Persistent Vegetative State

Categories: Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Persistent Vegetative State

MalaCards integrated aliases for Persistent Vegetative State:

Name: Persistent Vegetative State 53 54 70


External Ids:

UMLS 70 C0242670

Summaries for Persistent Vegetative State

NINDS : 53 A coma, sometimes also called persistent vegetative state, is a profound or deep state of unconsciousness. Persistent vegetative state is not brain-death. An individual in a state of coma is alive but unable to move or respond to his or her environment. Coma may occur as a complication of an underlying illness, or as a result of injuries, such as head trauma. Individuals in such a state have lost their thinking abilities and awareness of their surroundings, but retain non-cognitive function and normal sleep patterns. Even though those in a persistent vegetative state lose their higher brain functions, other key functions such as breathing and circulation remain relatively intact. Spontaneous movements may occur, and the eyes may open in response to external stimuli. Individuals may even occasionally grimace, cry, or laugh. Although individuals in a persistent vegetative state may appear somewhat normal, they do not speak and they are unable to respond to commands.

MalaCards based summary : Persistent Vegetative State is related to traumatic brain injury and head injury, and has symptoms including syncope, transient alteration of awareness and other alteration of consciousness. An important gene associated with Persistent Vegetative State is SLC25A22 (Solute Carrier Family 25 Member 22), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Glucose / Energy Metabolism and Neuroscience. The drugs Midazolam and Fentanyl have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, spinal cord and bone marrow, and related phenotype is taste/olfaction.

Wikipedia : 73 A persistent vegetative state (PVS) or post-coma unresponsiveness (PCU) is a disorder of consciousness... more...

Related Diseases for Persistent Vegetative State

Diseases related to Persistent Vegetative State via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 60)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 traumatic brain injury 30.6 ENO2 APOE
2 head injury 30.5 ENO2 APOE
3 brain injury 30.4 ENO2 APOE
4 ocular motor apraxia 11.6
5 subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 11.4
6 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 3 11.4
7 early myoclonic encephalopathy 11.2
8 anoxia 10.3
9 spasticity 10.3
10 parkinsonism 10.2
11 locked-in syndrome 10.2
12 cardiac arrest 10.1
13 quadriplegia 10.1
14 vascular dementia 10.1
15 hypoglycemia 10.1
16 alzheimer disease 10.0
17 myositis 10.0
18 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 10.0
19 anencephaly 10.0
20 type 1 diabetes mellitus 10.0
21 reflex sympathetic dystrophy 10.0
22 diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone 10.0
23 hyperprolactinemia 10.0
24 lennox-gastaut syndrome 10.0
25 sleep apnea 10.0
26 urinary tract infection 10.0
27 hemiplegia 10.0
28 respiratory failure 10.0
29 tetanus 10.0
30 basilar artery occlusion 10.0
31 algoneurodystrophy 10.0
32 hypoglycemic coma 10.0
33 cerebral palsy 10.0
34 acute kidney failure 10.0
35 craniopharyngioma 10.0
36 mutism 10.0
37 akinetic mutism 10.0
38 dystonia 10.0
39 acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 10.0
40 myositis ossificans 10.0
41 cerebrovascular disease 10.0
42 mitochondrial encephalomyopathy 10.0
43 meningitis 10.0
44 encephalitis 10.0
45 central pain syndrome 10.0
46 cerebral atrophy 10.0
47 cerebral hypoxia 10.0
48 encephalopathy 10.0
49 cardiogenic shock 10.0
50 scrapie 9.9 ENO2 APOE

Comorbidity relations with Persistent Vegetative State via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):

Acute Cystitis Decubitus Ulcer
Heart Disease

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Persistent Vegetative State:

Diseases related to Persistent Vegetative State

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Persistent Vegetative State

UMLS symptoms related to Persistent Vegetative State:

syncope; transient alteration of awareness; other alteration of consciousness

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Persistent Vegetative State:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 8.62 APOE ENO2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Persistent Vegetative State

