MCID: PTT004
MIFTS: 47

Pituitary Apoplexy

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Eye diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Pituitary Apoplexy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Pituitary Apoplexy:

Name: Pituitary Apoplexy 12 58 54 44 15 17 70
Pituitary Tumor Apoplexy 58

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
pituitary apoplexy
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare endocrine diseases


Summaries for Pituitary Apoplexy

MalaCards based summary : Pituitary Apoplexy, also known as pituitary tumor apoplexy, is related to cranial nerve palsy and lymphocytic hypophysitis. An important gene associated with Pituitary Apoplexy is PRL (Prolactin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Aldosterone synthesis and secretion. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, prostate and caudate nucleus, and related phenotypes are bitemporal hemianopia and thunderclap headache

Wikipedia : 73 Pituitary apoplexy is bleeding into or impaired blood supply of the pituitary gland. This usually occurs... more...

Related Diseases for Pituitary Apoplexy

Diseases related to Pituitary Apoplexy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 402)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cranial nerve palsy 30.9 PRL POMC AVP
2 lymphocytic hypophysitis 30.7 POMC GH1
3 diabetes insipidus 30.7 PRL POMC INS GH1 AVP
4 graves disease 1 30.6 POMC INS
5 abducens nerve disease 30.6 PRL POMC
6 non-functioning pituitary adenoma 30.5 SST GH1
7 chromophobe adenoma 30.4 PRL POMC GH1 AVP
8 hypopituitarism 30.4 PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
9 inappropriate adh syndrome 30.3 POMC AVP
10 pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 2 30.3 PRL POMC IGF1 GH1 AVP
11 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 30.3 PRL INS GNRH1
12 prolactin producing pituitary tumor 30.2 PRL POMC
13 hypogonadism 30.2 PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1
14 secondary adrenal insufficiency 30.2 INS IGF1 AVP
15 gigantism 30.2 PRL GH1 AIP
16 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 30.1 POMC IGF1
17 galactorrhea 30.1 PRL IGF1
18 adenohypophysitis 30.0 PRL POMC GH1
19 impotence 30.0 PRL POMC INS GNRH1
20 craniopharyngioma 29.8 PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
21 chiasmal syndrome 29.8 SST POMC
22 partial third-nerve palsy 29.8 PRL IGF1 GH1
23 adenoma 29.7 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 GH1
24 diabetes insipidus, neurohypophyseal 29.7 PRL POMC GNRH1 AVP
25 congenital hypothyroidism 29.6 PRL IGF1 GH1
26 pituitary adenoma 29.5 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 GNRH1
27 empty sella syndrome 29.5 PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
28 amenorrhea 29.5 PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
29 pituitary tumors 29.5 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 GH1
30 functionless pituitary adenoma 29.3 SST POMC IGF1
31 zollinger-ellison syndrome 29.3 SST MEN1
32 sheehan syndrome 29.2 PRL POMC INS IGF1 AVP
33 pituitary carcinoma 29.2 SST PRL POMC MEN1
34 gastrinoma 29.2 SST POMC MEN1 INS
35 goiter 29.1 SST PRL INS IGF1
36 hyperglycemia 29.1 SST INS IGF1 GH1
37 multiple endocrine neoplasia 29.1 SST POMC MEN1 AIP
38 hypoglycemia 29.0 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1 GH1
39 hypothyroidism 29.0 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
40 hyperprolactinemia 28.9 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
41 neuroendocrine tumor 28.9 SST POMC MEN1 IGF1
42 insulin-like growth factor i 28.9 SST PRL INS IGF1 GH1
43 acidophil adenoma 28.9 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1
44 acromegaly 28.8 SST PRL POMC MEN1 INS IGF1
45 pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting 28.8 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 GNRH1
46 functioning pituitary adenoma 28.7 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 GH1
47 growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma 28.7 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 AIP
48 hyperthyroidism 28.6 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1 GH1
49 acth-secreting pituitary adenoma 28.5 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 AIP
50 carney complex variant 28.3 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 AIP

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pituitary Apoplexy:



Diseases related to Pituitary Apoplexy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pituitary Apoplexy

