Aliases & Classifications for Phenytoin Toxicity

MalaCards integrated aliases for Phenytoin Toxicity:

Name: Phenytoin Toxicity 57 29
Arene Oxide Detoxification Defect 57 70
Diphenylhydantoin, Defect in Hydroxylation of 57

External Ids:

OMIM® 57 617955
UMLS 70 C1851507

Summaries for Phenytoin Toxicity

MalaCards based summary : Phenytoin Toxicity, also known as arene oxide detoxification defect, is related to alcohol use disorder and pathologic nystagmus. An important gene associated with Phenytoin Toxicity is CYP2C19 (Cytochrome P450 Family 2 Subfamily C Member 19), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Metabolism and Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450. The drugs Phenytoin and Antidotes have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, heart and cerebellum.

More information from OMIM: 617955

Related Diseases for Phenytoin Toxicity

Diseases related to Phenytoin Toxicity via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 86)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 alcohol use disorder 29.5 CYP2C19 ALB
2 pathologic nystagmus 10.3
3 seizure disorder 10.3
4 status epilepticus 10.2
5 ataxia and polyneuropathy, adult-onset 10.1
6 inhibited female orgasm 10.0 CYP2C19 ALB
7 active peptic ulcer disease 10.0 CYP2C19 ALB
8 peptic esophagitis 10.0 CYP2C19 ALB
9 paralytic ileus 10.0 ALB ABCB1
10 mucormycosis 10.0 CYP2C19 ALB
11 interstitial nephritis 10.0 CYP2C19 ALB
12 hypertrophy of tongue papillae 10.0 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
13 idiopathic nephrotic syndrome 10.0 ALB ABCB1
14 urinary tract infection 10.0
15 hypothyroidism 10.0
16 epilepsy 10.0
17 encephalitis 10.0
18 athetosis 10.0
19 post-traumatic epilepsy 10.0
20 encephalopathy 10.0
21 traumatic brain injury 10.0
22 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis 10.0 ALB ABCB1
23 esophageal candidiasis 10.0 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
24 headache 10.0 ALB ABCB1
25 diffuse alveolar hemorrhage 10.0 VKORC1 CYP2C9
26 koro 10.0 CYP2C9 ALB
27 abacavir allergy 9.9 VKORC1 CYP2C9
28 toxic encephalopathy 9.9 ALB ABCB1
29 substance abuse 9.9 CYP2C19 ALB
30 gastrojejunal ulcer 9.9 VKORC1 CYP2C9
31 cardiac arrhythmia 9.8
32 autism 9.8
33 meningioma, familial 9.8
34 major affective disorder 8 9.8
35 major affective disorder 9 9.8
36 gastric cancer 9.8
37 carbonic anhydrase va deficiency, hyperammonemia due to 9.8
38 autism spectrum disorder 9.8
39 intracranial meningioma 9.8
40 portal hypertension 9.8
41 hydrocephalus 9.8
42 hemiplegia 9.8
43 subdural empyema 9.8
44 nephrotic syndrome 9.8
45 neutropenia 9.8
46 hepatic coma 9.8
47 hepatic encephalopathy 9.8
48 facial paralysis 9.8
49 rectum adenocarcinoma 9.8
50 psychotic disorder 9.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Phenytoin Toxicity:



Diseases related to Phenytoin Toxicity

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Phenytoin Toxicity

Clinical features from OMIM®:

617955 (Updated 20-May-2021)

Drugs & Therapeutics for Phenytoin Toxicity

Drugs for Phenytoin Toxicity (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved 57-41-0 1775
2 Antidotes
3 Protective Agents
4 Charcoal
5 Anticonvulsants

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Prospective Randomized Study of Multidose Activated Charcoal in Supratherapeutic Phenytoin Serum Levels Completed NCT00823264 Activated Charcoal

Search NIH Clinical Center for Phenytoin Toxicity

Genetic Tests for Phenytoin Toxicity

Genetic tests related to Phenytoin Toxicity:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Phenytoin Toxicity 29

Anatomical Context for Phenytoin Toxicity

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Phenytoin Toxicity:

40
Brain, Heart, Cerebellum, Kidney, Liver, Tongue, Thyroid

Publications for Phenytoin Toxicity

Articles related to Phenytoin Toxicity:

