Personality Disorder

Categories: Mental diseases, Neuronal diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Personality Disorder

MalaCards integrated aliases for Personality Disorder:

Name: Personality Disorder 11 28 14 75 33
Personality Disorders 53 41 14 71
Enduring Personality Change After Psychiatric Illness 33
Specific Personality Disorders 33
Character Disorder 11
Personality 16


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:1510
ICD9CM 34 301.8
SNOMED-CT 68 191770003
ICD10 31 F60 F60.9
ICD11 33 941859884
UMLS 71 C0029707 C0031212

Summaries for Personality Disorder

MedlinePlus: 41 Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that are unhealthy and inflexible. The behaviors cause serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. They often have stormy relationships with other people. The cause of personality disorders is unknown. However, genes and childhood experiences may play a role. The symptoms of each personality disorder are different. They can mild or severe. People with personality disorders may have trouble realizing that they have a problem. To them, their thoughts are normal, and they often blame others for their problems. They may try to get help because of their problems with relationships and work. Treatment usually includes talk therapy and sometimes medicine.

MalaCards based summary: Personality Disorder, also known as personality disorders, is related to schizotypal personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, and has symptoms including photophobia, personality changes and restlessness. An important gene associated with Personality Disorder is SLC6A4 (Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signal Transduction and GPCR downstream signalling. The drugs Lamotrigine and Topiramate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, prefrontal cortex and subthalamic nucleus, and related phenotypes are shRNA abundance <= 50% and nervous system

Disease Ontology: 11 A disease of mental health that involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that cause serious problems with relationships and work.

Wikipedia: 75 Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive... more...

Related Diseases for Personality Disorder

Diseases in the Personality Disorder family:

Multiple Personality Disorder

Diseases related to Personality Disorder via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1152)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 schizotypal personality disorder 33.1 HTR2A DRD2 COMT
2 obsessive-compulsive personality disorder 33.0 SLC6A4 HTR2A DRD3 COMT
3 avoidant personality disorder 33.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD4
4 cyclothymic disorder 32.4 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD2 COMT
5 antisocial personality disorder 32.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXTR MAOB MAOA HTR2A
6 intermittent explosive disorder 32.1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR2A HTR1A DRD2
7 borderline personality disorder 31.8 TPH2 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXTR NR3C1
8 hepatic encephalopathy 31.7 MAOB MAOA DRD2
9 conduct disorder 31.7 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXTR MAOA DRD4
10 dysthymic disorder 31.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2C HTR2A HTR1A
11 bulimia nervosa 31.5 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B
12 dissociative disorder 31.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A FKBP5 COMT BDNF
13 brunner syndrome 31.1 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOB MAOA HTR2A COMT
14 acute stress disorder 31.0 SLC6A4 NR3C1 HTR2A FKBP5 CRH BDNF
15 chronic pain 31.0 COMT BDNF
16 somatization disorder 31.0 SLC6A4 CRH
17 impulse control disorder 31.0 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOB MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
18 alcohol use disorder 30.9 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
19 polysubstance abuse 30.9 DRD3 DRD2 COMT
20 eating disorder 30.8 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXTR HTR2A HTR1A DRD2
21 pedophilia 30.8 SLC6A4 MAOA
22 trichotillomania 30.8 SLC6A4 MAOA BDNF
23 body dysmorphic disorder 30.8 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A
24 bipolar i disorder 30.7 SLC6A4 HTR2C HTR2A HTR1A DRD2 COMT
25 alexithymia 30.7 SLC6A4 OXTR HTR2A DRD2 CRH COMT
26 bowel dysfunction 30.7 TPH1 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR1A
27 social phobia 30.7 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXTR MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
28 learning disability 30.7 DRD4 COMT BDNF
29 hypochondriasis 30.7 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR2A HTR1A BDNF
30 agoraphobia 30.6 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRH COMT
31 substance abuse 30.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 MAOA HTR2C HTR2A HTR1A
32 post-traumatic stress disorder 30.6 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXTR NR3C1 MAOB MAOA
33 schizoaffective disorder 30.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
34 pyromania 30.6 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1B DRD2 ANKK1
35 dissociative amnesia 30.5 FKBP5 CRH BDNF
36 exhibitionism 30.5 SLC6A4 MAOA DRD4
37 conversion disorder 30.5 HTR2A COMT BDNF
38 neurotic disorder 30.5 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR2A HTR1A CRH
39 irritable bowel syndrome 30.5 TPH1 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH COMT
40 cannabis dependence 30.5 DRD2 COMT ANKK1
41 somatoform disorder 30.5 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH COMT BDNF
42 migraine without aura 30.5 SLC6A4 HTR1A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
43 anorexia nervosa 30.4 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR2A HTR1A
44 cocaine dependence 30.4 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2 CRH COMT
45 adjustment disorder 30.4 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A CRH BDNF
46 generalized anxiety disorder 30.4 TPH1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B
47 sexual sadism 30.3 OXTR MAOA DRD2 CRH COMT
48 migraine with aura 30.3 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B DRD2
49 headache 30.3 SLC6A4 HTR2A COMT BDNF
50 delusional disorder 30.3 SLC6A3 HTR2C HTR2A HTR1A DRD4 DRD2

