Categories: Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Phimosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Phimosis:

Name: Phimosis 12 43 15 62 17
Tight Foreskin 12
Tight Frenulum 12


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2712
MeSH 43 D010688
NCIt 49 C26852
SNOMED-CT 67 52743003
ICD10 32 N47.1
UMLS 71 C0031538

Summaries for Phimosis

PubMed Health : 62 About phimosis: Many parents feel concerned if their newborn or young boy’s foreskin cannot be pulled back. They may think his foreskin is too tight and that he might need an operation. But it is a little known fact that about 9 out of 10 boys’ foreskins are tight or stuck to the head of their penis when they are born. This is known as phimosis, and it is completely normal. It protects the sensitive head of the penis from rubbing against things, becoming too dry and coming into contact with germs like viruses or bacteria. Within the first three years of life, the stuck skin (adhesion) usually detaches, and tight foreskin usually loosens enough to be able to pull it back without any problems or pain. Treatment is only needed if the foreskin still can’t be pulled back in older boys or adult men.

MalaCards based summary : Phimosis, also known as tight foreskin, is related to lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and balanitis xerotica obliterans. An important gene associated with Phimosis is SRD5A2 (Steroid 5 Alpha-Reductase 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Steroid hormone biosynthesis and Estrogen Receptor Pathway. The drugs mometasone furoate and Dermatologic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, kidney and eye.

Wikipedia : 74 Phimosis is a condition in which the foreskin of the penis cannot be pulled back past the glans. A... more...

Related Diseases for Phimosis

Diseases related to Phimosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 98)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 lichen sclerosus et atrophicus 31.4 ELN ECM1
2 balanitis xerotica obliterans 31.2 ELN ECM1
3 intraocular pressure quantitative trait locus 29.9 PEX19 ELN CYP1B1 CRYAA
4 balanitis 10.7
5 balanoposthitis 10.5
6 leukoplakia of penis 10.5
7 paraphimosis 10.4
8 mammographic density 10.4 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
9 acute cystitis 10.4
10 cataract 10.4
11 hypospadias 10.3
12 penile cancer 10.3
13 malignant tumor of penis 10.3
14 diabetes mellitus 10.3
15 morgagni cataract 10.3 PEX19 CRYAA
16 glaucoma-related pigment dispersion syndrome 10.2 PEX19 CYP1B1
17 sexual disorder 10.2
18 salpingitis isthmica nodosa 10.2 MFN2 CYP1B1
19 vesicoureteral reflux 1 10.2
20 urinary tract obstruction 10.2
21 hansen's disease 10.2
22 steroid-induced glaucoma 10.2 PEX19 CYP1B1 CRYAA
23 juvenile glaucoma 10.2 PEX19 CYP1B1 CRYAA
24 clopidogrel resistance 10.2 ITGB3 CYP1A1
25 blepharochalasis 10.1 LAX1 ELN
26 excessive tearing 10.1 LAX1 CYP1B1
27 leprosy 3 10.1
28 retinitis pigmentosa 10.1
29 graft-versus-host disease 10.1
30 neuroretinitis 10.1
31 hydronephrosis 10.1
32 pyelonephritis 10.1
33 impotence 10.1
34 retinitis 10.1
35 lichen planus 10.1
36 chronic graft versus host disease 10.1
37 charcot-marie-tooth disease, axonal, type 2l 10.0 MFN2 CRYAA
38 senile ectropion 10.0 LAX1 ELN
39 open-angle glaucoma 10.0 ELN CYP1B1 CRYAA
40 bladder diverticulum 10.0 LAX1 ELN
41 orbital cellulitis 10.0 LAX1 CRYAA
42 acute orbital inflammation 10.0 LAX1 CRYAA
43 phacogenic glaucoma 10.0 PEX19 ELN CYP1B1 CRYAA
44 ectropion 10.0 LAX1 CRYAA
45 iris disease 10.0 PEX19 ELN CYP1B1 CRYAA
46 glaucoma, primary open angle 10.0 PEX19 ELN CYP1B1 CRYAA
47 optic nerve disease 10.0 MFN2 ELN CRYAA
48 prune belly syndrome 9.9
49 epicanthus 9.9
50 exudative vitreoretinopathy 1 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Phimosis:

Diseases related to Phimosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Phimosis