(show top 50) (show all 198)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Fetal hydantoin syndrome with unilateral atypical cleft hand: additional evidence for vascular disruption. 57
12150216 2002
2
Hand anomalies in fetal-hydantoin syndrome: from nail/phalangeal hypoplasia to unilateral acheiria. 57
8723073 1996
3
Familial occurrence of hypersensitivity to phenytoin. 57
1750433 1991
4
Prenatal prediction of risk of the fetal hydantoin syndrome. 57
2336087 1990
5
Inheritance of poor phenytoin parahydroxylation capacity in a Dutch family. 57
3180640 1988
6
Elevated glucocorticoid receptor levels in lymphocytes of children with the fetal hydantoin syndrome (FHS). 57
3425630 1987
7
Possible prenatal hydantoin effect in a child born to a nonepileptic mother. 57
3605220 1987
8
Genetic predisposition to phenytoin-induced birth defects. 57
2864485 1985
9
Impairment of phenytoin parahydroxylation as a cause of severe intoxication. 57
6879646 1983
10
Predisposition to phenytoin hepatotoxicity assessed in vitro. 57
6790991 1981
11
Inheritance of phenytoin hypometabolism: a kinetic study of one family. 57
7351122 1980
12
Pharmacogenetics: multiple interactions between genes and environment as determinants of drug response. 57
425962 1979
13
Risks to the offspring of women treated with hydantoin anticonvulsants, with emphasis on the fetal hydantoin syndrome. 57
957016 1976
14
Diphenylhydantoin intoxication attendant to slow inactivation of isoniazid. 57
5463537 1970
15
Diphenylhydantoin intoxication. A complication of isoniazid therapy. 57
5414058 1970
16
Inhibition of diphenylhydantoin metabolism in rats and in rat liver microsomes by antitubercular drugs. 57
5691599 1968
17
INSUFFICIENT PARAPHYDROXYLATION AS A CAUSE OF DIPHENYLHYDANTOIN TOXICITY. 57
14161752 1964
18
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis with phenytoin toxicity: A diagnostic dilemma and management challenge. 61
33776096 2021
19
Phenytoin Toxicity After Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS). 61
33160822 2021
20
Phenytoin Induced Status Dystonicus: A Rare Manifestation of Phenytoin Toxicity in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder. 61
32529400 2021
21
Influenza immunization does not predominantly alter levels of phenytoin, and cytochrome P-450 enzymes in epileptic patients receiving phenytoin monotherapy. 61
33007725 2020
22
Hemiconvulsion-Hemiplegia-Epilepsy Syndrome in Adult with Uncontrolled Seizures and Phenytoin Toxicity. 61
32499971 2020
23
Cardiac Collapse Secondary to Phenytoin Toxicity in a Neonate Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support (ECMO). 61
31773636 2020
24
Phenytoin Toxicity Treatment with Haemodialysis in Epilepsy due to Glioblastoma Multiforme: Case Report and Review of the Literature. 61
31911779 2019
25
Phenytoin toxicity due to drug interaction with doxepin and changes in patient factors. 61
31107804 2019
26
Phenytoin Toxicity Manifesting as Acute Psychosis: An Uncommon Side Effect of a Common Drug. 61
31143275 2019
27
Adverse Drug Reactions of Anti-Epileptic Drugs in Children with Epilepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study. 61
30854975 2019
28
A systematic review of phenytoin intoxication induced by compound phenytoin sodium, ephedrine hydrochloride and theophylline tablets in China. 61
30572493 2018
29
Unexplained encephalopathy with phenytoin toxicity - hyperammonemia, the underlying cause. 61
30504595 2018
30
Phenytoin Toxicity During Neoadjuvant Concurrent Capecitabine and Radiation Therapy for Rectal Adenocarcinoma: Case Report of a Drug Interaction. 61
30697501 2018
31
Phenytoin Toxicity. 61
28632869 2017
32
Pharmacokinetic model analysis of interaction between phenytoin and capecitabine. 61
27390048 2016
33
N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene polymorphism as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication in tuberculous meningitis or tuberculoma patients having seizures - A pilot study. 61
27488001 2016
34
NAT2 gene polymorphism: covert drug interaction causing phenytoin toxicity. 61
27487996 2016
35
Activated Charcoal Does Not Reduce Duration of Phenytoin Toxicity in Hospitalized Patients. 61
24621645 2016
36
Should we do early and frequent charcoal hemoperfusion in phenytoin toxicity? 61
27076716 2016
37
Phenytoin toxicity in two-month-old Thai infant with CYP2C9 gene polymorphism--A case report. 61
25998968 2016
38
Postoperative hypoalbuminemia following surgery related to craniosynostosis. 61
26033411 2015
39
Neurological manifestation of phenytoin toxicity, resulting from drug interaction with chloramphenicol: a case report. 61
29144066 2015
40
Fluoxetine-induced phenytoin toxicity: a clinical reminder about the perils of polypharmacy. 61
26411853 2015
41
Life-threatening bradyarrhythmia with oral phenytoin overdose. 61
26312007 2015
42
Novel method for rapid reversal of drug toxicity: a case report. 61
25586596 2015
43
Inappropriate utilization of the Sheiner-Tozer equation to determine phenytoin toxicity. 61
25661096 2015
44
Use of multi-dose activated charcoal in phenytoin toxicity secondary to genetic polymorphism. 61
25597548 2015
45
Psychosis as Harbinger of Phenytoin Toxicity. 61
26862279 2015
46
Ocular motor abnormalities in a patient with phenytoin toxicity--case report and minireview. 61
25459255 2014
47
Free phenytoin toxicity. 61
24768668 2014
48
Myristicin and phenytoin toxicity in an infant. 61
24903724 2014
49
Phenytoin dosing and serum concentrations in paediatric patients requiring 20 mg/kg intravenous loading. 61
24431415 2014
50
Phenytoin toxicity in patients with traumatic brain injury. 61
25033851 2014

