Phobia, Specific

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Phobia, Specific

MalaCards integrated aliases for Phobia, Specific:

Name: Phobia, Specific 56 13 43 39 71
Specific Phobia 12 74 15 17
Phobia, Simple 56
Simple Phobia 12


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:599
OMIM 56 608251
MeSH 43 C562465
NCIt 49 C35284
SNOMED-CT 67 54587008
ICD10 32 F40.2
MedGen 41 C0236801
UMLS 71 C0236801

Summaries for Phobia, Specific

Disease Ontology : 12 A phobic disorder that is characterized by an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations.

MalaCards based summary : Phobia, Specific, also known as specific phobia, is related to depression and somatization disorder. An important gene associated with Phobia, Specific is PHOBS (Phobia, Specific), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Serotonergic synapse and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Pathway, Pharmacodynamics. The drugs Antidepressive Agents and Psychotropic Drugs have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, amygdala and testes.

Wikipedia : 74 A specific phobia is any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or irrational fear... more...

More information from OMIM: 608251

Related Diseases for Phobia, Specific

Diseases related to Phobia, Specific via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 134)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 depression 30.2 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A
2 somatization disorder 30.1 SLC6A4 OXT MHRT
3 neurotic disorder 30.1 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A
4 animal phobia 30.1 OXT ASPRV1
5 post-traumatic stress disorder 30.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A COMT
6 personality disorder 30.0 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A COMT
7 alcohol use disorder 29.9 WASF2 WASF1 SLC6A4 HTR1A COMT
8 alexithymia 29.8 SLC6A4 OXT HTR1A COMT
9 chronic fatigue syndrome 29.8 SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A COMT
10 dissociative disorder 29.8 SLC6A4 OXT CFI ASPRV1
11 substance dependence 29.8 WASF2 WASF1 SLC6A4 MAOA COMT
12 acute stress disorder 29.7 SLC6A4 OXT MHRT CFI
13 generalized anxiety disorder 29.7 SLC6A4 PRODH MAOA HTR1A COMT
14 mood disorder 29.6 SLC6A4 PRODH MAOA HTR1A COMT
15 panic disorder 29.6 TMEM132D SLC6A4 MAOA HTR1A COMT
16 hypochondriasis 29.5 SLC6A4 MHRT IVL HTR1A CFI
17 migraine with or without aura 1 29.5 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR1A COMT
18 obsessive-compulsive disorder 29.3 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR1A COMT
19 autism spectrum disorder 29.3 SLC6A4 PRODH OXT MAOA COMT
20 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 29.3 SLC6A4 PRODH OXT MAOA HTR1A COMT
21 alcohol dependence 29.2 SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR1A COMT
23 bipolar disorder 29.1 SLC6A4 RTN4 PRODH MAOA HTR1A COMT
24 substance abuse 28.9 WASF2 WASF1 SLC6A4 RTN4 PRODH MAOA
25 mental depression 28.8 WASF2 WASF1 SLC6A4 PRODH OXT MAOA
26 major depressive disorder 28.7 TMEM132D SLC6A4 OXT MAOA HTR1A COMT
27 antisocial personality disorder 28.7 WASF2 WASF1 SLC6A4 RTN4 MAOA COMT
28 anxiety 28.5 TMEM132D SLC6A4 PRODH OXT MAOA HTR1A
29 dysthymic disorder 28.4 WASF2 WASF1 SLC6A4 PRODH MAOA IVL
30 disease of mental health 28.2 WASF2 WASF1 TOR3A SLC6A4 RTN4 PRODH
31 agoraphobia 28.0 WASF2 WASF1 TMEM132D SLC6A4 NBAS MAOA
32 separation anxiety disorder 27.7 WASF2 WASF1 TOR3A SLC6A4 RTN4 OXT
33 oppositional defiant disorder 27.7 WASF2 WASF1 TOR3A SLC6A4 RTN4 MAOA
34 social phobia 27.1 WASF2 WASF1 SLC6A4 PRODH OXT NBAS
35 phobic disorder 26.4 WASF2 WASF1 TOR3A SLC6A4 PRODH OXT
36 williams-beuren syndrome 11.5
37 nosophobia 11.4
38 panic disorder 1 11.2
39 flying phobia 11.2
40 dependent personality disorder 10.5 WASF2 WASF1
41 histrionic personality disorder 10.5 WASF2 WASF1
42 paranoid personality disorder 10.4 WASF2 WASF1
43 schizoid personality disorder 10.4 WASF2 WASF1
44 hallucinogen dependence 10.4 WASF2 WASF1 COMT
45 cannabis abuse 10.4 WASF2 WASF1 COMT
46 ring dermoid of cornea 10.3 WASF2 WASF1 CGAS
47 cannabis dependence 10.3 WASF2 WASF1 COMT
48 schizophreniform disorder 10.3 PRODH COMT CGAS
49 substance-induced psychosis 10.3 PRODH HTR1A COMT
50 barbiturate abuse 10.3 WASF2 WASF1 MAOA

