MCID: PHM001
MIFTS: 41

Phimosis

Categories: Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Phimosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Phimosis:

Name: Phimosis 12 45 15 64 17
Tight Foreskin 12
Tight Frenulum 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2712
MeSH 45 D010688
NCIt 51 C26852
SNOMED-CT 69 52743003
ICD10 34 N47.1
UMLS 74 C0031538

Summaries for Phimosis

PubMed Health : 64 About phimosis: Many parents feel concerned if their newborn or young boy’s foreskin cannot be pulled back. They may think his foreskin is too tight and that he might need an operation. But it is a little known fact that about 9 out of 10 boys’ foreskins are tight or stuck to the head of their penis when they are born. This is known as phimosis, and it is completely normal. It protects the sensitive head of the penis from rubbing against things, becoming too dry and coming into contact with germs like viruses or bacteria.Within the first three years of life, the stuck skin (adhesion) usually detaches, and tight foreskin usually loosens enough to be able to pull it back without any problems or pain. Treatment is only needed if the foreskin still can’t be pulled back in older boys or adult men.

MalaCards based summary : Phimosis, also known as tight foreskin, is related to lichen sclerosus and lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. An important gene associated with Phimosis is SRD5A2 (Steroid 5 Alpha-Reductase 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Degradation of the extracellular matrix and G-protein signaling Regulation of p38 and JNK signaling mediated by G-proteins. The drugs mometasone furoate and Anti-Inflammatory Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, bone and smooth muscle.

Wikipedia : 77 Phimosis is a condition in which the foreskin of the penis cannot be pulled back past the glans. A... more...

Related Diseases for Phimosis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Phimosis:



Diseases related to Phimosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Phimosis

Drugs & Therapeutics for Phimosis

PubMedHealth treatment related to Phimosis: 64

There is no need to treat phimosis in babies and toddlers right away. Parents should not try to force the foreskin back. This can be painful for the child and injure the foreskin, leading to scars that could later cause acquired phimosis. To keep the area clean, it is enough to wash the penis from the outside using warm water and mild soap.If a boy still has phimosis after the age of three, it is important to seek medical advice. The doctor will take a closer look and say whether treatment is advisable or whether you can wait and see how things develop.In most children, phimosis is treated using a steroid cream. This is known as a “conservative” treatment approach because surgery is not needed. The cream is applied to the foreskin twice a day for four to eight weeks. After two weeks parents can try to pull the foreskin back very gently in order to stretch it a little. Here it is important not to injure the skin. If the foreskin can be pulled back a bit, the cream can also be applied to the part of the glans that is exposed. Then the foreskin is returned to its normal position. This treatment is successful in most children. But it often has to be repeated after a while in order to have a more lasting effect.If conservative treatment doesn’t work, a small operation known as circumcision might be considered. This operation is also considered if boys have recurring inflammations or problems when urinating. Circumcision is always necessary if someone has phimosis due to scarring (acquired phimosis) or if the foreskin gets stuck behind the glans when it is pulled back (paraphimosis).Circumcision involves removing either part of the foreskin or all of it. If it is only partially removed, phimosis might come back again after a while. This cannot happen if all of the foreskin is removed.Circumcisions for the treatment of phimosis are routine operations. They are often done under general anesthetic in children, but sometimes only a local anesthetic is used in teenagers and adults.

