Categories: Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Phimosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Phimosis:

Name: Phimosis 12 44 15 63 17
Tight Foreskin 12
Tight Frenulum 12


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2712
MeSH 44 D010688
NCIt 50 C26852
SNOMED-CT 68 52743003
ICD10 33 N47.1
UMLS 72 C0031538

Summaries for Phimosis

PubMed Health : 63 About phimosis: Many parents feel concerned if their newborn or young boy’s foreskin cannot be pulled back. They may think his foreskin is too tight and that he might need an operation. But it is a little known fact that about 9 out of 10 boys’ foreskins are tight or stuck to the head of their penis when they are born. This is known as phimosis, and it is completely normal. It protects the sensitive head of the penis from rubbing against things, becoming too dry and coming into contact with germs like viruses or bacteria. Within the first three years of life, the stuck skin (adhesion) usually detaches, and tight foreskin usually loosens enough to be able to pull it back without any problems or pain. Treatment is only needed if the foreskin still can’t be pulled back in older boys or adult men.

MalaCards based summary : Phimosis, also known as tight foreskin, is related to balanitis and lichen sclerosus. An important gene associated with Phimosis is SRD5A2 (Steroid 5 Alpha-Reductase 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Degradation of the extracellular matrix and Phagocytosis of Microbes. The drugs mometasone furoate and Anti-Allergic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, kidney and eye.

Wikipedia : 75 Phimosis is a condition in which the foreskin of the penis cannot be pulled back past the glans. A... more...

Related Diseases for Phimosis

Diseases related to Phimosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 77)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 balanitis 10.7
2 lichen sclerosus 10.6
3 balanoposthitis 10.5
4 balanitis xerotica obliterans 10.5
5 leukoplakia of penis 10.5
6 lichen sclerosus et atrophicus 10.5
7 paraphimosis 10.4
8 acute cystitis 10.4
9 hypospadias 10.3
10 penile cancer 10.3
11 cataract 10.3
12 diabetes mellitus 10.3
13 malignant tumor of penis 10.3
14 sexual disorder 10.2
15 vesicoureteral reflux 1 10.2
16 urinary tract obstruction 10.2
17 hansen's disease 10.2
18 leprosy 3 10.1
19 retinitis pigmentosa 10.1
20 graft-versus-host disease 10.1
21 neuroretinitis 10.1
22 hydronephrosis 10.1
23 pyelonephritis 10.1
24 impotence 10.1
25 retinitis 10.1
26 lichen planus 10.1
27 chronic graft versus host disease 10.1
28 mammographic density 10.1 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
29 pulmonary immaturity 10.0 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
30 prune belly syndrome 9.9
31 epicanthus 9.9
32 cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral 9.9
33 mycosis fungoides 9.9
34 macular degeneration, age-related, 1 9.9
35 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 9.9
36 intraocular pressure quantitative trait locus 9.9
37 microvascular complications of diabetes 5 9.9
38 hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 9.9
39 ptosis 9.9
40 borderline leprosy 9.9
41 epidural abscess 9.9
42 infant gynecomastia 9.9
43 cicatricial pemphigoid 9.9
44 myopia 9.9
45 postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis 9.9
46 varicocele 9.9
47 gynecomastia 9.9
48 uveitis 9.9
49 premature ejaculation 9.9
50 iritis 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Phimosis:

Diseases related to Phimosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Phimosis

