MCID: PHB003
MIFTS: 38

Phobia, Specific

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Phobia, Specific

MalaCards integrated aliases for Phobia, Specific:

Name: Phobia, Specific 57 13 44 40 73
Specific Phobia 12 76 15
Phobia, Simple 57
Simple Phobia 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

OMIM 57 608251
Disease Ontology 12 DOID:599
ICD10 33 F40.2
MeSH 44 C562465
NCIt 50 C35284
SNOMED-CT 68 54587008
MedGen 42 C0236801
UMLS 73 C0236801

Summaries for Phobia, Specific

Disease Ontology : 12 A phobic disorder that is characterized by an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations.

MalaCards based summary : Phobia, Specific, also known as specific phobia, is related to anxiety and panic disorder. An important gene associated with Phobia, Specific is PHOBS (Phobia, Specific), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Phenylalanine metabolism and Neurotransmitter Clearance In The Synaptic Cleft. The drugs Immunoglobulins, Intravenous and gamma-Globulins have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain and amygdala.

Wikipedia : 76 A specific phobia is any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or irrational fear... more...

Description from OMIM: 608251

Related Diseases for Phobia, Specific

Diseases related to Phobia, Specific via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 40)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 anxiety 30.0 COMT MAOA
2 panic disorder 29.8 COMT MAOA
3 generalized anxiety disorder 29.7 COMT MAOA
4 obsessive-compulsive disorder 29.5 COMT MAOA
5 autism 29.4 COMT FMR1 MAOA
6 disease of mental health 29.3 COMT FMR1 MAOA
7 animal phobia 11.5
8 williams-beuren syndrome 11.4
9 nosophobia 11.2
10 panic disorder 1 11.1
11 flying phobia 11.1
12 social phobia 10.1
13 agoraphobia 10.1
14 oppositional defiant disorder 10.0 COMT MAOA
15 dystonia 1, torsion, autosomal dominant 10.0 COMT MAOA
16 brunner syndrome 10.0 COMT MAOA
17 antisocial personality disorder 10.0 COMT MAOA
18 personality disorder 10.0 COMT MAOA
19 paranoid schizophrenia 10.0 COMT MAOA
20 postpartum depression 10.0 COMT MAOA
21 borderline personality disorder 10.0 COMT MAOA
22 mental depression 10.0 COMT MAOA
23 conduct disorder 10.0 COMT MAOA
24 substance abuse 10.0 COMT MAOA
25 post-traumatic stress disorder 10.0 COMT MAOA
26 chronic fatigue syndrome 10.0 COMT MAOA
27 tobacco addiction 9.9 COMT MAOA
28 mood disorder 9.9 COMT MAOA
29 velocardiofacial syndrome 9.9
30 major depressive disorder 9.9
31 bipolar disorder 9.8
32 separation anxiety disorder 9.8
33 hypochondriasis 9.8
34 glioblastoma 9.8
35 depression 9.8
36 pain - chronic 9.8
37 phobic disorder 9.8 COMT MAOA NBAS
38 specific developmental disorder 9.8 COMT FMR1
39 migraine with or without aura 1 9.8 COMT MAOA
40 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 9.7 COMT FMR1 MAOA

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Phobia, Specific:



Diseases related to Phobia, Specific

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Phobia, Specific

Clinical features from OMIM:

608251

Drugs & Therapeutics for Phobia, Specific

Drugs for Phobia, Specific (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 61)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 4
2 gamma-Globulins Phase 4
3 Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 4
4 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
5 Antibodies Phase 4
6 Immunoglobulins Phase 4
7
Cycloserine Approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 68-41-7 6234 401
8
Citalopram Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 59729-33-8 2771
9 Antimetabolites Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
10 Renal Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
11 Antitubercular Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
12 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
13 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
14 Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
15 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
16 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
17 Serotonin Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
18 Autonomic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Antidepressive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable
20 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
21 Parasympatholytics Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Cholinergic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
23 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
24 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
25 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 2, Phase 3
26 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
27 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
28 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
29 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Phase 2, Phase 3
30 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 3
31 Adrenergic Agents Phase 3
32
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3 50-67-9 5202
33
Valproic Acid Approved, Investigational Phase 2 99-66-1 3121
34 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 2 111974-72-2
35 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 2
36 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 2
37 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 2
38 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 2
39 GABA Agents Phase 2
40 Anticonvulsants Phase 2
41 Antimanic Agents Phase 2
42 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
43
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Not Applicable 50-28-2 5757
44
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Not Applicable 28014-46-2
45 Estradiol valerate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Not Applicable 979-32-8
46 tannic acid Approved Not Applicable
47
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
48
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Not Applicable 59467-70-8 4192
49
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 10024-97-2 948
50
Imidacloprid Vet_approved Not Applicable 105827-78-9 86418

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 76)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Study to Evaluate the Benefit of Octagam 5%® in Subjects With Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) Active, not recruiting NCT03348618 Phase 4
2 Study of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Specific Phobia Completed NCT00121069 Phase 2, Phase 3 Escitalopram
3 Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Active, not recruiting NCT02028247 Phase 3
4 D-Cycloserine to Enhance Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Acrophobia Completed NCT01102803 Phase 3 D-Cycloserine;Placebo
5 Efficacy of Atomoxetine on Psychosocial Function of Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Completed NCT00320528 Phase 3 atomoxetine
6 Enhancing Exposure Therapy for Snake and Spider Phobias Unknown status NCT02160470 Phase 1, Phase 2
7 Treatment Study for Rural Latino Youth With Anxiety Unknown status NCT01491880 Phase 1, Phase 2
8 Quetiapine in Specific Phobia Completed NCT00872716 Phase 2 Quetiapine XR
9 Treatment for Specific Phobias in Children Completed NCT00051220 Phase 1, Phase 2
10 Influence of Valproic Acid on Extinction-based Therapy in Patients With Fear of Spiders. Completed NCT02789813 Phase 2 Valproic Acid;Placebo
11 fMRI Study Examining Effects of D-cycloserine in Specific Phobia Completed NCT00591825 Phase 2 D-cycloserine;Placebo