Drugs for Persistent Vegetative State (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 42)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 113775-47-6 5311068 68602
4 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
5 Analgesics Phase 4
6 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
7 Anesthetics Phase 4
8 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
9 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4
10 GABA Modulators Phase 4
11 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
12 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
13 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
14 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
15 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 4
Diclofenac Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 15307-86-5 3033
Tramadol Approved, Investigational Phase 2 27203-92-5 33741
Levoleucovorin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 68538-85-2 149436
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 57-27-2 5288826
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 2 15687-27-1 3672
Oxycodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 2 76-42-6 5284603
Dopamine Approved Phase 2 62-31-7, 51-61-6 681
Apomorphine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 41372-20-7, 58-00-4 6005
Folic acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 2 59-30-3 6037
25 Vitamin B9 Phase 2
26 Folate Phase 2
27 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 2
28 Vitamin B Complex Phase 2
29 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
30 Dopamine Agents Phase 2
31 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2
32 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2
33 Dopamine agonists Phase 2
34 Emetics Phase 2
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
Amantadine Approved 768-94-5 2130
38 Antiviral Agents
39 Anti-Infective Agents
40 Antiparkinson Agents
41 Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
42 Radiopharmaceuticals

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 50)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Randomised Control Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of Sensory Stimulation Program in Reducing the Length of Time Spent by Severely Brain Injured Patients in a Vegetative State in the Acute Hospital Environment Unknown status NCT00163878 Phase 4
2 Dex vs Dazzle: Dexmedetomidine vs Midazolam for Intraoperative Sedation Completed NCT02878837 Phase 4 Dexmedetomidine;Midazolam
3 Two Intensities of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Improve Consciousness in Severely Brain Injured Patients Unknown status NCT03007784 Phase 3
4 Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Augment Recovery From Minimally Conscious or Persistently Vegetative States After Traumatic Brain Injury Unknown status NCT01260090 Phase 3
5 Efficacy of Thalamic Stimulation in the Treatment of Patients in Vegetative State and Minimally Conscious State From at Least Six Months. A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT01027572 Phase 2
6 Repeated Stimulation of the Precuneus in Chronic Patients in Minimally Conscious State: a Placebo-controlled Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT02702362 Phase 2
7 Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Patients With Disorders of Consciousness: a Sham-controlled Randomised Double Blind Study Completed NCT01673126 Phase 2
8 Use of Analgesic Treatment to Reduce Signs of Pain in Patients With Disorders of Consciousness: a Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Study. Active, not recruiting NCT04330547 Phase 2 Analgesic administration;Placebo administration
9 A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized Study of the Safety and Efficacy of NH001 in Improving the Functional Outcome of Patients in a Vegetative State or Minimally Conscious State Following a Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Suspended NCT00761228 Phase 2 Apomorphine;Placebo
10 The Impact of RPh201 on CVS Patients: Clinical and fMRI Measurements Withdrawn NCT01417299 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 Effects of Multichannel Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Reduce Hypertonia in Patients With Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness: a Pilot Study. Completed NCT03797573 Phase 1
12 Phase 1 Study of RPh201 in Patients With Chronic Vegetative or Minimal Conscious State Suspended NCT01438684 Phase 1 RPh201;Saline
13 Effects of Whole-body Vibration Exercise on Cortical Activity and Consciousness Level in Brain Injury Patients With Minimally Conscious State: Pilot Study Unknown status NCT03389113
14 Mechanism of Amantadine and Functional Improvement Following Acquired Brain Injury as Measured by MRI Tractography; A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02566720 Amantadine
15 18F-FDG PET/CT in Diagnostic Patients of Disorder of Consciousness Completed NCT02999490
