Phobia, Specific

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Phobia, Specific

MalaCards integrated aliases for Phobia, Specific:

Name: Phobia, Specific 57 13 44 40 73
Specific Phobia 12 76 15
Phobia, Simple 57
Simple Phobia 12


External Ids:

OMIM 57 608251
Disease Ontology 12 DOID:599
ICD10 33 F40.2
MeSH 44 C562465
NCIt 50 C35284
SNOMED-CT 68 192396001 54587008
MedGen 42 C0236801
UMLS 73 C0236801

Summaries for Phobia, Specific

Disease Ontology : 12 A phobic disorder that is characterized by an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations.

MalaCards based summary : Phobia, Specific, also known as specific phobia, is related to anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder. An important gene associated with Phobia, Specific is PHOBS (Phobia, Specific), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Tyrosine metabolism and Neurotransmitter Clearance In The Synaptic Cleft. The drugs Antibodies and gamma-Globulins have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain and colon.

Wikipedia : 76 A specific phobia is any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or irrational fear... more...

Description from OMIM: 608251

Related Diseases for Phobia, Specific

Diseases related to Phobia, Specific via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 40)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 anxiety 29.3 COMT MAOA
2 obsessive-compulsive disorder 29.2 COMT MAOA
3 panic disorder 29.1 COMT MAOA
4 animal phobia 11.3
5 nosophobia 11.1
6 panic disorder 1 10.9
7 williams-beuren syndrome 10.9
8 flying phobia 10.9
9 avoidant personality disorder 10.2 FMR1 MAOA
10 oppositional defiant disorder 10.1 COMT MAOA
11 dystonia 1, torsion, autosomal dominant 10.1 COMT MAOA
12 brunner syndrome 10.1 COMT MAOA
13 antisocial personality disorder 10.1 COMT MAOA
14 paranoid schizophrenia 10.1 COMT MAOA
15 early-onset schizophrenia 10.0 COMT MAOA
16 postpartum depression 10.0 COMT MAOA
17 borderline personality disorder 10.0 COMT MAOA
18 mental depression 10.0 COMT MAOA
19 conduct disorder 10.0 COMT MAOA
20 personality disorder 10.0 COMT MAOA
21 bulimia nervosa 10.0 COMT MAOA
22 substance abuse 10.0 COMT MAOA
23 social phobia 9.9
24 post-traumatic stress disorder 9.9 COMT MAOA
25 chronic fatigue syndrome 9.9 COMT MAOA
26 tobacco addiction 9.8 COMT MAOA
27 specific developmental disorder 9.8 COMT FMR1
28 mood disorder 9.8 COMT MAOA
29 velocardiofacial syndrome 9.8
30 major depressive disorder 9.8
31 bipolar disorder 9.7
32 separation anxiety disorder 9.7
33 hypochondriasis 9.7
34 generalized anxiety disorder 9.7
35 depression 9.7
36 phobic disorder 9.5 COMT MAOA NBAS
37 disease of mental health 9.5 COMT FMR1 MAOA
38 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 9.5 COMT FMR1 MAOA
39 migraine with or without aura 1 9.3 COMT MAOA
40 autism 9.2 COMT FMR1 MAOA

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Phobia, Specific:

Diseases related to Phobia, Specific

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Phobia, Specific

Clinical features from OMIM:


Drugs & Therapeutics for Phobia, Specific

Drugs for Phobia, Specific (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 59)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Antibodies Phase 4
2 gamma-Globulins Phase 4
3 Immunoglobulins Phase 4
4 Immunoglobulins, Intravenous Phase 4
5 Rho(D) Immune Globulin Phase 4
Cycloserine Approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable 68-41-7 401 6234
Citalopram Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 59729-33-8 2771
8 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
9 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
10 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
11 Antimetabolites Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
12 Antitubercular Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
13 Renal Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Not Applicable
14 Antidepressive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Not Applicable
15 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
17 Autonomic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
18 Cholinergic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
19 Cholinergic Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
20 Muscarinic Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
21 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
22 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 3
23 Parasympatholytics Phase 2, Phase 3
24 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
25 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 2, Phase 3
26 Serotonin Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
27 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
28 Adrenergic Agents Phase 3
29 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 3
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3 50-67-9 5202
Valproic Acid Approved, Investigational Phase 2 99-66-1 3121
32 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 2
33 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 2
34 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 2
35 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 2 111974-72-2
36 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 2
37 Anticonvulsants Phase 2
38 Antimanic Agents Phase 2
39 GABA Agents Phase 2
40 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Not Applicable 50-28-2 5757
42 Estradiol valerate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Not Applicable 979-32-8
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Not Applicable 28014-46-2
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Not Applicable 59467-70-8 4192
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Not Applicable 10024-97-2 948
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Not Applicable 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
47 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Not Applicable
Imidacloprid Vet_approved Not Applicable 105827-78-9 86418
49 Contraceptive Agents Not Applicable
50 Estradiol 17 beta-cypionate Not Applicable

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 66)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Study to Evaluate the Benefit of Octagam 5%® in Subjects With Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) Active, not recruiting NCT03348618 Phase 4
2 Study of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Specific Phobia Completed NCT00121069 Phase 2, Phase 3 Escitalopram
3 Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy in Agoraphobic Participants Completed NCT00734370 Phase 2, Phase 3
4 D-Cycloserine to Enhance Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Acrophobia Completed NCT01102803 Phase 3 D-Cycloserine;Placebo
5 Efficacy of Atomoxetine on Psychosocial Function of Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Completed NCT00320528 Phase 3 atomoxetine
6 Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Active, not recruiting NCT02028247 Phase 3
7 Enhancing Exposure Therapy for Snake and Spider Phobias Unknown status NCT02160470 Phase 1, Phase 2
8 Treatment Study for Rural Latino Youth With Anxiety Unknown status NCT01491880 Phase 1, Phase 2
9 Quetiapine in Specific Phobia Completed NCT00872716 Phase 2 Quetiapine XR
10 Treatment for Specific Phobias in Children Completed NCT00051220 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 fMRI Study Examining Effects of D-cycloserine in Specific Phobia Completed NCT00591825 Phase 2 D-cycloserine;Placebo
12 D-cycloserine and Treatment of Feeding Disorders Completed NCT01923896 Phase 1, Phase 2 d-cycloserine (DCS);Placebo
13 Brief Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Young Children Completed NCT02051192 Phase 1, Phase 2
14 Influence of Valproic Acid on Extinction-based Therapy in Patients With Fear of Spiders. Recruiting NCT02789813 Phase 2 Valproic Acid;Placebo
15 The Modular Protocol for Mental Health (MPMH) Enrolling by invitation NCT03143634 Phase 1, Phase 2
16 Time Intensive CBT for a Specific Phobia of Vomiting Unknown status NCT02920814 Phase 1
17 Intervention for Anxiety After Falls Completed NCT01268657 Phase 1
18 D-Cycloserine-Enhancer of One-Session Treatment for Phobia of Heights Unknown status NCT01037101 Not Applicable D-Cycloserine;Placebo
19 Cognitive Behavioural Treatment of Intra-oral Injection-phobia in 10-16 Year Old Children and Adolescents Unknown status NCT02083432 Not Applicable