Drugs & Therapeutics for Phimosis

PubMed Health treatment related to Phimosis: 63

There is no need to treat phimosis in babies and toddlers right away. Parents should not try to force the foreskin back. This can be painful for the child and injure the foreskin, leading to scars that could later cause acquired phimosis. To keep the area clean, it is enough to wash the penis from the outside using warm water and mild soap. If a boy still has phimosis after the age of three, it is important to seek medical advice. The doctor will take a closer look and say whether treatment is advisable or whether you can wait and see how things develop. In most children, phimosis is treated using a steroid cream. This is known as a “conservative” treatment approach because surgery is not needed. The cream is applied to the foreskin twice a day for four to eight weeks. After two weeks parents can try to pull the foreskin back very gently in order to stretch it a little. Here it is important not to injure the skin. If the foreskin can be pulled back a bit, the cream can also be applied to the part of the glans that is exposed. Then the foreskin is returned to its normal position. This treatment is successful in most children. But it often has to be repeated after a while in order to have a more lasting effect. If conservative treatment doesn’t work, a small operation known as circumcision might be considered. This operation is also considered if boys have recurring inflammations or problems when urinating. Circumcision is always necessary if someone has phimosis due to scarring (acquired phimosis) or if the foreskin gets stuck behind the glans when it is pulled back (paraphimosis). Circumcision involves removing either part of the foreskin or all of it. If it is only partially removed, phimosis might come back again after a while. This cannot happen if all of the foreskin is removed. Circumcisions for the treatment of phimosis are routine operations. They are often done under general anesthetic in children, but sometimes only a local anesthetic is used in teenagers and adults.

Drugs for Phimosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 36)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
mometasone furoate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 83919-23-7
2 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 4
3 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
4 Lidocaine, Prilocaine Drug Combination Phase 4
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 1 103-90-2 1983
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 28523-86-6 5206
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 1 15687-27-1 3672
Ketorolac Approved Phase 1 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 1 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
10 Anesthetics, Local Phase 1
11 Analgesics Phase 1
12 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 1
13 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 1
14 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 1
15 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 1
16 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 1
17 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 1
18 Anesthetics, General Phase 1
19 Antipyretics Phase 1
20 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 1
21 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 1
22 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 1
Thrombin Approved, Investigational
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved 124-94-7 31307
Formaldehyde Approved, Vet_approved 50-00-0 712
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 22737-96-8, 11103-57-4, 68-26-8 9904001 445354
27 Hemostatics
28 Coagulants
29 triamcinolone acetonide
30 Triamcinolone hexacetonide
31 Triamcinolone diacetate
32 Retinol palmitate
33 Immunosuppressive Agents
34 retinol
35 Immunologic Factors
36 Anesthetics

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 19)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment of Phimosis With Topical Steroid Cream -Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study in 98 Boys Unknown status NCT01108198 Phase 4 Mometasone furoate cream;moisturizing cream
2 Field Study of Unicirc Circumcision in Adolescent Boys, Aged 12 to 15 Years. Completed NCT02593630 Phase 4
3 A Randomised Controlled Trial of Mild Versus Potent Topical Corticosteroids as Primary Treatment for Non-retractile Foreskin in Children. Withdrawn NCT00933023 Phase 4 hydrocortisone;Betamethasone
4 A Pilot Study Evaluating Pain Outcomes of Ketorolac Administration in Children Undergoing Circumcision Completed NCT02973958 Phase 1 Bupivacaine;Sevoflurane;Acetaminophen;Ibuprofen;Ketorolac
5 The Role of 2-octyl Cyanoacrylate in Prevention of Recurrent Adhesions After Circumcision Completed NCT01794221
6 The Safety of Thermocautery Usage for Male Children's Circumcisions Completed NCT03305523
7 Determination of Normal Range Values of Thrombin Generation Parameters in Pediatrics Population Using a New Standardized Thrombin Generation Assay Completed NCT03007108
8 One-arm, Open Label, Phase I (Out of 3 Phases), Pilot Study to Verify the Safety of PrePex™ Device for Screen Failure Subjects (Men With Narrow Foreskin and Phimosis) for Adult Male Circumcision, Performed by Physicians, in a Male Population That is Scheduled to Undergo Circumcision in an Effort to Prevent the Spread of HIV. Completed NCT02281435
9 Unacylated Ghrelin and Obestatin as Promising Biomarkers of Protein Energy Wasting in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease: a Cross-sectional Case-control Study Completed NCT03171116
10 Circumcision Versus Preputioplasty for BXO in Children: A Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial Completed NCT02854995
11 Comparison of Short and Long Term Complications According to the Circumcision Technique Applied During the Childhood Completed NCT03136224
12 A Pilot Study to Introduce Male Circumcision (MC) Services to Prevent HIV Infection in Two High Prevalence Areas of the Dominican Republic (DR) Completed NCT02337179
13 Assessment of the Performance of Monosyn® Quick Suture Material in Different Indications Under Daily Clinical Routine. Recruiting NCT03355001
14 Capsular Bag Performance of a Hydrophilic and a Hydrophobic Acrylic Intraocular Lens of Similar Design Recruiting NCT03955796
15 Distribution of Smooth Muscle In Dartos In The Non Conspicuous Penis, an Observational a Prospective, Descriptive, Observational Study Recruiting NCT03295175
16 Evaluation of the ShangRing vs. Mogen Clamp for Early Infant Male Circumcision (EIMC) in Sub-Saharan Africa Recruiting NCT03338699
17 Does Neurostimulation Improve Efficacy for Ultrasound-Guided Transperineal Pudendal Nerve Block In Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03931850
18 Assessment of the Effectiveness and Ease of Use of DirectVision- a Direct Visualization System for Urinary Catheterization: Results of a Single Center Prospective Study Terminated NCT03066999
19 Intelligence Performance in Adolescence After Early Exposure to Anesthesia and Minor Surgery Withdrawn NCT01483313