Variations for Phenytoin Toxicity

Expression for Phenytoin Toxicity

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Phenytoin Toxicity.

Pathways for Phenytoin Toxicity

Pathways related to Phenytoin Toxicity according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 17)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.56 VKORC1 NAT2 CYP2C9 CYP2C19 ALB ABCB1
2
Show member pathways
12.46 NAT2 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
3 11.63 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
4
Show member pathways
11.62 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
5
Show member pathways
11.6 CYP2C9 CYP2C19 ABCB1
6
Show member pathways
11.54 CYP2C9 CYP2C19 ABCB1
7
Show member pathways
11.27 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
8
Show member pathways
11.24 CYP2C9 ABCB1
9
Show member pathways
11.24 CYP2C9 CYP2C19 ABCB1
10 11.22 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
11
Show member pathways
11.1 CYP2C9 CYP2C19 ABCB1
12
Show member pathways
11.09 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
13 11.02 CYP2C9 ABCB1
14
Show member pathways
11 CYP2C9 ABCB1
15 10.71 CYP2C9 ABCB1
16
Show member pathways
10.66 CYP2C9 CYP2C19 ABCB1
17 10.3 CYP2C9 CYP2C19 ABCB1

GO Terms for Phenytoin Toxicity

Cellular components related to Phenytoin Toxicity according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 organelle membrane GO:0031090 8.96 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
2 endoplasmic reticulum GO:0005783 8.92 VKORC1 CYP2C9 CYP2C19 ALB

Biological processes related to Phenytoin Toxicity according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 steroid metabolic process GO:0008202 9.43 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
2 exogenous drug catabolic process GO:0042738 9.4 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
3 organic acid metabolic process GO:0006082 9.37 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
4 xenobiotic metabolic process GO:0006805 9.33 NAT2 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
5 epoxygenase P450 pathway GO:0019373 9.32 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
6 omega-hydroxylase P450 pathway GO:0097267 9.26 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
7 monoterpenoid metabolic process GO:0016098 8.96 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
8 drug metabolic process GO:0017144 8.8 VKORC1 CYP2C9 CYP2C19

Molecular functions related to Phenytoin Toxicity according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oxidoreductase activity GO:0016491 9.67 VKORC1 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
2 monooxygenase activity GO:0004497 9.48 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
3 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen GO:0016705 9.46 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
4 oxygen binding GO:0019825 9.43 CYP2C19 ALB
5 steroid hydroxylase activity GO:0008395 9.4 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
6 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016712 9.37 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
7 aromatase activity GO:0070330 9.32 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
8 arachidonic acid epoxygenase activity GO:0008392 9.26 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
9 (R)-limonene 6-monooxygenase activity GO:0052741 9.16 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
10 (S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase activity GO:0018676 8.96 CYP2C9 CYP2C19
11 (S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase activity GO:0018675 8.62 CYP2C9 CYP2C19

Sources for Phenytoin Toxicity

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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