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Phobia, Specific:

Diseases related to Phobia, Specific

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Phobia, Specific

Clinical features from OMIM:


Drugs & Therapeutics for Phobia, Specific

Drugs for Phobia, Specific (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 34)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Antidepressive Agents Phase 4
2 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4
3 Analgesics Phase 4
Citalopram Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 59729-33-8 2771
5 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
6 Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
Serotonin Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3 50-67-9 5202
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 2 99-66-1 3121
Dopamine Approved Phase 2 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 54910-89-3 3386
11 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 2
12 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 2
13 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 2 111974-72-2
14 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
15 Anticonvulsants Phase 2
16 Dopamine Agents Phase 2
17 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 2
18 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 2
19 Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Phase 2
20 Narcotics Phase 2
21 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 2
22 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 2
tannic acid Approved 1401-55-4
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 94-09-7, 1994-09-7 2337
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 50-28-2 5757
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved 28014-46-2
Midazolam Approved, Illicit 59467-70-8 4192
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved 10024-97-2 948
29 Estradiol 17 beta-cypionate
30 Contraceptive Agents
31 Estradiol 3-benzoate
32 Hormones
33 Complement System Proteins
34 Anesthetics

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 59)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Pilot Study to Treat Emotional Disorders in Primary Care With Evidence-based Psychological Techniques: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT01903096 Phase 4 Primary Care Treatment As Usual
2 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Multimodal Music Therapy for Children With Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT01062646 Phase 3
3 Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Specific Phobia Completed NCT00121069 Phase 2, Phase 3 Escitalopram
4 2/3 Treatment of Anxiety in Autism Spectrum Disorder Completed NCT02028247 Phase 3
5 Enhancing Exposure Therapy for Snake and Spider Phobias With Fear Retrieval and Compound Extinction Unknown status NCT02160470 Phase 1, Phase 2
6 The Use of D-Cycloserine to Augment Intensive Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Unknown status NCT01687140 Phase 2 D-Cycloserine;Placebo
7 Anxiolytic Effects of Single-dose Quetiapine XR Administration on Clinical Symptoms and Amygdala Activation During Exposure in Patients With Simple Phobia Completed NCT00872716 Phase 2 Quetiapine XR
8 Randomized Placebo-controlled Phase II Study on the Influence of Valproic Acid in Combination With Reactivation of Fear Memory on the Outcome of Extinction-based Therapy in Patients With Fear of Spiders. Completed NCT02789813 Phase 2 Valproic Acid;Placebo
9 An fMRI Study Investigating the Effects of Acute D-cycloserine Administration on Brain Activations and Cognitive Functioning in Spider Phobia. Completed NCT00591825 Phase 2 D-cycloserine;Placebo
10 A Brief Behavioral Treatment for Anxiety in Young Children Completed NCT02051192 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 Characterization and Sequential Pharmacotherapy of Severe Mood Dysregulation Completed NCT01714310 Phase 2 lisdexamfetamine;Placebo;fluoxetine
12 A Phase 2a Study to Evaluate the Kappa Opioid Receptor As a Target for the Treatment of Mood and Anxiety Spectrum Disorders by Evaluation of Whether CERC-501 Engages Key Neural Circuitry Related to the Hedonic Response Completed NCT02218736 Phase 2 CERC-501;placebo
13 Use of D-cycloserine to Facilitate Extinction of Food Aversion in Pediatric Populations Completed NCT01923896 Phase 1, Phase 2 d-cycloserine (DCS);Placebo
14 D-Cycloserine and Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Delivered on an iPad: Increasing Access to Treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder Withdrawn NCT02933684 Phase 2 Seromycin;Placebo
15 Time Intensive Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for a Specific Phobia of Vomiting Using a Single Case Experimental Design Completed NCT02920814 Phase 1
16 3D Video Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (3D-VVRET) Study Unknown status NCT02584387