Search NIH Clinical Center for Phimosis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: phimosis

Genetic Tests for Phimosis

Anatomical Context for Phimosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Phimosis:

Skin, Kidney, Eye, Smooth Muscle, Bone, Testes, Pituitary

Publications for Phimosis

Articles related to Phimosis:

(show top 50) (show all 1023)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Anterior capsular phimosis. 38
31436202 2019
Preoperative plasma IGFBP2 is associated with nodal metastasis in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. 38
31053522 2019
Laparoscopic Management of an Intrauterine Fallopian Tube Incarceration After Curettage for a Non-progressing Pregnancy. 38
30243687 2019
Simplifying the ShangRing technique for circumcision in boys and men: use of the no-flip technique with randomization to removal at 7 days versus spontaneous detachment. 38
30520424 2019
Benign tumours leading to total penile denudation treated with Manuka honey dressings: A case report and review of literature. 38
31377541 2019
The use of steroid cream for physiologic phimosis in male infants with a history of UTI and normal renal ultrasound is associated with decreased risk of recurrent UTI. 38
31345734 2019
Risk behaviours and alcohol in adolescence are negatively associated with testicular volume: results from the Amico-Andrologo survey. 38
31187607 2019
Bilateral capsulorhexis phimosis with full closure and intraocular lens crimping in one eye in a patient with high myopia: May consultation #1. 38
31030783 2019
Cataract surgery outcomes in eyes with chorioretinal coloboma. 38
31030778 2019
Epidemiology of sexual disorders in general medical practice: An Italian survey. 38
30983516 2019
Megaprepuce: presentation of a modified surgical technique with excellent cosmetic and functional results. 38
31301977 2019
Spinal anesthesia in children: most pediatric urologists are not on board. 38
30930017 2019
Concealed cysts presenting as 'Club' penis: a case report. 38
31036080 2019
How far are they coming from? 38
31039112 2019
Randomized open-label trial comparing topical prescription triamcinolone to over-the-counter hydrocortisone for the treatment of phimosis. 38
31130504 2019
Subcutaneous tissue-sparing dorsal slit with new marking technique: A novel circumcision method. 38
31008987 2019
Penile cancer epidemiology and risk factors: a contemporary review. 38
30562185 2019
Comparison of preputioplasty and circumcision in distal hypospadias correction: long-term follow-up. 38
30270101 2019
Clitoral Phimosis: Effects on Female Sexual Function and Surgical Treatment Outcomes. 38
30770072 2019
Comparative risk of genital infections associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors. 38
30207042 2019
Two case reports of unusual phimosis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta). 38
30375654 2019
Fallopian tube subtle pathology. 38
31227442 2019
Congenital Megaprepuce: Literature Review and Surgical Correction. 38
31218089 2019
The advantages of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery for zonulopathy. 38
31114398 2019
Secondary phimosis after circumcision. 38
30875291 2019
[Application of disposable oval circumcision anastomat in pediatric urology]. 38
30669751 2019
The Role of Human Papilloma Virus in Penile Cancer Prevention and New Therapeutic Agents. 38
30262198 2019
Penile Lymphangioma: review of the literature with a case presentation. 38
30705756 2019
Malignant Tumors of the Penis - Dia-gnostics and Therapy. 38
30764627 2019
Abnormal dartos fascia in buried penis and hypospadias: Evidence from histopathology. 38
30554609 2018
Prepuce sparing: Use of Z-plasty for treatment of phimosis and scarred foreskin. 38
29909192 2018
Advising on the care of the uncircumcised penis: A survey of pediatric urologists in the United States. 38
30554610 2018
Circumcision in the paediatric patient: A review of indications, technique and complications. 38
30246352 2018
Underestimation of genital lichen sclerosus incidence in boys with phimosis: results from a systematic review. 38
30264374 2018
Childhood Phimosis Secondary to Lichen Sclerosus: Is There a Spatial Pattern of Histopathological Changes? 38
30124504 2018
[A Case of Autopsy of Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of the Penis with Metastasis to the Right Ventricle of the Heart]. 38
30543746 2018
Does application of topical steroids for lichen sclerosus (balanitis xerotica obliterans) affect the rate of circumcision? A systematic review. 38
29395150 2018
Contemporary management of adult-acquired buried penis. 38
29630765 2018
Long-term follow-up of neodymium:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy for the treatment of anterior capsular phimosis. 38
29916304 2018
The Diagnosis and Treatment of Penile Cancer. 38
30375327 2018
Genital Lichen Sclerosus Et Atrophicus: A Benign Skin Disorder With Malignant Aftermath. 38
29729359 2018
Outcomes of circumcision in children with single ventricle physiology. 38
29845314 2018
The evolutionary saga of circumcision from a religious perspective. 38
29627177 2018
Utility of uroflowmetry during the follow-up of children affected by balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO). 38
29974722 2018
[Surgical plane positioning with a disposable circumcision suture device for the treatment of phimosis and redundant prepuce]. 38
30171754 2018
Preputialplasty: can be considered an alternative to circumcision? When, how, why? Experience of Italian centre. 38
29770316 2018
[Epidemiology of penile cancer]. 38
29468279 2018
Prognostic factors in patients with penile cancer after surgical management. 38
29299663 2018
[Acquired clitoral phimosis causing a periclitoral pseudocyst]. 38
29536840 2018
Upper lip tie wrapping into the hard palate and anterior premaxilla causing alveolar hypoplasia. 38
29609432 2018