16 A Study to Tailor Advance Directives Completed NCT00121004
17 Further Psychometric Data for the Reliability and the Diagnostic Validity of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised Completed NCT03126929
18 The Effects of Olfactory Stimulation on Diagnosis and Prognosis of Patients With Disorders of Consciousness Completed NCT03732092
19 Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Effects in Patients With Chronic Consciousness Disorders Completed NCT02288533
20 Personalized Objects Can Improve the Diagnosis of EMCS From MCS Completed NCT02988206
21 Prefontal tDCS in Patients With Disorders of Consciousness: Neurophysiological and Behavioural Outcomes Completed NCT03823508
22 Navigated Brain Stimulation in Diagnosis of Minimally Conscious State Completed NCT01467908
23 Study on the Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Promote Diagnosis, Prognosis and Innovative Rehabilitation in Patients in Vegetative and Minimally Conscious State. Completed NCT01820923
24 Analysis of Vital, Facial and Muscular Responses Front to Music or Message in Coma, Vegetative State or Sedated Patients Completed NCT01141790
25 Pupil Near Response - A Promising Prognostic Index in Patients With Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome Completed NCT02832492
26 Can Neural Adaptation After Severe Brain Injury be Facilitated? Completed NCT00557076
27 Effectiveness of Sensory Stimulation for Person in a Coma or Persistent Vegetative State After Traumatic Brain Injury Completed NCT02629588
28 Effect of Fronto-parietal Transcranial Direct Stimulation on the Level of Consciousness in Patients With Disorders of Consciousness Completed NCT02626403
29 The Role of Music Stimulation in Disorders of Consciousness State: an fMRI Study Completed NCT03492294
30 Diagnostic Accuracy of the Vegetative and Minimally Conscious State: Clinical Consensus Versus Standardized Neurobehavioral Assessment Completed NCT04139239
31 Target Behaviours to Identify Minimally Conscious State Patients by Using Coma Recovery Scale-Revised Completed NCT04471753
32 Study of Conscious Behavior Under Low-frequency Deep Brain Stimulation in Chronic and Severe Post-coma Disorders of Consciousness Completed NCT01718249
33 The Initiation of Swallowing Can Indicate the Prognosis of Disorders of Consciousness Completed NCT03508336
34 Reliability and Validity of the Nociception Coma Scale (-Revised)-Chinese Version Completed NCT03494218
35 Repeated tDCS in Chronic Minimally Conscious State Patients : a Sham-controlled Randomized Double Blind Study Completed NCT02019615
36 Behavioral Assessment of Nociception on the Nociception Coma Scale-Revised in Patients With Disorders of Consciousness: A Sign of Consciousness Completed NCT04137497
37 Emotion Assessment to Study Consciousness in Awakening Patients Recruiting NCT03706170
38 Therapeutic Effects of Animal-assisted Therapy for Patients in a Minimally Conscious State: a Randomized, Controlled Cross-over Study Recruiting NCT03910959
39 Development of a Point of Care System for Automated Coma Prognosis - A Prospective Cohort Study Recruiting NCT03826407
40 Closed-loop Application of tDCS to Promote Responsiveness of Patients in MCS Recruiting NCT03810079
41 Validation of the Chinese Version of the Simplified Evaluation of CONsciousness Disorders (SECONDs) Recruiting NCT04687553
42 Relationship Between Simultaneously Acquired Resting-state Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism and Functional MRI in DOC: a PET/MR Hybrid Scanner Study Recruiting NCT04164680
43 Effectiveness Research for Severe Disorders of Consciousness Patients Treated With Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) Recruiting NCT04010838
44 Excitatory Prefrontal Weak Current Stimulation in Vegetative Patients:Potential to Induce Modulation in Neurocognitive Features of Awareness Recruiting NCT04614792
45 Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Patients With Chronic Consciousness Disorders Recruiting NCT02591069
46 A Multimodal Approach to Personalized Tracking of Evolving State-Of-Consciousness in Brain- Injured Patients Recruiting NCT04798456
47 Sham-controlled, Double-blind, Randomised Crossover Study of the Neural, Behavioural, and Clinical Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Patients With a Prolonged Disorder of Consciousness; Feasibility Study Recruiting NCT04248946
48 Transcutaneous Auricular Vagal Nerve Stimulation for Post-coma Patients With Disorders of Consciousness: a Randomized Double-blind Controlled Crossover Trial Recruiting NCT04065386
49 COgnitive REhabilitative Treatments in Pediatric Patients With Severe Acquired Brain Injury From Vegetative State to Functional Recovery Recruiting NCT04499092
50 Observational Study on the Use of Transcranial Direct Stimulation in Patients With Disorder of Consciousness, Due to Severe Acquired Brain Injury, to Stimulate Recovery of Consciousness Terminated NCT03367078