17 Anti-phobic and Safety Behaviors in the Treatment of Acrophobia Unknown status NCT02085343
18 Internet Based Self-help Therapy With FearFighter™ Versus no Intervention for Anxiety Disorders in Adult Persons: a Randomised Feasibility Trial Unknown status NCT02499055
19 Outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Interventions Provided by Unlicensed Professionals in a General Hospital Setting Unknown status NCT01075672
20 Enhancing Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia With the Use of Threat-Relevant and Threat-Irrelevant Opposite Actions Unknown status NCT02905279
21 The Assessment and Treatment of Balance Impairment Using Virtual Reality (VR) in Panic Disorder Patients Unknown status NCT01677429
22 Single-session Gamified Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia vs. Traditional Exposure Therapy: a Randomized Controlled Non-inferiority Trial Completed NCT02533310
23 Sex Hormones and Fear Inhibition: a Novel Exploration of Why Women Are so Vulnerable to Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT02622087
24 Internet-delivered Treatment for Children With Anxiety Disorders in a Rural Area; an Open Trial in a Clinical Setting Completed NCT02306356
25 The Impact of Stress on Exposure-based Treatment Outcome Completed NCT03505437
26 In Vivo Versus Augmented Reality Exposure for Small Animal Phobia Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT01361074
27 Optimizing Exposure in the Treatment of Anxiety in Youth: Facing Fears In-session or Out-session? Completed NCT03688360
28 Internet-Based CBT for Children With Anxiety Disorders: Implementation in Clinical Settings Completed NCT02350257
29 The Effects of in Vivo Exposure Therapy on the Neural Correlates of Height Phobia: a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Using a Fear Provocation Paradigm. Completed NCT00302978
30 Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Treatment for Anxiety Disorders in Children Age 8-12 Years - a Randomised Controlled Trial Completed NCT01533402
31 Exposure, D-cycloserine Enhancement, and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in Snake Phobics Completed NCT01450306 D-cycloserine;Placebo
32 Children and Adolescents With Dental Anxiety - Randomized Controlled Study of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Completed NCT01798355
33 Enhancing Exposure: the Impact of Self-efficacy Enhancement on Treatment Outcome Completed NCT03105024
34 Probing Amygdalo-Cortical Circuitry in Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT01849432
35 Extinction Generalization in Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia Completed NCT03031002
36 Screening for Phobia of Falling in the Elderly: Validity and Feasibility of a Self-administered Questionnaire Completed NCT02387047
37 Exposure-Focused Family-Based CBT for Youth With ASD and Comorbid Anxiety Completed NCT01919970
38 Augmented Treatment of Specific Phobias in Children Completed NCT00509951
39 Randomized Clinical Trial of Smartphone-Based Exposure of Dental Anxiety Completed NCT03461016
40 Providing Tools for Effective Care and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders (AD): Outcomes, Mediators and Moderators of Enhanced Extinction Completed NCT02605668
41 Exposure Treatment in Anxiety Disorders: Proof of Principle for an a Priori Response Prediction Approach Completed NCT03208400
42 Cognitive Behavioural Treatment of Intra-oral Injection-phobia in 10-16 Year Old Children and Adolescents Completed NCT02083432
43 The Effect of Cognitive Restructuring Before Exposure for Claustrophobia on Expectancy and Outcome Completed NCT03628105
44 Response Prevention or Response Permission? A Randomized Controlled Trial of the "Judicious Use of Safety Behaviors" During Exposure Therapy (Institutional Review Board Title: Overcome Your Spider Phobia) Completed NCT03233113
45 Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Mindfulness, Pharmacological Treatment, and Control Group in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Completed NCT03072264 Fluoxetine
46 Randomised Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioural Bibliotherapy (CBB) for Social Anxiety Disorder as a Prelude to High-Intensity Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) in a Local IAPT Service. Completed NCT02307097
47 The Efficacy of Mindfulness- Based Intervention for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): a Randomized Control Trial Completed NCT04305418
48 Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children With Dental Anxiety- A Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT02588079
49 Optimizing Exposure in the Treatment of Anxiety in Youth: Facing Fears in Big or Smalls Steps? Recruiting NCT03688373
50 Effectiveness of the Transdiagnostic Treatment in the Population of Tijuana and Juarez With Anxiety and Electrophysiological Correlation Measurements. A Randomized Clinical Trial Recruiting NCT03916315