Comorbidity relations with Personality Disorder via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 14)

Acute Cystitis Alzheimer Disease, Familial, 1
Anxiety Deficiency Anemia
Dependent Personality Disorder Dysthymic Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Heart Disease
Hypertension, Essential Hypothyroidism
Major Depressive Disorder Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Schizophreniform Disorder

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Personality Disorder:

Diseases related to Personality Disorder

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Personality Disorder

UMLS symptoms related to Personality Disorder:

photophobia; personality changes; restlessness; pseudobulbar behavioral symptoms; sleep disturbances

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Personality Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 no effect GR00402-S-1 10.19 ANKK1 BDNF COMT CRH DRD2 DRD3
2 no effect GR00402-S-2 10.19 ANKK1 BDNF COMT CRH DRD2 DRD3
3 shRNA abundance <= 50% GR00343-S 9.56 ANKK1 COMT DRD2 DRD4 HTR1A HTR2A

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Personality Disorder:

45 (show all 13)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 10.4 BDNF COMT CRH DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.33 BDNF COMT CRH DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
3 normal MP:0002873 10.18 BDNF CRH DRD2 FKBP5 NR3C1 OXTR
4 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.18 BDNF CRH DRD2 DRD3 FKBP5 HTR1B
5 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.13 BDNF COMT CRH DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
6 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 10.11 BDNF CRH DRD2 HTR1A HTR1B NR3C1
7 muscle MP:0005369 10.11 DRD2 HTR1B HTR2A HTR2C NR3C1 OXTR
8 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.1 BDNF COMT CRH DRD2 HTR1B HTR2A
9 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 10.08 COMT CRH DRD2 DRD3 FKBP5 MAOB
10 adipose tissue MP:0005375 10.03 CRH DRD2 DRD3 HTR1B HTR2C NR3C1
11 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10 COMT DRD2 DRD3 HTR1A HTR1B MAOA
12 integument MP:0010771 9.32 BDNF CRH DRD2 HTR2C NR3C1 OXTR
13 taste/olfaction MP:0005394 9.26 BDNF DRD2 SLC6A3 TPH2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Personality Disorder