12 D-cycloserine and Treatment of Feeding Disorders Completed NCT01923896 Phase 1, Phase 2 d-cycloserine (DCS);Placebo
13 Brief Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Young Children Completed NCT02051192 Phase 1, Phase 2
14 Efficacy of an Internet-based Intervention for Dental Anxiety Not yet recruiting NCT03680755 Phase 2
15 The Modular Protocol for Mental Health (MPMH) Enrolling by invitation NCT03143634 Phase 1, Phase 2
16 Time Intensive CBT for a Specific Phobia of Vomiting Completed NCT02920814 Phase 1
17 Intervention for Anxiety After Falls Completed NCT01268657 Phase 1
18 Spider Phobia Opposite Action Treatment Study Unknown status NCT02905279 Not Applicable
19 Providing Tools for Effective Care and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders Unknown status NCT02605668 Not Applicable
20 D-Cycloserine-Enhancer of One-Session Treatment for Phobia of Heights Unknown status NCT01037101 Not Applicable D-Cycloserine;Placebo
21 A Randomised Feasibility Trial With Internet Based Self-help Therapy Unknown status NCT02499055 Not Applicable
22 Internet-delivered Transdiagnostic Intervention for Anxiety and Depression Unknown status NCT02739607 Not Applicable
23 Parent-Augmented Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Children With Specific Phobias Completed NCT00509951 Not Applicable
24 Facing Fears In-session or Out-session? Recruiting NCT03688360 Not Applicable
25 Facing Fears in Big or Smalls Steps? Recruiting NCT03688373 Not Applicable
26 EMDR in the Treatment of Specific Phobia. Withdrawn NCT00184145 Not Applicable
27 Virtual Reality Immersive Method for Spider (Phobia) Exposure Therapy (VIMSE) Active, not recruiting NCT02533310 Not Applicable
28 The Impact of Sex Hormones on One-session Treatment for Spider Phobia in Women Completed NCT02622087 Not Applicable
29 Effects of Stress on Exposure Therapy Recruiting NCT03505437 Not Applicable
30 How to Act on the Mobility Restriction Linked to Senior's Phobia of Falling Active, not recruiting NCT02554838 Not Applicable
31 Study of Brain Circuitry in Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT01849432
32 Self-efficacy Enhancement and Exposure Therapy Completed NCT03105024 Not Applicable
33 Anti-phobic and Safety Behaviors in the Treatment of Acrophobia Recruiting NCT02085343 Not Applicable
34 The Effects of Safety Seeking Behaviors During Exposure Therapy for Adults With Spider Phobia Completed NCT03233113 Not Applicable
35 Validity of a Self-administered Questionnaire to Screen Phobia of Falling in the Elderly Completed NCT02387047
36 Extinction Generalization in Exposure Therapy Completed NCT03031002 Not Applicable
37 Ultrashort Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Tokophobia- A Prospective Randomized Single Blinded Controlled Trial Not yet recruiting NCT02972112 Not Applicable
38 tDCS-Augmented Exposure Therapy for Pathological Fear Recruiting NCT03095482 Not Applicable
39 Exposure, D-cycloserine Enhancement, and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in Snake Phobics Completed NCT01450306 Not Applicable D-cycloserine;Placebo
40 Internet-delivered Treatment for Children With Anxiety Disorders in a Rural Area; an Open Trial in a Clinical Setting Completed NCT02306356 Not Applicable
41 Smartphone-Based Exposure Treatment for Dental Anxiety Enrolling by invitation NCT03461016 Not Applicable
42 Clinical Management of Anxiety and Access to Health Care Completed NCT02081365 Not Applicable
43 In Vivo Versus Augmented Reality Exposure for Small Animal Phobia Completed NCT01361074 Not Applicable
44 Cognitive Behavioural Treatment of Intra-oral Injection-phobia in 10-16 Year Old Children and Adolescents Completed NCT02083432 Not Applicable
45 Internet-Based CBT for Children With Anxiety Disorders: Implementation in Clinical Settings Completed NCT02350257 Not Applicable
46 Treating Phobia With Multivoxel Neuro-reinforcement Not yet recruiting NCT03655262 Not Applicable
47 Virtual Reality Exposure in Spider Phobia Recruiting NCT03208400 Not Applicable
48 Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for Children Age 8-12 Years With Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT01533402 Not Applicable
49 Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in Agoraphobic Participants Completed NCT00734370 Not Applicable
50 Low Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Emotion Regulation Not yet recruiting NCT03782194 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Phobia, Specific