Search NIH Clinical Center for Phobia, Specific

Cochrane evidence based reviews: phobia, specific

Genetic Tests for Phobia, Specific

Anatomical Context for Phobia, Specific

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Phobia, Specific:

Brain, Amygdala, Testes, Eye, Cortex, Heart, Prefrontal Cortex

Publications for Phobia, Specific

Articles related to Phobia, Specific:

(show top 50) (show all 828)
# Title Authors PMID Year
A chromosome 14 risk locus for simple phobia: results from a genomewide linkage scan. 56
12556910 2003
Childhood and adolescent mental health of NICU graduates: an observational study. 61
31974300 2020
Who worries about specific phobias? - A population-based study of risk factors. 61
32417598 2020
Do we need to re-think on subthreshold childhood psychiatric cases? A follow-up study. 61
32247189 2020
Prevalence of DSM-IV Major Psychiatric Disorders among North Korean Defectors in South Korea. 61
32450622 2020
Psychiatric Co-morbidities and Body Shape Dissatisfaction in Adolescents with Obesity - A School Based Case Controlled Study. 61
32519259 2020
The development and initial tests for the psychometric properties of the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). 61
32394993 2020
Validation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Italian Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. 61
32372892 2020
The Sensory Abnormalities and Neuropsychopathology of Autism and Anxiety. 61
32542126 2020
The Relationship Between Sensory Reactivity Differences and Anxiety Subtypes in Autistic Children. 61
31909874 2020
Affective Styles in Panic Disorder and Specific Phobia: Changes Through Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Prediction of Remission. 61
32402254 2020
Prevalence, Comorbidity and Predictor of Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents. 61
32418141 2020
The Mental Health of Young Canadian Mothers. 61
32057608 2020
Lifetime psychopathological characteristics associated with comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder in clinically stable patients with chronic schizophrenia. 61
32151982 2020
[Virtual reality exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders and anxiety disorders: Indications, added value and limitations]. 61
32151452 2020
Modifiable risk and protective factors for anxiety disorders among adults: A systematic review. 61
31839417 2020
The association between fear extinction, the ability to accomplish exposure and exposure therapy outcome in specific phobia. 61
32152429 2020
Prevalence and Characterization of Specific Phobia Disorder in People over 65 Years Old in a Madrid Community Sample (Spain) and its Relationship to Quality of Life. 61
32183487 2020
Time intensive cognitive behavioural therapy for a specific phobia of vomiting: A single case experimental design. 61
31706171 2020
Multimodal Categorical and Dimensional Approaches to Understanding Threat Conditioning and Its Extinction in Individuals With Anxiety Disorders. 61
32022832 2020
Differential associations between passive and active forms of screen time and adolescent mood and anxiety disorders. 61
32055896 2020
Psychiatric comorbidity in children with psychogenic and functional breathing disorders. 61
31710164 2020
Neural responses during extinction learning predict exposure therapy outcome in phobia: results from a randomized-controlled trial. 61
31352467 2020
[Long-term follow-up of childhood-onset depression - comorbidity, suicidal behavior and prognosis in adulthood]. 61
31854323 2020
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Pediatric Cancer Patients. 61
32021635 2020
Clinically Significant Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Varied Intellectual Functioning. 61
31971849 2020
Task MRI-Based Functional Brain Network of Anxiety. 61
32002919 2020
A Preliminary Investigation of Cast Anxiety in General Orthopaedic Practice. 61
32090145 2020
Social phobia moderates the outcome in the EVIDENT study: A randomized controlled trial on an Internet-based psychological intervention for mild to moderate depressive symptoms. 61
31682137 2020
Use of cannabidiol in anxiety and anxiety-related disorders. 61
31866386 2020
Prospective Association between Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Anxiety: a Meta-Analysis. 61
31642030 2020
Presence and predictors of anxiety disorder onset following cancer diagnosis among anxious cancer survivors. 61
31925530 2020
Specific relations of dimensional anxiety and manifest anxiety disorders during pregnancy with difficult early infant temperament: a longitudinal cohort study. 61
31927695 2020
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Acceptance Commitment Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Integrating Traditional with Digital Treatment Approaches. 61
32002935 2020
Comorbidity with more anxiety disorders associated with a poorer prognosis persisting at the 10-year follow-up among patients with major depressive disorder. 61
31493646 2020
Recent developments in the intervention of specific phobia among adults: a rapid review. 61
32226611 2020
Factors influencing the success of exposure therapy for specific phobia: A systematic review. 61
31830494 2020
No pills, more skills: The adverse effect of hormonal contraceptive use on exposure therapy benefit. 61
31590077 2019
Child maltreatment, peer victimization, and social anxiety in adulthood: a cross-sectional study in a treatment-seeking sample. 61
31882002 2019
Long-term Outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety-Related Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 61
31758858 2019
[Current nosographic classifications of anxiety disorders]. 61
32237612 2019
Anxiety and Fear-Related Disorders in the ICD-11: Results from a Global Case-controlled Field Study. 61
32018071 2019
FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN BRAIN ACTIVITY AFTER HYPNOSIS: Neurobiological Mechanisms and Application to Patients with a Specific Phobia-Limitations and Future Directions. 61
31526269 2019
Are claims of non-inferiority of Internet and computer-based cognitive-behavioural therapy compared with in-person cognitive-behavioural therapy for adults with anxiety disorders supported by the evidence from head-to-head randomised controlled trials? A systematic review. 61
31339342 2019
Prevalence, onset and course of anxiety disorders during pregnancy: A systematic review and meta analysis. 61
31129461 2019
Psychopharmacology of Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: A Narrative Review. 61
31656713 2019
Affective startle modulation and psychopathology: Implications for appetitive and defensive brain systems. 61
31129237 2019
The Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period: A Multivariate Bayesian Meta-Analysis. 61
31347796 2019
Effect of phobic visual stimulation on spinal nociception. 61
30902634 2019
The predictive value of neural reward processing on exposure therapy outcome: Results from a randomized controlled trial. 61
30763673 2019