Drugs for Personality Disorder (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 222)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
Olanzapine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 132539-06-1 135398745 4585
Duloxetine Approved Phase 4 136434-34-9, 116539-59-4 60835
Clomipramine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 17321-77-6, 303-49-1 2801
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 10024-97-2 948
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
Haloperidol Approved Phase 4 52-86-8 3559
Pregabalin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 4 58-18-4 6010
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5949-44-0 21873174 65157
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 4 315-37-7 9416
Testosterone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-22-0 5408 6013
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
Naproxen Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 22204-53-1 156391 1302
Citalopram Approved Phase 4 59729-32-7, 59729-33-8 2771
Paroxetine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 61869-08-7 43815
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 318-98-9, 525-66-6 62882 4946
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54910-89-3 3386
Naratriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 143388-64-1, 121679-13-8 4440
Fluvoxamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 54739-18-3 5324346 3404
Sertraline Approved Phase 4 79617-96-2 68617
Tryptophan Approved, Nutraceutical, Withdrawn Phase 4 73-22-3 6305
Dexetimide Withdrawn Phase 4 21888-98-2 30843
Maleic acid Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 110-16-7, 110-17-8 444266 444972
27 Hormones Phase 4
28 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
29 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
30 calcium channel blockers Phase 4
31 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
32 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 4 111974-72-2
34 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
35 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
36 Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic Phase 4
Haloperidol decanoate Phase 4 52919
38 Anabolic Agents Phase 4
39 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
40 Androgens Phase 4
41 Testosterone 17 beta-cypionate Phase 4
42 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 4
43 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
44 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
45 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 4
46 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 4
47 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 4
48 Serotonin Receptor Agonists Phase 4
49 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 4
50 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 678)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Efficacy of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Borderline Personality Disorder: a Randomized, Double Blind Clinical Trial. Unknown status NCT00437099 Phase 4 Omacor®;Placebo
2 Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk in Severe Mental Illness Prescribing and Using Better and More Appropriated Drugs Unknown status NCT01182012 Phase 4
3 Cost-Effectiveness of Adding Web-Based CBT to Luvox CR for OCD Unknown status NCT00743834 Phase 4 Luvox CR
4 Treatment With Escitalopram (Cipralex®) for Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Efficacy, Safety, and Changes in Executive Functions, Metacognition, and Regional Brain Activations. Unknown status NCT00708240 Phase 4 Escitalopram
5 Study of Lamotrigine Treatment of Affective Instability in Borderline Personality Disorder Completed NCT00634062 Phase 4 Lamotrigine;Placebo
6 Treating Suicidal Behavior and Self-Mutilation in Borderline Personality Disorder: Predictors of Change Completed NCT00834834 Phase 4 Fluoxetine;Citalopram
7 Treating Suicidal Behavior and Self-Mutilation in Borderline Personality Disorder Completed NCT00533117 Phase 4 Fluoxetine
8 Effective Measurement of Risperidone Treatment Outcome for Persons With Borderline Personality Disorder: The UAB Borderline Rating Scale (BRS) Completed NCT00204347 Phase 4 risperidone
9 Treatment of Primary Mood Disorders in the Comorbidly Ill Completed NCT00178061 Phase 4
10 Comparison of Effects Between Conventional Dose and High Dose Escitalopram on Clinical Improvement in Patients With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (Randomized, Double-blind, Multi-center Study) Completed NCT00723060 Phase 4 escitalopram
11 Efficacy of Exposure and Response Prevention(ERP) and SSRIs, and Its Predictors in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT02022709 Phase 4 Fluoxetine;Sertraline;Paroxetine;Citalopram;Fluvoxamine
12 SSRI-Induced Activation Syndrome in Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00382291 Phase 4 Regular Titration;Placebo;Slow Titration
13 Ondansetron Augmentation in Treatment Resistant Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Preliminary Single-Blind Prospective Study Completed NCT00796497 Phase 4 ondansetron
14 Duloxetine for the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00464698 Phase 4 Duloxetine
15 Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Versus Fluoxetine for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Randomized Open Trial for Any Patient. Completed NCT00680602 Phase 4 SSRI (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram)
16 Fear Conditioning, Extinction and Recall in Healthy Subjects and in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Patients Pre and Post Treatment With Sertraline. Completed NCT03068429 Phase 4 Sertraline Hydrochloride
17 Translational Approach to the Understanding and Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Can D-Cycloserine Enhance and Stabilize the Treatment-response in Relapsed and Non-responding OCD-patients? A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled National Study Completed NCT02656342 Phase 4 D-Cycloserine;Placebo