Drugs & Therapeutics for Phimosis

PubMed Health treatment related to Phimosis: 62

There is no need to treat phimosis in babies and toddlers right away. Parents should not try to force the foreskin back. This can be painful for the child and injure the foreskin, leading to scars that could later cause acquired phimosis. To keep the area clean, it is enough to wash the penis from the outside using warm water and mild soap. If a boy still has phimosis after the age of three, it is important to seek medical advice. The doctor will take a closer look and say whether treatment is advisable or whether you can wait and see how things develop. In most children, phimosis is treated using a steroid cream. This is known as a “conservative” treatment approach because surgery is not needed. The cream is applied to the foreskin twice a day for four to eight weeks. After two weeks parents can try to pull the foreskin back very gently in order to stretch it a little. Here it is important not to injure the skin . If the foreskin can be pulled back a bit, the cream can also be applied to the part of the glans that is exposed. Then the foreskin is returned to its normal position. This treatment is successful in most children. But it often has to be repeated after a while in order to have a more lasting effect. If conservative treatment doesn’t work, a small operation known as circumcision might be considered. This operation is also considered if boys have recurring inflammations or problems when urinating. Circumcision is always necessary if someone has phimosis due to scarring (acquired phimosis) or if the foreskin gets stuck behind the glans when it is pulled back (paraphimosis ). Circumcision involves removing either part of the foreskin or all of it. If it is only partially removed, phimosis might come back again after a while. This cannot happen if all of the foreskin is removed. Circumcisions for the treatment of phimosis are routine operations . They are often done under general anesthetic in children, but sometimes only a local anesthetic is used in teenagers and adults.

Drugs for Phimosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 35)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
mometasone furoate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 83919-23-7
2 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
3 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 4
4 Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination Phase 4
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 1 103-90-2 1983
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 1 15687-27-1 3672
Ketorolac Approved Phase 1 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 28523-86-6 5206
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 1 38396-39-3, 2180-92-9 2474
10 Anesthetics, Local Phase 1
11 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 1
12 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 1
13 Antipyretics Phase 1
14 Anesthetics, General Phase 1
15 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 1
16 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 1
17 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 1
18 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 1
19 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 1
20 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 1
21 Analgesics Phase 1
Thrombin Approved, Investigational
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved 124-94-7 31307
Formaldehyde Approved, Vet_approved 50-00-0 712
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 68-26-8, 11103-57-4, 22737-96-8 445354 9904001
26 Hemostatics
27 Coagulants
28 Immunologic Factors
29 retinol
30 Retinol palmitate
31 Triamcinolone diacetate
32 Triamcinolone hexacetonide
33 triamcinolone acetonide
34 Immunosuppressive Agents
35 Anesthetics

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 19)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment of Phimosis With Topical Steroid Cream -Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study in 98 Boys Unknown status NCT01108198 Phase 4 Mometasone furoate cream;moisturizing cream
2 Field Study of Unicirc Circumcision in Adolescent Boys, Aged 12 to 15 Years. Completed NCT02593630 Phase 4
3 A Randomised Controlled Trial of Mild Versus Potent Topical Corticosteroids as Primary Treatment for Non-retractile Foreskin in Children. Withdrawn NCT00933023 Phase 4 hydrocortisone;Betamethasone
4 A Pilot Study Evaluating Pain Outcomes of Ketorolac Administration in Children Undergoing Circumcision Completed NCT02973958 Phase 1 Bupivacaine;Sevoflurane;Acetaminophen;Ibuprofen;Ketorolac
5 The Role of 2-octyl Cyanoacrylate in Prevention of Recurrent Adhesions After Circumcision Completed NCT01794221
6 The Safety of Thermocautery Usage for Male Children's Circumcisions Completed NCT03305523
7 Determination of Normal Range Values of Thrombin Generation Parameters in Pediatrics Population Using a New Standardized Thrombin Generation Assay Completed NCT03007108
8 One-arm, Open Label, Phase I (Out of 3 Phases), Pilot Study to Verify the Safety of PrePex™ Device for Screen Failure Subjects (Men With Narrow Foreskin and Phimosis) for Adult Male Circumcision, Performed by Physicians, in a Male Population That is Scheduled to Undergo Circumcision in an Effort to Prevent the Spread of HIV. Completed NCT02281435
9 Unacylated Ghrelin and Obestatin as Promising Biomarkers of Protein Energy Wasting in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease: a Cross-sectional Case-control Study Completed NCT03171116
10 Circumcision Versus Preputioplasty for BXO in Children: A Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial Completed NCT02854995
11 Comparison of Short and Long Term Complications According to the Circumcision Technique Applied During the Childhood Completed NCT03136224
12 A Pilot Study to Introduce Male Circumcision (MC) Services to Prevent HIV Infection in Two High Prevalence Areas of the Dominican Republic (DR) Completed NCT02337179
13 Distribution of Smooth Muscle In Dartos In The Non Conspicuous Penis, an Observational a Prospective, Descriptive, Observational Study Recruiting NCT03295175
14 Capsular Bag Performance of a Hydrophilic and a Hydrophobic Acrylic Intraocular Lens of Similar Design Recruiting NCT03955796
15 Evaluation of the ShangRing vs. Mogen Clamp for Early Infant Male Circumcision (EIMC) in Sub-Saharan Africa Recruiting NCT03338699
16 Assessment of the Performance of Monosyn® Quick Suture Material in Different Indications Under Daily Clinical Routine. Active, not recruiting NCT03355001
17 Does Neurostimulation Improve Efficacy for Ultrasound-Guided Transperineal Pudendal Nerve Block In Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03931850
18 Assessment of the Effectiveness and Ease of Use of DirectVision- a Direct Visualization System for Urinary Catheterization: Results of a Single Center Prospective Study Terminated NCT03066999
19 Intelligence Performance in Adolescence After Early Exposure to Anesthesia and Minor Surgery Withdrawn NCT01483313