Cochrane evidence based reviews: phobia, specific

Genetic Tests for Phobia, Specific

Anatomical Context for Phobia, Specific

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Phobia, Specific:

41
Brain, Amygdala

Publications for Phobia, Specific

Articles related to Phobia, Specific:

(show all 33)
# Title Authors Year
1
Functional neuroimaging of associative learning and generalization in specific phobia. ( 30266438 )
2019
2
Predictors of remission from panic disorder, agoraphobia and specific phobia in outpatients receiving exposure therapy: The importance of positive mental health. ( 29981937 )
2018
3
Phobia of the Supernatural: A Distinct but Poorly Recognized Specific Phobia With an Adverse Impact on Daily Living. ( 30505286 )
2018
4
Psychometric investigation of the specific phobia of vomiting inventory: A new factor model. ( 28745033 )
2018
5
Play-Modified One-Session Treatment for Young Children with a Specific Phobia of Dogs: A Multiple Baseline Case Series. ( 28766176 )
2018
6
The cross-national epidemiology of specific phobia in the World Mental Health Surveys - CORRIGENDUM. ( 28994357 )
2018
7
Networks of phobic fear: Functional connectivity shifts in two subtypes of specific phobia. ( 29054435 )
2018
8
Phenomenology, epidemiology, co-morbidity and treatment of a specific phobia of vomiting: A systematic review of an understudied disorder. ( 29277320 )
2018
9
Short versions of two specific phobia measures: The snake and the spider questionnaires. ( 29306023 )
2018
10
Enhancement of exposure therapy in participants with specific phobia: A randomized controlled trial comparing yohimbine, propranolol and placebo. ( 29804894 )
2018
11
The cross-national epidemiology of specific phobia in the World Mental Health Surveys. ( 28222820 )
2017
12
Persistence of Specific Phobia From Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Longitudinal Follow-Up of the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey. ( 28394508 )
2017
13
The moderating role of avoidance behavior on anxiety over time: Is there a difference between social anxiety disorder and specific phobia? ( 28671977 )
2017
14
Hypochondriasis Differs From Panic Disorder and Social Phobia: Specific Processes Identified Within Patient Groups. ( 27805984 )
2016
15
Predictors of specific phobia in children with Williams syndrome. ( 27545817 )
2016
16
Comorbidity in Emetophobia (Specific Phobia of Vomiting). ( 26017849 )
2016
17
NINE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF SPECIFIC PHOBIA IN A POPULATION SAMPLE OF OLDER PEOPLE. ( 26645153 )
2016
18
IMPACT OF SPECIFIC PHOBIA ON THE RISK OF ONSET OF MENTAL DISORDERS: A 10-YEAR PROSPECTIVE-LONGITUDINAL COMMUNITY STUDY OF ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS. ( 26990012 )
2016
19
Associations of specific phobia and its subtypes with physical diseases: an adult community study. ( 27209067 )
2016
20
Cognitive behaviour therapy for specific phobia of vomiting (Emetophobia): A pilot randomized controlled trial. ( 27472452 )
2016
21
Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity, Control Beliefs, and Maternal Over-Control to Fears in Clinic-Referred Children with Specific Phobia. ( 26273182 )
2015
22
Therapists' and patients' stress responses during graduated versus flooding in vivo exposure in the treatment of specific phobia: A preliminary observational study. ( 26545614 )
2015
23
Biased attention to threat in paediatric anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, separation anxiety disorder) as a function of 'distress' versus 'fear' diagnostic categorization. ( 23591000 )
2014
24
The spread of fear: symbolic generalization mediates graded threat-avoidance in specific phobia. ( 23701662 )
2014
25
A Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Applied to a Social Anxiety Disorder and a Specific Phobia, Case Study. ( 26973946 )
2014
26
Co-morbid anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder and major depression: familial aggregation and clinical characteristics of co-morbid panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. ( 22099954 )
2012
27
Intrusive imagery in people with a specific phobia of vomiting. ( 21963889 )
2012
28
A population-based study on phobic fears and DSM-IV specific phobia in 70-year olds. ( 20869844 )
2011
29
Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women. ( 19888542 )
2010
30
A multivariate genetic analysis of specific phobia, separation anxiety and social phobia in early childhood. ( 18270811 )
2008
31
Treatment of specific phobia in adults. ( 17112646 )
2007
32
Epidemiology of specific phobia subtypes: findings from the Dresden Mental Health Study. ( 17157482 )
2007
33
Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on brain activation in specific phobia. ( 16087353 )
2006

Variations for Phobia, Specific

Expression for Phobia, Specific

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Phobia, Specific.

Pathways for Phobia, Specific

GO Terms for Phobia, Specific

Cellular components related to Phobia, Specific according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dendritic spine GO:0043197 8.62 COMT FMR1

Biological processes related to Phobia, Specific according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 9.16 COMT MAOA
2 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 8.96 COMT MAOA
3 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 8.62 COMT MAOA

Sources for Phobia, Specific

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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