18 An Long Term Trial on Effectiveness and Safety of Atypical Antipsychotic Agents in Augmenting SSRI-Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00854919 Phase 4 atypical antipsychotic drug
19 Pharmacological Augmentation Strategies for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Patients Non-respondent to First Line Medication Treatment: a Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study Completed NCT00466609 Phase 4 Clomipramine (fluoxetine plus clomipramine);Quetiapine (fluoxetine plus quetiapine);Placebo (fluoxetine plus placebo)
20 Escitalopram for the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00116532 Phase 4 Escitalopram
21 A Study of Topiramate Augmentation in Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SRI) -Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00182520 Phase 4 Topiramate;placebo
22 Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Combination With D-Cycloserine for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Double Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT01649895 Phase 4 D-Cycloserine;Placebo
23 Quetiapine Augmentation Versus Clomipramine Augmentation of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Patients That do Not Respond to a SSRI Trial: a Randomized Open-trial. Completed NCT00564564 Phase 4 Quetiapine;Clomipramine
24 Topiramate Augmentation in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00211744 Phase 4 topiramate
25 A Placebo Controlled Trial of Amoxicillin for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infections Completed NCT00001658 Phase 4 Amoxicillin
26 Effects of Ondansetron in Obsessive-compulsive and Tic Disorders Completed NCT03239210 Phase 4 Ondansetron;Placebo
27 Neurobiology/Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00000373 Phase 4 olanzapine + fluoxetine;placebo + fluoxetine
28 Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD Completed NCT00000388 Phase 4 Anti-ADHD medication
29 A Study of Pregabalin (Lyrica) Augmentation in Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT00994786 Phase 4 pregabalin;Placebo
30 Reclaim® Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Post-Market Clinical Follow-up Study (OCD PMCF) Completed NCT01135745 Phase 4
31 Hormones and Decision Making Completed NCT04865562 Phase 4 testosterone propionate;0.5% cholorbutanol, saline
32 Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Controlled-Release Tablets Augmentation Strategy for Patients With Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Completed NCT02194075 Phase 4 Fluvoxamine+Methylphenidate hydrochloride;Fluvoxamine+sugar pill
33 Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Naproxen Sodium for the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated With Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) Recruiting NCT04015596 Phase 4 Naproxen Sodium
34 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Sertraline Combined With Fluvoxamine in the Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Recruiting NCT04963257 Phase 4 sertraline fluvoxamine;sertraline
35 Controlled Trial of Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Active, not recruiting NCT00640133 Phase 4
36 Clinical, Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Variables Associated With Response to Treatment in Patients With OCD Active, not recruiting NCT03993535 Phase 4 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
37 Brief Intervention for OCD Fears Suspended NCT02790710 Phase 4 Propanolol;Placebo
38 Pharmacology of Cognition in Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Guanfacine for Cognitive Symptoms in Schizotypal Personality Disorder Terminated NCT00353379 Phase 4 Guanfacine;Placebo
39 Efficacy of a Triptan in the Treatment of Hostility and Aggression Among Convicts With a Psychiatric Treatment Order Terminated NCT00282165 Phase 4 naratriptan;placebo
40 Sertraline in the Treatment of Generalized Social Phobia With Comorbidity Terminated NCT00182533 Phase 4 Sertraline;Placebo
41 A Pilot Treatment Study of Fluoxetine for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder Terminated NCT00592852 Phase 4 fluoxetine
42 SME3110 (Fluvoxamine Maleate) in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Post-marketing Clinical Study in Children and Adolescents (8 Through 18 Years of Age) -A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study Terminated NCT00352768 Phase 4 Fluvoxamine maleate;Placebo
43 A 12-week Randomized Controlled Trial of Probiotic Treatment (Lactobacillus Helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium Longum R0175) vs Placebo in Adult Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Terminated NCT02334644 Phase 4
44 Novel Deep Brain Stimulation in Ventral Capsule and Stratum for Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02590445 Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Safety and Effectiveness of Capsulotomy in Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Unknown status NCT02375152 Phase 2, Phase 3
46 Staged Treatment in Early Psychosis (STEP): A Sequential Multistage Randomized Clinical Trial (SMART) of Interventions for Ultra High Risk (UHR) of Psychosis Patients. Unknown status NCT02751632 Phase 3 Fluoxetine;Placebo
47 BOSCOT: A Randomised Control Trial of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Plus Treatment as Usual Versus Treatment as Usual in the Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder Completed NCT00538135 Phase 3
48 A Phase III Randomized Double-blind, 12 Week, Placebo Controlled Trial of Transdermal Selegiline in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety Completed NCT01912391 Phase 3 Selegiline;Placebo (for Selegiline)
49 A Multicenter, Open-label Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Brexpiprazole in the Treatment of Adult Subjects With Borderline Personality Disorder Completed NCT04186403 Phase 2, Phase 3 Brexpiprazole
50 Efficacy and Safety of Olanzapine in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder: A Randomized Double-Blind Comparison With Placebo Completed NCT00088036 Phase 3 Olanzapine