Variations for Phobia, Specific

Expression for Phobia, Specific

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Phobia, Specific.

Pathways for Phobia, Specific

GO Terms for Phobia, Specific

Cellular components related to Phobia, Specific according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 SCAR complex GO:0031209 8.62 WASF2 WASF1

Biological processes related to Phobia, Specific according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Rac protein signal transduction GO:0016601 9.43 WASF2 WASF1
2 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.4 SLC6A4 HTR1A
3 catecholamine metabolic process GO:0006584 9.37 MAOA COMT
4 positive regulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation GO:2000601 9.32 WASF2 WASF1
5 neurotransmitter catabolic process GO:0042135 9.26 MAOA COMT
6 dopamine catabolic process GO:0042420 9.16 MAOA COMT
7 lamellipodium morphogenesis GO:0072673 8.96 WASF2 WASF1
8 sperm ejaculation GO:0042713 8.62 SLC6A4 OXT

Molecular functions related to Phobia, Specific according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 protein kinase A binding GO:0051018 9.16 WASF2 WASF1
2 Arp2/3 complex binding GO:0071933 8.96 WASF2 WASF1
3 serotonin binding GO:0051378 8.62 SLC6A4 HTR1A

Sources for Phobia, Specific

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
54 Novoseek
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
70 Tocris
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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