MCID: PHB003
MIFTS: 44

Phobia, Specific

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Phobia, Specific

MalaCards integrated aliases for Phobia, Specific:

Name: Phobia, Specific 57 13 44 39 70
Specific Phobia 12 73 15 17
Phobia, Simple 57
Simple Phobia 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:599
OMIM® 57 608251
MeSH 44 C562465
NCIt 50 C35284
SNOMED-CT 67 54587008
ICD10 32 F40.2
MedGen 41 C0236801
UMLS 70 C0236801

Summaries for Phobia, Specific

Disease Ontology : 12 A phobic disorder that is characterized by an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations.

MalaCards based summary : Phobia, Specific, also known as specific phobia, is related to animal phobia and flying phobia. An important gene associated with Phobia, Specific is PHOBS (Phobia, Specific), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Neuroscience and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Susceptibility Pathways. The drugs Citalopram and Dexetimide have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, amygdala and eye, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

Wikipedia : 73 Specific phobia is an anxiety disorder, characterized by an unreasonable fear associated with a specific... more...

More information from OMIM: 608251

Related Diseases for Phobia, Specific

Diseases related to Phobia, Specific via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 165)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 animal phobia 32.2 SLC6A4 OXT
2 flying phobia 31.9 OXT MAOA COMT
3 alexithymia 30.1 SLC6A4 OXT HTR1A COMT
4 dissociative disorder 30.0 SLC6A4 OXT FKBP5 BDNF
5 somatization disorder 30.0 SLC6A4 OXT HTR1A CRH COMT
6 somatoform disorder 29.9 SLC6A4 CRH COMT BDNF
7 paine syndrome 29.9 SLC6A4 CRH COMT BDNF
8 sleep apnea 29.6 SLC6A4 HTR2A BDNF
9 eating disorder 29.5 SLC6A4 HTR2A CRH COMT BDNF
10 separation anxiety disorder 29.5 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR1A HM13 CTU2
11 antisocial personality disorder 29.4 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR2A COMT
12 oppositional defiant disorder 29.4 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR2A COMT
13 agoraphobia 29.3 TMEM132D SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CTU2
14 acute stress disorder 29.2 SLC6A4 OXT HTR1A FKBP5 CRHR1 CRH
15 hypochondriasis 29.0 SLC6A4 OXT HTR2A HTR1A CRHR1 BDNF
16 post-traumatic stress disorder 28.9 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A FKBP5 CRHR1 CRH
17 generalized anxiety disorder 28.9 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRHR1 COMT
18 depression 28.8 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRHR1 CRH
19 migraine with or without aura 1 28.7 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A FMR1
20 alcohol use disorder 28.7 SLC6A4 PRODH HTR2A HTR1A CRHR1 CRH
21 mood disorder 28.5 SLC6A4 PRODH MAOA HTR2A HTR1A CRHR1
22 obsessive-compulsive disorder 28.4 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5
23 autism 28.4 SLC6A4 PRODH OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
24 personality disorder 28.4 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A FKBP5 CRHR1
25 panic disorder 28.3 TMEM132D SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A GAD1
26 social phobia 28.3 SLC6A4 PRODH OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
27 alcohol dependence 28.3 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR2A HTR1A GAD1 CRHR1
28 dysthymic disorder 28.1 SLC6A4 PRODH POLI MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
29 autism spectrum disorder 28.1 SLC6A4 PRODH OXT MAOA HTR2A GAD1
30 mental depression 28.0 SLC6A4 PRODH OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
31 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 27.9 SLC6A4 PRODH OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
32 bipolar disorder 27.8 SLC6A4 PRODH MAOA HTR2A HTR1A GAD1
33 major depressive disorder 27.6 TMEM132D SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR2A HTR1A
34 anxiety 27.0 TMEM132D SLC6A4 PRODH OXT NPS MAOA
35 disease of mental health 26.8 TMEM132D SLC6A4 PRODH POLI OXT NPS
36 nosophobia 11.2
37 voyeurism 10.3 PRODH MAOA
38 corneal dystrophy, lisch epithelial 10.3 MAOA HTR1A
39 narcissistic personality disorder 10.3 OXT MAOA
40 pedophilia 10.3 OXT MAOA
41 drug psychosis 10.3 HTR1A COMT
42 schizoid personality disorder 10.3 PRODH FMR1
43 drug-induced mental disorder 10.3 HTR1A COMT
44 inhibited male orgasm 10.3 SLC6A4 OXT HTR1A
45 paraphilia disorder 10.3 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA
46 brunner syndrome 10.2 SLC6A4 MAOA COMT
47 traumatic brain injury 10.2 COMT BDNF
48 conduct disorder 10.2 SLC6A4 MAOA COMT
49 anterograde amnesia 10.2 HTR1A BDNF
50 mild cognitive impairment 10.2 COMT BDNF