Search NIH Clinical Center for Personality Disorder

Genetic Tests for Personality Disorder

Genetic tests related to Personality Disorder:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Personality Disorder 28

Anatomical Context for Personality Disorder

Organs/tissues related to Personality Disorder:

MalaCards : Brain, Prefrontal Cortex, Subthalamic Nucleus, Cortex, Caudate Nucleus, Cingulate Cortex, Amygdala

Publications for Personality Disorder

Articles related to Personality Disorder:

(show top 50) (show all 40925)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Six-month stability and predictive validity of the personality inventory for ICD-11. 62 41
36384683 2022
Using passive sensor data to probe associations of social structure with changes in personality: A synthesis of network analysis and machine learning. 62 41
36449466 2022
Neuroticism and adverse life events are important determinants in functional somatic disorders: the DanFunD study. 41
36380136 2022
A gene-environment investigation on personality traits in two independent clinical sets of adult patients with personality disorder and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder. 53 62
19894072 2010
Fluoxetine response in impulsive-aggressive behavior and serotonin transporter polymorphism in personality disorder. 53 62
20010449 2010
Detecting psychopathy from thin slices of behavior. 53 62
19290767 2009
Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene variation influences personality traits and disorders related to emotional dysregulation. 53 62
17176492 2007
Preliminary evidence for an association between a dopamine D3 receptor gene variant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in patients with major depression. 53 62
16583407 2006
Cluster B personality disorders are associated with allelic variation of monoamine oxidase A activity. 53 62
15870836 2005
The childhood-onset neuropsychiatric background to adulthood psychopathic traits and personality disorders. 53 62
15723027 2005
Association between allelic variation of serotonin transporter function and neuroticism in anxious cluster C personality disorders. 53 62
14992987 2004
Dimensions of personality disorders in offenders. 53 62
15614323 2004
Polymorphisms of DRD4 and DRD3 and risk of avoidant and obsessive personality traits and disorders. 53 62
12860355 2003
Mild learning difficulties and offending behaviour--is there a link with monoamine oxidase A deficiency? 53 62
11702062 2001
Polymorphism in exon 6 of the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2) is associated with elevated blood pressure and personality disorders in men. 53 62
11494094 2001
Suicide, impulsive aggression, and HTR1B genotype. 53 62
11457425 2001
Cluster C personality disorder has no independent effect on striatal dopamine transporter densities in major depression. 53 62
11374331 2001
Serotonin transporter protein gene polymorphism and personality measures in African American and European American subjects. 53 62
9766763 1998
Tryptophan hydroxylase genotype is associated with impulsive-aggression measures: a preliminary study. 53 62
9514581 1998
How people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder experience relationships to oneself and to others. A qualitative in-depth study. 62
36451523 2023
The relationship between personality and bullying among primary school children: the mediation role of trait emotion intelligence and empathy. 62
36467264 2023
Identity - A critical but neglected construct in cognitive-behaviour therapy. 62
36435550 2023
Effects of a brief compassion exercise on affect and emotion regulation in patients with personality disorders. 62
36435545 2023
How Personality Relates to Attitudes Toward Diversity and Workplace Diversity Initiatives. 62
34930046 2023
Exploring the effect of group schema therapy and comorbidity on the treatment course of personality disorders. 62
36165960 2023
What Makes Forensic Psychiatric Experts Change Their Opinion in Supplemental Evaluations? 62
35435024 2023
An evaluation of value-based outcomes for women admitted to a dialectical behaviour therapy integrated practice unit: a follow-up study. 62
36305087 2023
Coherence of character and temperament drives personality change toward well being in person-centered therapy. 62
36449732 2023
Under the influence of light: How light pollution disrupts personality and metabolism in hermit crabs. 62
36370979 2023
Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorders Increase Risk for Stalking Victimization. 62
35236175 2023
How can the DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders advance understanding of depression? 62
36191644 2023
Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and clinical implications: A systematic review. 62
36174784 2023
Personality traits as predictors of OCD remission: A longitudinal study. 62
36183822 2023
Improving treatment outcomes for borderline personality disorder: what can we learn from biomarker studies of psychotherapy? 62
36017562 2023
Do You See What I See? Researcher-Participant Agreement on Single-Item Measures of Emotion Regulation Behaviors in Borderline Personality Disorder. 62
34514852 2023
Systems training for emotional predictability and problem solving in older adults with personality disorders: a pilot study. 62
36258278 2023
A Cross-Cultural Investigation of the Association between Betrayal Trauma and Dissociative Features. 62
35467456 2023
Personality traits and their role as risk modifiers in gaming disorder and internet use disorders. 62
36170176 2023
Factors affecting stated liking for meat products: Focus on demographics, oral responsiveness, personality, and psycho-attitudinal traits. 62
36272313 2023
Exploring the Relationship between Depression on Menopausal Symptoms and Personality Trails. 62
33818209 2023
Prediction of Academic Motivation Based on Variables of Personality Traits, Academic Self-Efficacy, Academic Alienation and Social Support in Paramedical Students. 62
33775159 2023
Borderline personality features and altered social feedback processing in emerging adults: An EEG study. 62
36183967 2023
Knowing how you see me: Exploring meta-accuracy of personality, emotions and values and their links with relationship well-being among young adults. 62
35067936 2022
The Role of Personality Traits and Delivery Experience in Fear of Childbirth: A Prospective Study. 62
35032280 2022
Personality and impulsivity as antecedents of occupational health in the construction industry. 62
34704546 2022
Age, gender, personality, burnout, job characteristics and job content as predictors of driver fatigue. 62
34633270 2022
Associations Between Outcome Resilience and Sociodemographic Factors, Childhood Trauma, Personality Dimensions and Self-Rated Health in Middle-Aged Adults. 62
35246825 2022
Beliefs about the nature of knowledge shape responses to the pandemic: Epistemic beliefs, the Dark Factor of Personality, and COVID-19-related conspiracy ideation and behavior. 62
35152440 2022
Inner Conflict of Personality in the Paradigm of Existential-Phenomenological Ontology. 62
35083628 2022
Understanding interpersonal guilt: Associations with attachment, altruism, and personality pathology. 62
35778896 2022