Variations for Phimosis

Expression for Phimosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Phimosis.

Pathways for Phimosis

GO Terms for Phimosis

Cellular components related to Phimosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integrin complex GO:0008305 8.96 ITGB3 ITGA1
2 organelle membrane GO:0031090 8.8 SRD5A2 CYP1B1 CYP1A1

Biological processes related to Phimosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular matrix organization GO:0030198 9.54 ITGB3 ITGA1 ELN
2 integrin-mediated signaling pathway GO:0007229 9.46 ITGB3 ITGA1
3 cell-matrix adhesion GO:0007160 9.43 ITGB3 ITGA1
4 steroid metabolic process GO:0008202 9.43 SRD5A2 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
5 cellular response to organic cyclic compound GO:0071407 9.4 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
6 epoxygenase P450 pathway GO:0019373 9.32 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
7 response to organic substance GO:0010033 9.18 CYP1A1
8 omega-hydroxylase P450 pathway GO:0097267 9.16 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
9 toxin metabolic process GO:0009404 8.96 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
10 dibenzo-p-dioxin metabolic process GO:0018894 8.32 CYP1A1

Molecular functions related to Phimosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen GO:0016705 9.37 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
2 monooxygenase activity GO:0004497 9.32 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
3 oxygen binding GO:0019825 9.26 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
4 extracellular matrix binding GO:0050840 9.16 ITGB3 ELN
5 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016712 8.96 CYP1B1 CYP1A1
6 aromatase activity GO:0070330 8.62 CYP1B1 CYP1A1

Sources for Phimosis

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
71 Tocris
73 UMLS via Orphanet
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