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Phobia, Specific:



Diseases related to Phobia, Specific

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Phobia, Specific

Clinical features from OMIM®:

608251 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Phobia, Specific:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.17 BDNF COMT CRH CRHR1 FKBP5 FMR1
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10 BDNF COMT CRH CRHR1 FKBP5 GAD1
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.96 BDNF COMT CRH CRHR1 FMR1 GAD1
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.8 BDNF COMT CRH CRHR1 FKBP5 FMR1
5 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.23 BDNF COMT CRH CRHR1 GAD1 GTF2IRD1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Phobia, Specific

Drugs for Phobia, Specific (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 28)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Citalopram Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 59729-33-8 2771
2
Dexetimide Withdrawn Phase 2, Phase 3 21888-98-2
3 Antidepressive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
4 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 2, Phase 3
5 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
6 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
7
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3 50-67-9 5202
8
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 2 99-66-1 3121
9 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 2 111974-72-2
10 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 2
11 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 2
12 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
13 Anticonvulsants Phase 2
14
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
15
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
16
Cycloserine Approved 68-41-7 401 6234
17
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved 28014-46-2
18
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 50-28-2 5757
19
Imidacloprid Vet_approved 105827-78-9 86418
20 Antibiotics, Antitubercular
21 Antimetabolites
22 Anti-Infective Agents
23 Anti-Bacterial Agents
24 Antitubercular Agents
25 Contraceptive Agents
26 Hormones
27 Estradiol 17 beta-cypionate
28 Estradiol 3-benzoate

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 35)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Specific Phobia Completed NCT00121069 Phase 2, Phase 3 Escitalopram
2 Anxiolytic Effects of Single-dose Quetiapine XR Administration on Clinical Symptoms and Amygdala Activation During Exposure in Patients With Simple Phobia Completed NCT00872716 Phase 2 Quetiapine XR
3 Randomized Placebo-controlled Phase II Study on the Influence of Valproic Acid in Combination With Reactivation of Fear Memory on the Outcome of Extinction-based Therapy in Patients With Fear of Spiders. Completed NCT02789813 Phase 2 Valproic Acid;Placebo
4 Enhancing Exposure Therapy for Snake and Spider Phobias With Fear Retrieval and Compound Extinction Completed NCT02160470 Phase 1, Phase 2
5 One-Session Treatment for Specific Phobias in Children Completed NCT00051220 Phase 1, Phase 2
6 Time Intensive Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for a Specific Phobia of Vomiting Using a Single Case Experimental Design Completed NCT02920814 Phase 1
7 Ultrashort Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Tokophobia- A Prospective Randomized Single Blinded Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02972112
8 Anti-phobic and Safety Behaviors in the Treatment of Acrophobia Unknown status NCT02085343
9 The Effects of in Vivo Exposure Therapy on the Neural Correlates of Height Phobia: a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Using a Fear Provocation Paradigm. Completed NCT00302978
10 Enhancing Exposure: the Impact of Self-efficacy Enhancement on Treatment Outcome Completed NCT03105024
11 Exposure, D-cycloserine Enhancement, and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in Snake Phobics Completed NCT01450306 D-cycloserine;Placebo
12 Single-session Gamified Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia vs. Traditional Exposure Therapy: a Randomized Controlled Non-inferiority Trial Completed NCT02533310
13 Internet-delivered Treatment for Children With Anxiety Disorders in a Rural Area; an Open Trial in a Clinical Setting Completed NCT02306356
14 Extinction Generalization in Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia Completed NCT03031002
15 Optimizing Exposure in the Treatment of Anxiety in Youth: Facing Fears In-session or Out-session? Completed NCT03688360
16 The Impact of Stress on Exposure-based Treatment Outcome Completed NCT03505437
17 Response Prevention or Response Permission? A Randomized Controlled Trial of the "Judicious Use of Safety Behaviors" During Exposure Therapy (Institutional Review Board Title: Overcome Your Spider Phobia) Completed NCT03233113
18 Sex Hormones and Fear Inhibition: a Novel Exploration of Why Women Are so Vulnerable to Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT02622087
19 Exposure Treatment in Anxiety Disorders: Proof of Principle for an a Priori Response Prediction Approach Completed NCT03208400
20 tDCS-Augmented Exposure Therapy for Pathological Fear Completed NCT03095482
21 Augmented Treatment of Specific Phobias in Children Completed NCT00509951
22 Randomized Clinical Trial of Smartphone-Based Exposure of Dental Anxiety Completed NCT03461016
23 Cognitive Behavioural Treatment of Intra-oral Injection-phobia in 10-16 Year Old Children and Adolescents Completed NCT02083432
24 EMDR in Spider Phobia: Work Mechanisms and Treatment Outcome Completed NCT02973919
25 Optimizing Exposure in the Treatment of Anxiety in Youth: Facing Fears in Big or Smalls Steps? Recruiting NCT03688373
26 Use of Safety Behaviors in Exposure Therapy for Arachnophobia Recruiting NCT04470882
27 Virtually Better: Using Immersive Virtual Reality to Treat Pediatric Anxiety Recruiting NCT04504773
28 Generalized Fear Extinction to Untreated Fear Stimuli in Specific Phobias After Exposure Recruiting NCT03907345
29 Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children With Dental Anxiety- A Randomized Controlled Trial Active, not recruiting NCT02588079
30 How to Act on the Mobility Restriction Linked to Senior's Phobia of Falling Active, not recruiting NCT02554838
31 Improving the Efficacy and Feasibility of Exposure Therapy Using Projection-Based Augmented Reality for the Treatment of Cockroach Phobia: A Randomized Clinical Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04563403
32 Effectiveness of a Projection-based Augmented Reality Exposure System in Treating Cockroach Phobia. A Randomized Controlled Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04563390
33 Augmenting Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Acrophobia With Tactile Feedback and Point-based Rewards Suspended NCT03917433
34 Enhancing Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia With the Use of Threat-Relevant and Threat-Irrelevant Opposite Actions Terminated NCT02905279
35 EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) in the Treatment of Specific Phobia. A Randomised Controlled Trial. Withdrawn NCT00184145