Drugs for Phimosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 38)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
mometasone furoate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 83919-23-7
2 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Not Applicable
3 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 4
4 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
5 Hormones Phase 4,Not Applicable
6 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Not Applicable
7 glucocorticoids Phase 4,Not Applicable
8 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Not Applicable
9
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 28523-86-6 5206
10
Ketorolac Approved Phase 1 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
11
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 1 38396-39-3, 2180-92-9 2474
12
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 1 15687-27-1 3672
13
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 1 103-90-2 1983
14 Anesthetics Phase 1,Not Applicable
15 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 1
16 Antipyretics Phase 1
17 Analgesics Phase 1
18 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 1
19 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 1
20 Anesthetics, Local Phase 1,Not Applicable
21 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 1
22 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 1
23 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 1
24 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 1
25 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 1
26 Anesthetics, General Phase 1
27 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 1
28
Adenosine Approved, Investigational 58-61-7 60961
29
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 124-94-7 31307
30
Formaldehyde Approved, Vet_approved 50-00-0 712
31
Vitamin A Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Not Applicable 68-26-8, 22737-96-8, 11103-57-4 9904001 445354
32 Triamcinolone hexacetonide Not Applicable
33 Immunosuppressive Agents Not Applicable
34 Immunologic Factors Not Applicable
35 retinol Not Applicable
36 Retinol palmitate Not Applicable
37 Triamcinolone diacetate Not Applicable
38 triamcinolone acetonide Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 16)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Treatment of Phimosis With Topical Steroid Cream -Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study Unknown status NCT01108198 Phase 4 Mometasone furoate cream;moisturizing cream
2 Safety and Acceptability of the PrePex™ Device for Male Circumcision in Zambia Completed NCT01844102 Phase 4
3 Mild Versus Potent Corticosteroids as Treatment for Phimosis in Children Withdrawn NCT00933023 Phase 4 hydrocortisone;Betamethasone
4 Evaluation of Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus Treatment Using Adipose Tissue Associated With Autologous Platelet-rich Plasma. Active, not recruiting NCT03961126 Phase 2 Injection of autologous fatty tissue associated with autologous platelet-rich plasma.;Corticosteroids (clobetasol 0.05%)
5 Evaluating Pain Outcomes of Ketorolac Administration in Children Undergoing Circumcision Completed NCT02973958 Phase 1 Bupivacaine;Sevoflurane;Acetaminophen;Ibuprofen;Ketorolac
6 Safety and Efficacy Study of Non-Surgical MC Device for Adolescent Male Population Including Contraindicated Subjects Unknown status NCT02581722 Not Applicable
7 Susceptibility Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorders Unknown status NCT02628808
8 The Role of 2-octyl Cyanoacrylate in Prevention of Recurrent Adhesions After Circumcision Completed NCT01794221 Not Applicable
9 Follow Up Study to Evaluate a Non-Surgical Device for Adult Male Circumcision for Screen Failure Subjects Completed NCT02281435 Not Applicable
10 Circumcision Versus Preputioplasty for BXO in Children Completed NCT02854995 Not Applicable
11 Observational Study of Male Circumcision Using PrePex Device Completed NCT01711411
12 Prospective, International Monosyn® Quick - Non Interventional Study Recruiting NCT03355001
13 Distribution of Smooth Muscle In Dartos In The Non Conspicuous Penis Recruiting NCT03295175
14 Natural History of IOL in Pseudo Exfoliation Syndrome Active, not recruiting NCT01255995
15 Does Neurostimulation Improve Efficacy for Ultrasound-Guided Transperineal Pudendal Nerve Block In Children Not yet recruiting NCT03931850 Not Applicable
16 Intelligence Changes Following Minor Surgery Withdrawn NCT01483313

Search NIH Clinical Center for Phimosis

Cochrane evidence based reviews: phimosis

Genetic Tests for Phimosis

Anatomical Context for Phimosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Phimosis:

42
Skin, Bone, Smooth Muscle, Eye, Pituitary, Kidney, Bone Marrow

Publications for Phimosis

Articles related to Phimosis:

(show top 50) (show all 248)
# Title Authors Year
1
Bilateral capsulorhexis phimosis with full closure and intraocular lens crimping in one eye in a patient with high myopia: May consultation #1. ( 31030783 )
2019
2
Secondary phimosis after circumcision. ( 30875291 )
2019
3
Clitoral Phimosis: Effects on Female Sexual Function and Surgical Treatment Outcomes. ( 30770072 )
2019
4
Two case reports of unusual phimosis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta). ( 30375654 )
2019
5
Simultaneous Occurrence of Balanoposthitis Circumscripta Plasmacellularis Zoon, Phimosis and in Situ Carcinoma of the Penis: Case Report with An Unusual Ulcerated Polypoid Variant of Zoon's Disease and a Carcinoma in Situ of Reserve Cell Type. ( 29483984 )
2018
6
Postoperative epidural abscess after spinal anaesthesia for a circumcision necessitated by phimosis. ( 29477995 )
2018
7
Expression of Xenobiotic Biomarkers CYP1 Family in Preputial Tissue of Patients with Hypospadias and Phimosis and Its Association with DNA Methylation Level of SRD5A2 Minimal Promoter. ( 29080015 )
2018
8
Childhood Phimosis Secondary to Lichen Sclerosus: Is There a Spatial Pattern of Histopathological Changes? ( 30124504 )
2018
9
Underestimation of genital lichen sclerosus incidence in boys with phimosis: results from a systematic review. ( 30264374 )
2018
10
Long-term follow-up of neodymium:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy for the treatment of anterior capsular phimosis. ( 29916304 )
2018
11
Prepuce sparing: Use of Z-plasty for treatment of phimosis and scarred foreskin. ( 29909192 )
2018
12
Prevalence of phimosis and foreskin sliding abnormalities in male adolescents and their correlation with later onset of first sexual intercourse. ( 29473383 )
2017
13
Glans penis phimosis in antiquity as depicted upon two roman ex-votos. ( 29205160 )
2017
14
Observation time and spontaneous resolution of primary phimosis in children. ( 29019581 )
2017
15
Phimosis in a 10-yr-old Boy Without Urinary Infection-How to Inform Parents: Against Circumcision. ( 28753818 )
2017
16
Phimosis in a 10-yr-old Boy Without Urinary Infection-How to Inform Parents: For Circumcision. ( 28753815 )
2017
17
Comparative efficacy and safety of different circumcisions for patients with redundant prepuce or phimosis: A network meta-analysis. ( 28522221 )
2017
18
Para Phimosis Leading to Glans Gangrene - A Devastating Preventable Complication. ( 28418348 )
2017
19
"Trident" preputial plasty for phimosis in childhood. ( 28359779 )
2017
20
Commentary on "Phimosis with Preputial Fissures as a Predictor of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Adults". ( 27275650 )
2017
21
Postoperative occlusion of visual axis with fibrous membrane in the presence of anterior capsular phimosis in a patient with pseudoexfoliation syndrome: a case report. ( 27923362 )
2016
22
Fournier's gangrene of the penis in a 12-year-old patient secondary to phimosis. ( 27903000 )
2016
23
Ultrastructural Analysis of the Foreskin in Patients With True Phimosis Treated or Not Treated With Topical Betamethasone and Hyaluronidase Ointment. ( 27443468 )
2016
24
2D:4D indicates phimosis risk: A study on digit ratio and early foreskin development. ( 27390108 )
2016
25
Common urological problems in children: prepuce, phimosis, and buried penis. ( 27149978 )
2016
26
Preputial bacterial colonisation in uncircumcised male children: Is it related to phimosis? ( 26968283 )
2016
27
Phimosis in male dromedary camels: Clinical findings and changes in the hemogram, nitric oxide metabolites, and testosterone concentrations. ( 26879996 )
2016
28
High Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection of the Foreskin in Asymptomatic Men and Patients with Phimosis. ( 26796413 )
2016
29
Is steroids therapy effective in treating phimosis? A meta-analysis. ( 26725071 )
2016
30
Phimosis with Preputial Fissures as a Predictor of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Adults. ( 26349852 )
2016
31
Pathological Investigation of Childhood Foreskin: Are Lichen Sclerosus and Phimosis Common? ( 26876402 )
2016
32
Rapid anterior capsular phimosis after cataract surgery in a patient with chronic angle closure glaucoma. ( 29018698 )
2015
33
Acquired lymphangioma of the penis in a patient with severe phimosis. ( 26227086 )
2015
34
Shut Phimosis in the Priapus Fresco From Pompeii. ( 25987495 )
2015
35
Indurative Edema of the Prepuce Mimicing Phimosis, an Atypical Manifestation of Primary Syphilis. ( 26724885 )
2015
36
Patient Satisfaction of Surgical Treatment of Clitoral Phimosis and Labial Adhesions Caused by Lichen Sclerosus. ( 26797058 )
2015
37
Capsulorhexis phimosis with anterior flexing of an accommodating IOL: case report and histopathological analyses. ( 24355727 )
2014
38
The universal condition: medical constructions of 'congenital phimosis' in twentieth century New Zealand and their implications for child rearing. ( 25095486 )
2014
39
Topical corticosteroids for treating phimosis in boys. ( 25180668 )
2014
40
Incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys younger than 10 years presenting with phimosis. ( 23296396 )
2013
41
Congenital phimosis in patients with and without lichen sclerosus: distinct expression patterns of tissue remodeling associated genes. ( 23174236 )
2013
42
Role of human papillomaviruses in persistent and glucocorticoid-resistant juvenile phimosis. ( 22471970 )
2013
43
Is half strength of 0.05 % betamethasone valerate cream still effective in the treatment of phimosis in young children? ( 23292538 )
2013
44
Anterior capsular phimosis occluding the capsulorhexis opening after cataract surgery in a diabetic patient with high hemoglobin A1C. ( 23448558 )
2013
45
Prepuce-sparing plasty and simple running suture for phimosis. ( 23463932 )
2013
46
Phimosis in childhood. ( 23788454 )
2013
47
Re: Predictive power of objectivation of phimosis grade on outcomes of topical 0.1% betamethasone treatment of phimosis. ( 24029358 )
2013
48
Effect of topical steroid (0.05% clobetasol propionate) treatment in children with severe phimosis. ( 24044098 )
2013
49
Acute presentation of clitoral phimosis in a 16-year-old girl. ( 24127974 )
2013
50
Severe phimosis leading to obstructive uropathy in a boy with lichen sclerosus. ( 22594961 )
2012