Human phenotypes related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

58 31 (show all 44)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 bitemporal hemianopia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0030521
2 thunderclap headache 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0030907
3 nausea and vomiting 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002017
4 diplopia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000651
5 hypotension 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002615
6 hypertension 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000822
7 cranial nerve paralysis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0006824
8 hypoglycemia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001943
9 hyponatremia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002902
10 impotence 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000802
11 hypergonadotropic hypogonadism 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000815
12 pituitary hypothyroidism 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0008245
13 adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011748
14 pituitary adenoma 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002893
15 oligomenorrhea 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000876
16 abnormal kinetic perimetry test 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0030591
17 abnormal static automated perimetry test 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0030595
18 reduced circulating prolactin concentration 31 frequent (33%) HP:0008202
19 ptosis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000508
20 photophobia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000613
21 fatigue 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012378
22 fever 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001945
23 pallor 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000980
24 reduced visual acuity 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0007663
25 galactorrhea 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100829
26 coma 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001259
27 mydriasis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0011499
28 blurred vision 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000622
29 increased circulating prolactin concentration 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000870
30 abnormality of the cerebrospinal fluid 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002921
31 decreased response to growth hormone stimuation test 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0000824
32 growth hormone excess 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000845
33 trigeminal neuralgia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100661
34 confusion 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001289
35 excessive daytime somnolence 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001262
36 central diabetes insipidus 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000863
37 normochromic anemia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001895
38 abnormal caudate nucleus morphology 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002339
39 increased circulating cortisol level 31 very rare (1%) HP:0003118
40 headache 58 Frequent (79-30%)
41 hypercortisolism 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
42 growth hormone deficiency 58 Occasional (29-5%)
43 hypopituitarism 58 Occasional (29-5%)
44 prolactin deficiency 58 Frequent (79-30%)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.97 AIP AVP GNRH1 IGF1 INS MEN1
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.91 AIP GNRH1 IGF1 INS MEN1 POMC
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.86 AVP GNRH1 IGF1 INS MEN1 POMC
4 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.63 AIP GNRH1 INS MEN1 POMC PRL
5 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.43 AIP GNRH1 IGF1 MEN1 POMC PRL
6 nervous system MP:0003631 9.23 AVP GNRH1 IGF1 INS MEN1 POMC

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pituitary Apoplexy

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Pituitary Apoplexy

Cochrane evidence based reviews: pituitary apoplexy

Genetic Tests for Pituitary Apoplexy

Anatomical Context for Pituitary Apoplexy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

40
Pituitary, Prostate, Caudate Nucleus, Brain, Breast, Eye, Kidney

Publications for Pituitary Apoplexy

Articles related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

(show top 50) (show all 1193)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Acquired prolactin deficiency in patients with disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. 54 61
17556861 2007
2
Long-term efficacy of bromocriptine in macroprolactinomas and giant prolactinomas in men. 54 61
16379032 2005
3
Apoplexy of pituitary macroadenoma after combined test of anterior pituitary function. 61 54
11036877 2000
4
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced partial empty sella clinically mimicking pituitary apoplexy in a woman with a suspected non-secreting macroadenoma. 54 61
10800766 2000
5
Symptoms of pituitary apoplexy rapidly reversed with bromocriptine. Case report. 54 61
8929510 1996
6
A rare case of retroclival epidural hematoma: case report and review of the literature. 61
31721055 2021
7
Neuro-ophthalmic presentation of COVID-19 disease: A case report. 61
33727476 2021
8
Long-Term Outcomes of Pituitary Gland Preservation in Pituitary Macroadenoma Apoplexy: Case Series and Review of the Literature. 61
33777632 2021
9
Pregnancy-associated diabetes insipidus in Japan-a review based on quoting from the literatures reported during the period from 1982 to 2019. 61
33775975 2021
10
Using acute hypervolaemic haemodilution as blood conservation technique in a Jehovah's witness patient undergoing an emergency transphenoidal surgery: a Sabah experience. 61
33664045 2021
11
Pituitary tumor apoplexy associated with extrapontine myelinolysis during pregnancy: A case report. 61
33725898 2021
12
A Rare Case of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Associated With Pituitary Apoplexy Without Comorbidities. 61
33501401 2021
13
Key Factors Related to Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis Associated with Pituitary Apoplexy. 61
33567365 2021
14
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in a patient with pituitary apoplexy. 61
33563687 2021
15
Oculomotor nerve palsy in pituitary apoplexy associated with pituitary adenoma: a radiological analysis with fast imaging employing with steady-state acquisition. 61
33128620 2021
16
Pituitary Apoplexy Attributed to COVID-19 Infection in the Absence of an Underlying Macroadenoma or Other Identifiable Cause. 61
33732566 2021
17
Pituitary apoplexy in the setting of COVID-19 infection: A case report. 61
33658149 2021
18
Pituitary haemorrhage and infarction: the spectrum of disease. 61
33434143 2021
19
Postpartum headache after epidural anaesthesia: Who to blame? 61
33516566 2021
20
Primary intrasellar schwannoma with intratumoral hemorrhage mimicking pituitary apoplexy: A case report. 61
33450271 2021
21
Case of Pituitary Apoplexy After Surgery. 61
33449494 2021
22
Surgical treatment of a 72-year-old patient with headache, hyponatremia and oculomotor nerve palsy: a case report and literature review. 61
33633993 2021
23
A key role for conservative treatment in the management of pituitary apoplexy. 61
32959228 2021
24
Outcomes of pituitary apoplexy: a comparison of microadenomas and macroadenomas. 61
33462744 2021
25
Rathke's cleft cyst infections and pituitary abscesses: case series and review of the literature. 61
33433887 2021
26
[Pituitary apoplexy following coronary bypass surgery: A case report and literature review]. 61
32800377 2020
27
Pituitary apoplexy associated with acute COVID-19 infection and pregnancy. 61
32915365 2020
28
Status and clinical and radiological predictive factors of presurgical anterior pituitary function in pituitary adenomas. Study of 232 patients. 61
32785896 2020
29
Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography Detecting Isolated Oculomotor Paralysis Caused by Pituitary Apoplexy. 61
33181723 2020
30
Primary Endoscopic Management of Apoplexy in a Giant Pituitary Adenoma. 61
32702495 2020
31
Characteristics and clinical outcomes in pituitary incidentalomas and non-incidental pituitary tumors treated with endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. 61
33126308 2020
32
The nose lid for the endoscopic endonasal procedures during COVID-19 era: technical note. 61
32779028 2020
33
Pituitary Apoplexy During Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. 61
32620383 2020
34
Pituitary apoplexy causing thunderclap headache: easy to miss. 61
33060192 2020
35
RECURRENT PITUITARY APOPLEXY IN AN ADENOMA WITH SWITCHING PHENOTYPES. 61
32984525 2020
36
Pituitary apoplexy: how to define safe boundaries of conservative management? Early and long-term outcomes from a single UK tertiary neurosurgical unit. 61
32870049 2020
37
Spontaneous remission of unidentified Cushing's disease revealed by hair cortisol analysis. 61
33093257 2020
38
Pituitary Apoplexy and Cerebral Infarction: Case Report and Literature Review. 61
32522640 2020
39
Pituitary Macroadenoma Presenting as Acromegaly and Subacute Pituitary Apoplexy: Case Report and Literature Review. 61
32923214 2020
40
Now You See, Now You Don't: A Case Of Spontaneous Regression of Pituitary Tumour. 61
32802610 2020
41
Diabetes insipidus complicating apoplexy during pregnancy: the potential use of copeptin. 61
32656971 2020
42
Pituitary tumors: epidemiology and clinical presentation spectrum. 61
31933100 2020
43
Diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIADH) after pituitary surgery: incidence and risk factors. 61
32583307 2020
44
Pituitary Apoplexy Accompanying Temporal Lobe Seizure as a Complication. 61
32147553 2020
45
Optimizing pre-, intra-, and postoperative management of patients with sellar pathology undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. 61
32480374 2020
46
Pituitary apoplexy induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist administration: a rare complication of prostate cancer treatment. 61
32554827 2020
47
Significant Benefits of AIP Testing and Clinical Screening in Familial Isolated and Young-onset Pituitary Tumors. 61
31996917 2020
48
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and pituitary apoplexy: a case report. 61
32429846 2020
49
Hypopituitarism: A Rare but Often Neglected Condition. 61
32728328 2020
50
Neuro-Endocrine Recovery After Pituitary Apoplexy: Prolactin as a Predictive Factor. 61
29966153 2020