20 Internet-delivered Transdiagnostic Intervention for Anxiety and Depression Unknown status NCT02739607 Not Applicable
21 Parent-Augmented Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Treat Children With Specific Phobias Completed NCT00509951 Not Applicable
22 The Impact of Sex Hormones on One-session Treatment for Spider Phobia in Women Completed NCT02622087 Not Applicable
23 Study of Brain Circuitry in Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT01849432
24 Self-efficacy Enhancement and Exposure Therapy Completed NCT03105024 Not Applicable
25 The Effects of Safety Seeking Behaviors During Exposure Therapy for Adults With Spider Phobia Completed NCT03233113 Not Applicable
26 Extinction Generalization in Exposure Therapy Completed NCT03031002 Not Applicable
27 Validity of a Self-administered Questionnaire to Screen Phobia of Falling in the Elderly Completed NCT02387047
28 Exposure, D-cycloserine Enhancement, and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in Snake Phobics Completed NCT01450306 Not Applicable D-cycloserine;Placebo
29 Internet-delivered Treatment for Children With Anxiety Disorders in a Rural Area; an Open Trial in a Clinical Setting Completed NCT02306356 Not Applicable
30 Clinical Management of Anxiety and Access to Health Care Completed NCT02081365 Not Applicable
31 In Vivo Versus Augmented Reality Exposure for Small Animal Phobia Completed NCT01361074 Not Applicable
32 Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for Children Age 8-12 Years With Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT01533402 Not Applicable
33 Changes in Brain Activity (Functional MRI Study) Before and After Behavioral Therapy of Height Phobia Completed NCT00302978 Not Applicable
34 A Randomized Controlled Trial of PCIT-ED for Preschool Depression Completed NCT02076425 Not Applicable
35 Exposure-Focused Family-Based CBT for Youth With ASD and Comorbid Anxiety Completed NCT01919970 Not Applicable
36 Attention Bias Modification Treatment for Anxious Youth Completed NCT01979263 Not Applicable
37 EMDR in Spider Phobia: Work Mechanisms and Treatment Outcome Completed NCT02973919 Not Applicable
38 Children and Adolescents With Dental Anxiety - Randomized Controlled Study of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Completed NCT01798355 Not Applicable
39 RCT of Bibliotherapy for Social Anxiety Disorder as a Prelude to CBT in IAPT Completed NCT02307097 Not Applicable
40 Online, Guided Interventions to Reduce Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Indian University Students Completed NCT02410265 Not Applicable
41 Internet-based Guided Self-help for Chronic Tinnitus Completed NCT01205919 Not Applicable
42 Comparison of an Internet-based Guided Self-help and a Group Therapy for Chronic Tinnitus Completed NCT01205906 Not Applicable
43 Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment Completed NCT03434457
44 Effects of Stress on Exposure Therapy Recruiting NCT03505437 Not Applicable
45 How to Act on the Mobility Restriction Linked to Senior's Phobia of Falling Recruiting NCT02554838 Not Applicable
46 Anti-phobic and Safety Behaviors in the Treatment of Acrophobia Recruiting NCT02085343 Not Applicable
47 Spider Phobia Opposite Action Treatment Study Recruiting NCT02905279 Not Applicable
48 tDCS-Augmented Exposure Therapy for Pathological Fear Recruiting NCT03095482 Not Applicable
49 Providing Tools for Effective Care and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders Recruiting NCT02605668 Not Applicable
50 Psychological Evaluation According Colonic Colonization by Escherichia Coli of Patients After Colorectal Surgery Recruiting NCT02970513 Not Applicable

Search NIH Clinical Center for Phobia, Specific

Cochrane evidence based reviews: phobia, specific

Genetic Tests for Phobia, Specific

Anatomical Context for Phobia, Specific

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Phobia, Specific:

Brain, Colon

Publications for Phobia, Specific

Articles related to Phobia, Specific:

# Title Authors Year
Hypochondriasis Differs From Panic Disorder and Social Phobia: Specific Processes Identified Within Patient Groups. ( 27805984 )
Biased attention to threat in paediatric anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, separation anxiety disorder) as a function of 'distress' versus 'fear' diagnostic categorization. ( 23591000 )
Co-morbid anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder and major depression: familial aggregation and clinical characteristics of co-morbid panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. ( 22099954 )

Variations for Phobia, Specific

Expression for Phobia, Specific

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Phobia, Specific.

Pathways for Phobia, Specific

GO Terms for Phobia, Specific

Cellular components related to Phobia, Specific according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dendritic spine GO:0043197 8.62 COMT FMR1

Biological processes related to Phobia, Specific according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 9.16 COMT MAOA
2 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 8.96 COMT MAOA
3 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 8.62 COMT MAOA

Sources for Phobia, Specific

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
55 Novoseek
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 Tocris
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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