Search NIH Clinical Center for Phobia, Specific

Cochrane evidence based reviews: phobia, specific

Genetic Tests for Phobia, Specific

Anatomical Context for Phobia, Specific

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Phobia, Specific:

40
Brain, Amygdala, Eye, Cortex, Prefrontal Cortex, Whole Blood, Skin

Publications for Phobia, Specific

Articles related to Phobia, Specific:

(show top 50) (show all 867)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
A chromosome 14 risk locus for simple phobia: results from a genomewide linkage scan. 57
12556910 2003
2
Mental health and psychosocial support in conflict: children's protection concerns and intervention outcomes in Syria. 61
33794955 2021
3
Adaptation of One-Session Treatment for Specific Phobias for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Non-concurrent Multiple Baseline Design: A Preliminary Investigation. 61
32613485 2021
4
Psychiatric Co-morbidities and Body Shape Dissatisfaction in Adolescents with Obesity - A School Based Case Controlled Study. 61
32519259 2021
5
The impact of generalized anxiety disorder in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. 61
33812219 2021
6
Don't Hurt Me No More: State-dependent Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the treatment of specific phobia. 61
33714173 2021
7
Virtual Reality One-Session Treatment of Child-Specific Phobia of Dogs: A Controlled, Multiple Baseline Case Series. 61
33622515 2021
8
Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Fear of COVID-19 scale in Paraguayan population. 61
33526156 2021
9
Rhythm of fetoplacental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 - fetal protection from morning maternal glucocorticoids. 61
33621325 2021
10
Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in Children Born Preterm: A Meta-Analysis. 61
33480635 2021
11
Psychiatric Morbidity and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Bronchial Asthma. 61
33625668 2021
12
A review of decreased sound tolerance in autism: Definitions, phenomenology, and potential mechanisms. 61
33285160 2021
13
The Overlapping Neurobiology of Induced and Pathological Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Neural Activation. 61
33054384 2021
14
Anxiolytic effects of acute and maintenance ketamine, as assessed by the Fear Questionnaire subscales and the Spielberger State Anxiety Rating Scale. 61
32900266 2021
15
Efficacy of Psychiatric Treatment to Treat a Specific Phobia of Intravitreal Injections in a Patient with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. 61
33613250 2021
16
DetectaWeb-Distress Scale: A Global and Multidimensional Web-Based Screener for Emotional Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents. 61
33658965 2021
17
The Persian COVID stress scales (Persian-CSS) and COVID-19-related stress reactions in patients with obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders. 61
33354499 2021
18
Comparing the effectiveness of the unified protocol in combination with an additional mindfulness treatment to the unified protocol alone as treatment for adolescents diagnosed with emotional disorders. 61
33681909 2021
19
Increased body sway in phobic patients exposed to images of spiders. 61
33331404 2020
20
Changes in brain activity associated with cognitive-behavioral exposure therapy for specific phobias: searching for underlying mechanisms. 61
33205385 2020
21
Understanding coronaphobia. 61
33271693 2020
22
Prevalence, Comorbidity and Predictor of Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents. 61
32418141 2020
23
Prevalence of anxiety disorders and subthreshold anxiety throughout later life: Systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33180519 2020
24
Increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in women with major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. 61
32844425 2020
25
Harnessing unconscious emotional learning in specific phobia. 61
33069306 2020
26
Assessing the role of the amygdala in fear of pain: Neural activation under threat of shock. 61
32791350 2020
27
Distress Tolerance as a Familial Vulnerability for Distress-Misery Disorders. 61
33051033 2020
28
Brain-based mediation of non-conscious reduction of phobic avoidance in young women during functional MRI: a randomised controlled experiment. 61
33069319 2020
29
Differential associations between passive and active forms of screen time and adolescent mood and anxiety disorders. 61
32055896 2020
30
Phobia among residents in board training programs in Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2019. 61
33409211 2020
31
Parent- and Child-Factors in Specific Phobias: The Interplay of Overprotection and Negative Affectivity. 61
32623544 2020
32
The development and initial tests for the psychometric properties of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). 61
32394993 2020
33
Evaluating the validity of the Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear (IDAF-4C+) in adults with severe dental anxiety. 61
33463781 2020
34
Evaluating the empirical evidence for three transdiagnostic mechanisms in anxiety and mood disorders. 61
33030123 2020
35
Parent- and child-reported anxiety disorders differentiating major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder in children and adolescents. 61
32961097 2020
36
Presence and predictors of anxiety disorder onset following cancer diagnosis among anxious cancer survivors. 61
31925530 2020
37
Altered phobic reactions in frontotemporal dementia: A behavioural and neuroanatomical analysis. 61
32650059 2020
38
Assessment and Treatment of Noise Hypersensitivity in a Teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study. 61
32816171 2020
39
Development of the COVID-19-Anxiety Questionnaire and first psychometric testing. 61
32812525 2020
40
Specific relations of dimensional anxiety and manifest anxiety disorders during pregnancy with difficult early infant temperament: a longitudinal cohort study. 61
31927695 2020
41
[Virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders and anxiety disorders: Indications, added value and limitations]. 61
32151452 2020
42
Childhood and adolescent mental health of NICU graduates: an observational study. 61
31974300 2020
43
ENIGMA-anxiety working group: Rationale for and organization of large-scale neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders. 61
32618421 2020
44
Neuronal correlates of spider phobia in a combined fNIRS-EEG study. 61
32724128 2020
45
Who worries about specific phobias? - A population-based study of risk factors. 61
32417598 2020
46
Multimodal Categorical and Dimensional Approaches to Understanding Threat Conditioning and Its Extinction in Individuals With Anxiety Disorders. 61
32022832 2020
47
Prevalence of DSM-IV Major Psychiatric Disorders among North Korean Defectors in South Korea. 61
32450622 2020
48
Do we need to re-think on subthreshold childhood psychiatric cases? A follow-up study. 61
32247189 2020
49
Risk and protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. 61
31172897 2020
50
The Sensory Abnormalities and Neuropsychopathology of Autism and Anxiety. 61
32542126 2020

