War Syndrome in light of new information. 61
22974741 2012
42
Pituitary hypophysitis and gulf war syndrome: a case series and hypothesis. 61
21521294 2011
43
The relationship between Gulf War illness, brain N-acetylaspartate, and post-traumatic stress disorder. 61
21882779 2011
44
The sick building syndrome as a part of the autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants. 61
21188456 2011
45
'ASIA' - autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. 61
20708902 2011
46
['ASIA' - Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants: even and odd]. 61
21776441 2011
47
Immunoexcitotoxicity as a central mechanism in chronic traumatic encephalopathy-A unifying hypothesis. 61
21886880 2011
48
Cholinesterase inhibitors and stress: effects on brain muscarinic receptor density in mice. 61
20542057 2010
49
Vaccination, squalene and anti-squalene antibodies: facts or fiction? 61
20206873 2010
50
Impotent Warriors: Gulf War Syndrome, Vulnerability and Masculinity, by Susie Kilshaw. 61
27269915 2009

Variations for Persian Gulf Syndrome

Expression for Persian Gulf Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Persian Gulf Syndrome.

Pathways for Persian Gulf Syndrome

GO Terms for Persian Gulf Syndrome

Cellular components related to Persian Gulf Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.23 VIP PON3 PON2 PON1 CNDP1 BCHE

Biological processes related to Persian Gulf Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 response to toxic substance GO:0009636 9.5 PON3 PON2 PON1
2 neurotransmitter secretion GO:0007269 9.46 SYN3 SYN2
3 positive regulation of blood vessel diameter GO:0097755 9.43 VIP ADCYAP1
4 synaptic vesicle clustering GO:0097091 9.4 SYN3 SYN2
5 negative regulation of potassium ion transport GO:0043267 9.37 VIP ADCYAP1
6 synaptic vesicle cycle GO:0099504 9.26 SYN3 SYN2
7 carboxylic acid catabolic process GO:0046395 9.16 PON3 PON1
8 lipoxygenase pathway GO:0019372 9.13 PON3 PON2 PON1
9 aromatic compound catabolic process GO:0019439 8.8 PON3 PON2 PON1

Molecular functions related to Persian Gulf Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hydrolase activity GO:0016787 9.88 PON3 PON2 PON1 CNDP1 BCHE ACHE
2 carboxylic ester hydrolase activity GO:0052689 9.46 BCHE ACHE
3 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 9.43 VIP ADCYAP1
4 peptide hormone receptor binding GO:0051428 9.37 VIP ADCYAP1
5 cholinesterase activity GO:0004104 9.32 BCHE ACHE
6 aryldialkylphosphatase activity GO:0004063 9.26 PON3 PON1
7 acetylcholinesterase activity GO:0003990 9.16 BCHE ACHE
8 arylesterase activity GO:0004064 9.13 PON3 PON2 PON1
9 acyl-L-homoserine-lactone lactonohydrolase activity GO:0102007 8.8 PON3 PON2 PON1

Sources for Persian Gulf Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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