Search NIH Clinical Center for Persistent Vegetative State

Genetic Tests for Persistent Vegetative State

Anatomical Context for Persistent Vegetative State

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Persistent Vegetative State:

Brain, Spinal Cord, Bone Marrow, Eye, Cortex, Thalamus, Pituitary

Publications for Persistent Vegetative State

Articles related to Persistent Vegetative State:

(show top 50) (show all 927)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Outcome after cardiac arrest: predictive values and limitations of the neuroproteins neuron-specific enolase and protein S-100 and the Glasgow Coma Scale. 54 61
15797275 2005
Life-threatening complications after microvascular decompression procedure: Lessons from a consecutive series of 596 patients. 61
33775349 2021
Prevalence of persistent vegetative state compared to recovery, disability, and death in subjects with severe traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis. 61
33187025 2021
Prognosis of patients in prolonged coma after severe carbon monoxide poisoning. 61
33641437 2021
Reversible hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy post prolonged out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A case series. 61
33768882 2021
Dysphagia in a persistently vegetative patient improved by orthodontic treatment of severe dental misalignment. 61
33368620 2021
Assessment of Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Cardiac Arrest by [18F]FDG Positron Emission Tomography. 61
32358767 2021
Prognostic value of admission serum magnesium in acute myocardial infarction complicated by malignant ventricular arrhythmias. 61
33582610 2021
Catastrophic Brain Aspergillosis after Liver Transplantation. 61
33628572 2021
The Impact of Under-triage on Trauma Outcomes in Older Populations ≥65 Years. 61
33502910 2021
Characteristics of Burn-Injured Children in 117 U.S. PICUs (2009-2017): A Retrospective Virtual Pediatric Systems Database Study. 61
33689253 2021
Advance directives and end-of-life care: knowledge and preferences of patients with brain Tumours from Anhui, China. 61
33402101 2021
Operative versus non-operative treatment of traumatic brain injuries in patients 80 years of age or older. 61
31414197 2020
Information Seeking Experiences of Family Caregivers of Patients with Persistent Vegetative State: A Qualitative Study. 61
33344210 2020
Pregnancy in a Persistent Vegetative State: A Management Dilemma. Case Report, Literature Review and Ethical Concerns. 61
32764853 2020
Intraventricular Tigecycline as a Last Resort Therapy in a Patient with Difficult-to-Treat Healthcare-Associated Acinetobacter baumannii Ventriculitis: a Case Report. 61
32838183 2020
Persistent vegetative state after severe cerebral hemorrhage treated with amantadine: A retrospective controlled study. 61
32872083 2020
Music Interventions for Disorders of Consciousness: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 61
32404771 2020
Clinical application of Chinese Nanjing persistent vegetative state scale. 61
32472784 2020
Common, Difficult Questions about Providing Nutrition at End of Life: Bedside Application of Catholic Moral Teaching. 61
32549629 2020
A Novel Instrumentation Approach in a Pediatric Patient with Atlanto-Occipital Dislocation and Cervical Fracture: Case Report. 61
31931243 2020
[Intrathecal baclofen therapy in brain injury and recovery of persistent vegetative state. Apropos of a case]. 61
32370828 2020
[Xiao's "xingnaofusu" needling for regaining consciousness and the influence on width of the third ventricle in patients with persistent vegetative state]. 61
32202716 2020
Intracranial Pressure during External Ventricular Drainage Weaning Is an Outcome Predictor of Traumatic Brain Injury. 61
32695822 2020
Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the ascending reticular activating system in a patient with disorder of consciousness: a case report. 61
31996169 2020
Outcomes of Bone Marrow-Derived Mononuclear Cell Transplantation for Patients in Persistent Vegetative State After Drowning: Report of Five Cases. 61
33014944 2020
Neurophysiological and neuroradiological test for early poor outcome (Cerebral Performance Categories 3-5) prediction after cardiac arrest: Prospective multicentre prognostication data. 61
31763408 2019