Variations for Personality Disorder

Expression for Personality Disorder

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Personality Disorder.

Pathways for Personality Disorder

Pathways related to Personality Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 21)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
4 12.43 TPH2 TPH1 HTR1A COMT
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
8 11.77 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3
Show member pathways
11.58 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
Show member pathways
11.53 NR3C1 HTR2C HTR2A
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
15 11 HTR2C DRD2 ANKK1
Show member pathways
20 10.58 TPH2 TPH1
21 10.25 MAOA COMT

GO Terms for Personality Disorder

Cellular components related to Personality Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 membrane GO:0016021 10.62 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXTR MAOB MAOA HTR2C
2 membrane GO:0016020 10.62 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 OXTR MAOB MAOA HTR2C
3 dendrite GO:0030425 10.22 BDNF COMT DRD2 DRD4 HTR1A HTR1B
4 synapse GO:0045202 10.18 SLC6A4 NR3C1 HTR2C HTR2A HTR1A DRD3
5 plasma membrane GO:0005887 10.13 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4 HTR1A HTR1B HTR2A
6 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.13 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4 HTR1A HTR1B HTR2A
7 presynaptic membrane GO:0042734 9.85 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A HTR1B DRD2
8 serotonergic synapse GO:0099154 9.73 HTR1B SLC6A4
9 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor complex GO:0098666 9.63 HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B
10 obsolete integral component of postsynaptic membrane GO:0099055 9.56 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A DRD2
11 obsolete integral component of presynaptic membrane GO:0099056 9.02 SLC6A4 SLC6A3 HTR2A HTR1B DRD2