Variations for Phimosis

Expression for Phimosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Phimosis.

Pathways for Phimosis

GO Terms for Phimosis

Cellular components related to Phimosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integrin complex GO:0008305 8.96 ITGA1 ITGB3
2 organelle membrane GO:0031090 8.8 CYP1A1 CYP1B1 SRD5A2

Biological processes related to Phimosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular matrix organization GO:0030198 9.54 ELN ITGA1 ITGB3
2 response to toxic substance GO:0009636 9.49 CYP1A1 CYP1B1
3 cell-matrix adhesion GO:0007160 9.48 ITGA1 ITGB3
4 integrin-mediated signaling pathway GO:0007229 9.46 ITGA1 ITGB3
5 steroid metabolic process GO:0008202 9.43 CYP1A1 CYP1B1 SRD5A2
6 cellular response to organic cyclic compound GO:0071407 9.4 CYP1A1 CYP1B1
7 epoxygenase P450 pathway GO:0019373 9.32 CYP1A1 CYP1B1
8 omega-hydroxylase P450 pathway GO:0097267 9.16 CYP1A1 CYP1B1
9 response to organic substance GO:0010033 9.13 CYP1A1
10 toxin metabolic process GO:0009404 8.96 CYP1A1 CYP1B1
11 dibenzo-p-dioxin metabolic process GO:0018894 8.32 CYP1A1

Molecular functions related to Phimosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen GO:0016705 9.37 CYP1A1 CYP1B1
2 monooxygenase activity GO:0004497 9.32 CYP1A1 CYP1B1
3 oxygen binding GO:0019825 9.26 CYP1A1 CYP1B1
4 extracellular matrix binding GO:0050840 9.16 ELN ITGB3
5 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen GO:0016712 8.96 CYP1A1 CYP1B1
6 aromatase activity GO:0070330 8.62 CYP1A1 CYP1B1

Sources for Phimosis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....