Neurophysiology and neuroimaging accurately predict poor neurological outcome within 24 hours after cardiac arrest: The ProNeCA prospective multicentre prognostication study. 61
31400398 2019
Disorders of Consciousness, Past, Present, and Future. 61
31405394 2019
Poor prognostic factors in elderly patients aged 75 years old or older with mild traumatic brain injury. 61
31221574 2019
Estimated Life-Time Savings in the Cost of Ongoing Care Following Specialist Rehabilitation for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in the United Kingdom. 61
30801440 2019
When No One Notices: Disorders of Consciousness and the Chronic Vegetative State. 61
31429953 2019
[Clinical characteristics and microsurgical strategy of intracranial posterior circulation aneurysms]. 61
31154722 2019
Correlation between cerebral co-oximetry (rSO2) and outcomes in traumatic brain injury cases: A prospective, observational study. 61
31065189 2019
Utility and limitations of perimortem cesarean section: A nationwide survey in Japan. 61
30255593 2019
An Analysis of Clinical Characteristics of Rare Bilateral Cerebral Peduncular Infarction. 61
31708855 2019
Persistent Vegetative State after Diabetic Ketoacidosis Triggered by an Overdose of Psychotropic Agents. 61
30210110 2019
Clinical neurophysiology of altered states of consciousness: Encephalopathy and coma. 61
31307621 2019
Thyroid Hormone Profile in a Population of Nigerian Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. 61
30837769 2018
Managing military penetrating brain injuries in the war zone: lessons learned. 61
30544315 2018
Mild decrease in heart rate during early phase of targeted temperature management following tachycardia on admission is associated with unfavorable neurological outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury: a post hoc analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. 61
30567590 2018
Provision of renal care for patients with end stage kidney disease in persistent vegetative state, in United Arab Emirates: a national survey of renal physicians. 61
29979643 2018
SMART - Recognising the value of existing practice and introducing recent developments: leaving no stone unturned in the assessment and treatment of the PDOC patient. 61
28420294 2018
Perampanel in patients with refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus in a neurological intensive care unit: A single-center audit of 30 patients. 61
30043411 2018
Outcome of Decompressive Craniectomy in Traumatic Closed Head Injury. 61
30459866 2018
Comprehensive Systematic Review Update Summary: Disorders of Consciousness: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology; the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine; and the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research. 61
30098792 2018
Comprehensive systematic review update summary: Disorders of consciousness: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology; the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine; and the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research. 61
30089617 2018
Practice Guideline Update Recommendations Summary: Disorders of Consciousness: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology; the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine; and the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research. 61
30098791 2018
Practice guideline update recommendations summary: Disorders of consciousness: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology; the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine; and the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research. 61
30089618 2018
The effectiveness of non-invasive brain stimulation on arousal and alertness in patients in coma or persistent vegetative state after traumatic brain injury: Protocol of systematic review and network meta-analysis. 61
30212977 2018

Variations for Persistent Vegetative State

Expression for Persistent Vegetative State

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Persistent Vegetative State.

Pathways for Persistent Vegetative State

Pathways related to Persistent Vegetative State according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.45 ENO2 APOE
2 11.33 GABBR1 ENO2 APOE

GO Terms for Persistent Vegetative State

Sources for Persistent Vegetative State

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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