Search NIH Clinical Center for Phimosis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: phimosis

Genetic Tests for Phimosis

Anatomical Context for Phimosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Phimosis:

Skin, Kidney, Eye, Smooth Muscle, Bone, Testes, Pituitary

Publications for Phimosis

Articles related to Phimosis:

(show top 50) (show all 1043)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN): Acute complications and long-term sequelae management in a multidisciplinary follow-up. 61
31481319 2020
Prevalence of Phimosis in Males of All Ages: Systematic Review. 61
31655079 2020
Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus: Current Perspectives. 61
32021489 2020
Balanitis xerotica obliterans: an update for clinicians. 61
31760506 2020
Androgen Receptor Expression in Hypospadias. 61
31896892 2020
The Management of Phimosis Seen after Circumcision with Thermocautery. 61
31912476 2020
Comparison of posterior optic capture of intraocular lens without vitrectomy vs endocapsular implantation with anterior vitrectomy in congenital cataract surgery: A randomized prospective study. 61
31856476 2020
Limited Dorsal Slit Preputialplasty for Management of Phimosis in Children. 61
31884433 2019
Megameatus intact prepuce treated with urethral plate-preserving surgery: a retrospective study of an unusual hypospadias variant. 61
32038954 2019
Exploring disease-specific methylated CpGs in human male genital abnormalities by using methylated-site display-amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSD-AFLP). 61
31462596 2019
Evaluating the distance travelled for urological pediatric appointments. 61
31799921 2019
Risk behaviours and alcohol in adolescence are negatively associated with testicular volume: results from the Amico-Andrologo survey. 61
31187607 2019
Clinical characteristics, classification, and surgical outcome for kittens with phimosis: 8 cases (2009-2017). 61
31617807 2019
Concealed Penis after Circumcision: Is It Beneficial in Lowering Uropathogenic Colonization in Penile Skin and Preventing Recurrence of Febrile Urinary Tract Infections? 61
31630386 2019
The use of steroid cream for physiologic phimosis in male infants with a history of UTI and normal renal ultrasound is associated with decreased risk of recurrent UTI. 61
31345734 2019
[Cerebral palsy associated urological pathologies. Nurse´s role.] 61
31475673 2019
Save the foreskin: Outcomes of preputioplasty in the treatment of childhood phimosis. 61
31548120 2019
Anterior capsular phimosis. 61
31436202 2019
Alternative management of capsulorhexis phimosis using vitrector trimming. 61
31470963 2019
Circumcision Rates after the Release of Preputial Adhesions 61
31553146 2019
Fallopian tube subtle pathology. 61
31227442 2019
Randomized open-label trial comparing topical prescription triamcinolone to over-the-counter hydrocortisone for the treatment of phimosis. 61
31130504 2019
Megaprepuce: presentation of a modified surgical technique with excellent cosmetic and functional results. 61
31301977 2019
Ultrasound evidence of bladder outlet obstruction secondary to lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in boys (balanitis xerotica obliterans). 61
31455543 2019
Laparoscopic Management of an Intrauterine Fallopian Tube Incarceration After Curettage for a Non-progressing Pregnancy. 61
30243687 2019
Preoperative plasma IGFBP2 is associated with nodal metastasis in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. 61
31053522 2019
Simplifying the ShangRing technique for circumcision in boys and men: use of the no-flip technique with randomization to removal at 7 days versus spontaneous detachment. 61
30520424 2019
Consultation Section: Cataract. Bilateral capsulorhexis phimosis with full closure and intraocular lens crimping in one eye in a patient with high myopia: May consultation #1. 61
31030783 2019
Epidemiology of sexual disorders in general medical practice: An Italian survey. 61
30983516 2019