Variations for Pituitary Apoplexy

Expression for Pituitary Apoplexy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pituitary Apoplexy.

Pathways for Pituitary Apoplexy

GO Terms for Pituitary Apoplexy

Cellular components related to Pituitary Apoplexy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.61 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1 HMGB1
2 secretory granule lumen GO:0034774 9.43 POMC INS HMGB1
3 endosome lumen GO:0031904 9.33 PRL INS GH1
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.28 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1 HMGB1

Biological processes related to Pituitary Apoplexy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 9.95 SST POMC INS GNRH1 AVP
2 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.83 PRL INS IGF1 AVP
3 ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0070371 9.58 IGF1 AVP
4 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.58 INS IGF1 HMGB1
5 response to steroid hormone GO:0048545 9.57 SST GNRH1
6 positive regulation of DNA binding GO:0043388 9.56 IGF1 HMGB1
7 signal transduction GO:0007165 9.56 PRL POMC INS IGF1 HMGB1 GNRH1
8 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division GO:0045840 9.54 INS IGF1
9 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation GO:0042104 9.51 IGF1 HMGB1
10 regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040014 9.49 PRL IGF1
11 positive regulation of glycolytic process GO:0045821 9.48 INS IGF1
12 negative regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria GO:0090201 9.46 IGF1 AVP
13 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.46 PRL MEN1 INS IGF1
14 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process GO:0045725 9.43 INS IGF1
15 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.43 INS IGF1 GH1
16 JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway GO:0060397 9.37 PRL GH1
17 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 9.32 IGF1 GH1
18 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.02 SST POMC INS GNRH1 AVP

Molecular functions related to Pituitary Apoplexy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 insulin receptor binding GO:0005158 9.32 INS IGF1
2 four-way junction DNA binding GO:0000400 9.26 MEN1 HMGB1
3 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.23 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
4 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding GO:0005159 9.16 INS IGF1
5 prolactin receptor binding GO:0005148 8.96 PRL GH1

Sources for Pituitary Apoplexy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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