Biological processes related to Personality Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 60)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.44 BDNF CRH DRD2 DRD3 DRD4 HTR1A
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 10.43 OXTR HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
3 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 10.38 HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4 CRH
4 response to xenobiotic stimulus GO:0009410 10.32 DRD2 DRD3 HTR2A MAOB OXTR SLC6A3
5 locomotory behavior GO:0007626 10.24 DRD2 DRD3 HTR2C SLC6A3
6 memory GO:0007613 10.23 SLC6A4 OXTR HTR2A BDNF
7 social behavior GO:0035176 10.21 DRD3 DRD4 OXTR SLC6A4
8 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 10.21 HTR2C HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
9 positive regulation of fat cell differentiation GO:0045600 10.19 TPH1 HTR2C HTR2A
10 release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol GO:0051209 10.17 DRD2 HTR2A HTR2C
11 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger GO:0007187 10.16 HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
12 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration involved in phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled signaling pathway GO:0051482 10.15 HTR2C DRD3 DRD2
13 response to amphetamine GO:0001975 10.15 OXTR DRD4 DRD2
14 behavioral fear response GO:0001662 10.15 HTR2C HTR1A DRD4
15 response to ethanol GO:0045471 10.15 DRD2 DRD3 HTR1B MAOB SLC6A3
16 regulation of dopamine secretion GO:0014059 10.13 HTR2A HTR1B DRD3 DRD2
17 arachidonic acid secretion GO:0050482 10.12 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
18 negative regulation of protein secretion GO:0050709 10.1 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
19 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 10.09 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
20 prepulse inhibition GO:0060134 10.07 SLC6A3 DRD3 DRD2
21 G protein-coupled receptor internalization GO:0002031 10.06 DRD2 DRD3 HTR1B
22 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0098664 10.05 DRD4 HTR1A HTR2A HTR2C
23 regulation of dopamine metabolic process GO:0042053 10.04 SLC6A3 HTR1A DRD4
24 regulation of behavior GO:0050795 10.03 HTR1B HTR1A
25 negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051481 10.02 DRD3 DRD2
26 behavioral response to ethanol GO:0048149 10.02 DRD4 DRD2
27 drinking behavior GO:0042756 10.02 HTR1B DRD2
28 monoamine transport GO:0015844 10.02 SLC6A3 SLC6A4
29 phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0060158 10.02 DRD3 DRD2
30 adenohypophysis development GO:0021984 10.01 SLC6A3 DRD2
31 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007198 10.01 HTR1A HTR1B
32 serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007210 10.01 HTR1A HTR2A
33 hyaloid vascular plexus regression GO:1990384 10.01 DRD2 SLC6A3
34 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 10.01 MAOB MAOA COMT
35 dopamine metabolic process GO:0042417 10.01 COMT DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
36 dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051583 10 SLC6A3 DRD2
37 sperm ejaculation GO:0042713 10 SLC6A4 OXTR
38 aromatic amino acid metabolic process GO:0009072 10 TPH2 TPH1
39 regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis GO:2000300 9.99 HTR2A HTR1B DRD2
40 regulation of potassium ion transport GO:0043266 9.99 DRD2 DRD3
41 regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051584 9.99 DRD2 DRD3
42 negative regulation of serotonin secretion GO:0014063 9.98 MAOB HTR1B
43 feeding behavior GO:0007631 9.98 HTR2C HTR1B DRD2
44 phospholipase C-activating serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007208 9.97 HTR2A HTR2C
45 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway GO:0007195 9.97 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
46 behavioral response to cocaine GO:0048148 9.97 HTR2A DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
47 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol biosynthetic process GO:0010513 9.96 HTR2A HTR2C
48 serotonin biosynthetic process GO:0042427 9.96 TPH1 TPH2
49 acid secretion GO:0046717 9.96 DRD2 DRD3
50 positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission GO:0051586 9.95 DRD2 DRD4

Molecular functions related to Personality Disorder according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor activity GO:0004930 10.24 OXTR HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
2 neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0030594 10.02 HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
3 monoamine transmembrane transporter activity GO:0008504 9.87 SLC6A4 SLC6A3
4 primary amine oxidase activity GO:0008131 9.86 MAOB MAOA
5 phenethylamine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating) activity GO:0052596 9.85 MAOB MAOA
6 dopamine binding GO:0035240 9.85 SLC6A3 DRD4 DRD2
7 Gq/11-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0001587 9.84 HTR2A HTR2C
8 aliphatic amine oxidase activity GO:0052595 9.83 MAOA MAOB
9 monoamine oxidase activity GO:0097621 9.81 MAOA MAOB
10 heterocyclic compound binding GO:1901363 9.8 DRD2 HTR1B SLC6A3
11 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine binding GO:0071886 9.78 HTR2C HTR2A
12 tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activity GO:0004510 9.73 TPH2 TPH1
13 G protein-coupled serotonin receptor activity GO:0004993 9.65 HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A DRD4
14 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/Go GO:0001591 9.63 DRD2 DRD3 DRD4
15 dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity GO:0004952 9.56 DRD4 DRD3 DRD2
16 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced pteridine as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016714 9.46 TPH2 TPH1
17 serotonin binding GO:0051378 9.32 SLC6A4 HTR2C HTR2A HTR1B HTR1A

Sources for Personality Disorder

8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
36 LifeMap
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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