Variations for Phobia, Specific

Expression for Phobia, Specific

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Phobia, Specific.

Pathways for Phobia, Specific

GO Terms for Phobia, Specific

Cellular components related to Phobia, Specific according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dendrite GO:0030425 9.55 HTR2A HTR1A FMR1 COMT BDNF
2 synapse GO:0045202 9.43 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A GAD1 FMR1 CRH
3 axon GO:0030424 9.02 HTR2A GAD1 FMR1 COMT BDNF

Biological processes related to Phobia, Specific according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.85 HTR2A HTR1A GAD1 CRH
2 response to drug GO:0042493 9.72 SLC6A4 HTR2A GAD1 CRH COMT
3 social behavior GO:0035176 9.61 SLC6A4 OXT GAD1
4 response to pain GO:0048265 9.59 CRH COMT
5 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.58 SLC6A4 HTR1A
6 behavior GO:0007610 9.58 HTR2A HTR1A
7 neurotransmitter biosynthetic process GO:0042136 9.57 SLC6A4 GAD1
8 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 9.56 MAOA COMT
9 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 9.54 MAOA COMT
10 sleep GO:0030431 9.52 OXT HTR2A
11 negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity GO:1901386 9.51 FMR1 CRHR1
12 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 9.49 MAOA COMT
13 parturition GO:0007567 9.48 CRHR1 CRH
14 serotonin receptor signaling pathway GO:0007210 9.46 HTR2A HTR1A
15 sperm ejaculation GO:0042713 9.4 SLC6A4 OXT
16 response to ether GO:0045472 9.37 OXT CRH
17 positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, wakefulness GO:0010841 9.26 NPS CRH
18 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.26 OXT CRHR1 CRH COMT
19 regulation of serotonin secretion GO:0014062 9.16 HTR1A CRH
20 memory GO:0007613 8.92 SLC6A4 OXT HTR2A BDNF

Molecular functions related to Phobia, Specific according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 serotonin binding GO:0051378 8.8 SLC6A4 HTR2A HTR1A

Sources for Phobia, Specific

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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