Spinal anesthesia in children: most pediatric urologists are not on board. 61
30930017 2019
Cataract surgery outcomes in eyes with chorioretinal coloboma. 61
31030778 2019
Complete Anterior Capsule Phimosis following Cataract Surgery in a Patient with a History of Retinopathy of Prematurity, Nystagmus, and a Narrow Angle. 61
31692622 2019
Concealed cysts presenting as 'Club' penis: a case report. 61
31036080 2019
How far are they coming from? 61
31039112 2019
Subcutaneous tissue-sparing dorsal slit with new marking technique: A novel circumcision method. 61
31008987 2019
Penile cancer epidemiology and risk factors: a contemporary review. 61
30562185 2019
Clitoral Phimosis: Effects on Female Sexual Function and Surgical Treatment Outcomes. 61
30770072 2019
Comparison of preputioplasty and circumcision in distal hypospadias correction: long-term follow-up. 61
30270101 2019
Comparative risk of genital infections associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors. 61
30207042 2019
Two case reports of unusual phimosis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta). 61
30375654 2019
Benign tumours leading to total penile denudation treated with Manuka honey dressings: A case report and review of literature. 61
31377541 2019
The advantages of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery for zonulopathy. 61
31114398 2019
Congenital Megaprepuce: Literature Review and Surgical Correction. 61
31218089 2019
Malignant Tumors of the Penis - Dia-gnostics and Therapy. 61
30764627 2019
Secondary phimosis after circumcision. 61
30875291 2019
Clinical Outcomes And Risk Factors In Patients Circumcised By Chinese Shang Ring: A Prospective Study Based On Age And Types Of Penile Disease. 61
31695396 2019
Penile Lymphangioma: review of the literature with a case presentation. 61
30705756 2019
The Role of Human Papilloma Virus in Penile Cancer Prevention and New Therapeutic Agents. 61
30262198 2019
[Application of disposable oval circumcision anastomat in pediatric urology]. 61
30669751 2019
Abnormal dartos fascia in buried penis and hypospadias: Evidence from histopathology. 61
30554609 2018

Variations for Phimosis

Expression for Phimosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Phimosis.

Pathways for Phimosis

Pathways related to Phimosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
10.62 SRD5A2 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
2 10.07 CYP1B1 CYP1A1

GO Terms for Phimosis

Cellular components related to Phimosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integrin complex GO:0008305 9.16 ITGB3 ITGA1
2 organelle membrane GO:0031090 9.13 SRD5A2 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
3 ruffle membrane GO:0032587 8.8 MACF1 ITGB3 FERMT1

Biological processes related to Phimosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 steroid metabolic process GO:0008202 9.5 SRD5A2 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
2 intermediate filament cytoskeleton organization GO:0045104 9.43 MACF1 EVPLL
3 integrin-mediated signaling pathway GO:0007229 9.43 ITGB3 ITGA1 FERMT1
4 epoxygenase P450 pathway GO:0019373 9.4 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
5 estrogen metabolic process GO:0008210 9.37 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
6 wound healing GO:0042060 9.33 MACF1 ITGB3 EVPLL
7 omega-hydroxylase P450 pathway GO:0097267 8.96 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
8 toxin metabolic process GO:0009404 8.62 CYP1B1 CYP1A1

Molecular functions related to Phimosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular matrix binding GO:0050840 9.26 ITGB3 ELN
2 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016712 9.16 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
3 aromatase activity GO:0070330 8.96 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
4 estrogen 16-alpha-hydroxylase activity GO:0101020 8.62 CYP1B1 CYP1A1

Sources for Phimosis

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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