MCID: PTT004
MIFTS: 49

Pituitary Apoplexy

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Eye diseases, Rare diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Pituitary Apoplexy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Pituitary Apoplexy:

Name: Pituitary Apoplexy 11 58 53 43 14 16 71 75
Pituitary Tumor Apoplexy 58

Characteristics:


Age Of Onset:

All ages 58

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare endocrine diseases


Summaries for Pituitary Apoplexy

Orphanet: 58 A rare pituitary disease characterized by hemorrhagic or non-hemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland. Clinical manifestations typically comprise sudden and severe headache (often with nausea and vomiting), visual disturbances (visual-field defects, loss of visual acuity), oculomotor palsies, and variable degrees of altered consciousness, ranging from lethargy to coma. Acute endocrine dysfunction may also be present, most commonly corticotropic deficiency with severe hypotension and hyponatremia as well as secondary adrenal failure, but also thyrotropic and gonadotropic deficiency.

MalaCards based summary: Pituitary Apoplexy, also known as pituitary tumor apoplexy, is related to nelson syndrome and premature ovarian failure 7. An important gene associated with Pituitary Apoplexy is PRL (Prolactin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Signal Transduction and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, caudate nucleus and prostate, and related phenotypes are bitemporal hemianopia and thunderclap headache

Wikipedia: 75 Pituitary apoplexy is bleeding into or impaired blood supply of the pituitary gland. This usually occurs... more...

Related Diseases for Pituitary Apoplexy

Diseases related to Pituitary Apoplexy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 520)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nelson syndrome 31.9 SST PRL POMC
2 premature ovarian failure 7 31.3 POMC GH1
3 abducens palsy 31.1 PRL POMC
4 cranial nerve palsy 31.1 PRL POMC AVP
5 diabetes insipidus 30.9 PRL POMC INS GH1 AVP
6 diabetes insipidus, neurohypophyseal 30.9 POMC AVP
7 pituitary tumors 30.7 SST PRL IGF1 GH1
8 chromophobe adenoma 30.5 TRH PRL POMC GH1
9 sphenoid sinusitis 30.4 POMC AVP
10 graves disease 1 30.4 TRH POMC INS
11 thyroiditis 30.4 PRL INS IL6
12 inappropriate adh syndrome 30.3 PRL POMC IL6 AVP
13 central pontine myelinolysis 30.3 POMC INS AVP
14 intracranial hypertension 30.2 PRL POMC IL6 AVP
15 stroke, ischemic 30.2 MMP9 INS IL6 HMGB1 AVP
16 vascular disease 30.2 MMP9 INS IL6 IGF1
17 partial third-nerve palsy 30.1 PRL POMC GH1
18 galactorrhea 30.1 PRL IGF1
19 myxedema 30.0 POMC INS AVP
20 pituitary-dependent cushing's disease 30.0 TRH SST PRL POMC GH1
21 central diabetes insipidus 30.0 TRH PRL POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
22 adenoma 30.0 TRH SST PRL POMC IGF1 GH1
23 hypogonadism 30.0 PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
24 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 30.0 POMC IGF1
25 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 29.9 PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
26 pituitary adenoma 29.9 TRH SST PRL POMC IGF1 GNRH1
27 hypopituitarism 29.9 TRH PRL POMC INS IL6 IGF1
28 pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 2 29.9 TRH PRL POMC IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
29 acth deficiency, isolated 29.9 TRH PRL POMC
30 suprasellar meningioma 29.9 TRH POMC AVP
31 prolactin producing pituitary tumor 29.8 PRL POMC IGF1
32 turner syndrome 29.8 INS IGF1 GH1
33 chiasmal syndrome 29.7 SST PRL POMC
34 ectopic cushing syndrome 29.7 SST PRL POMC
35 migraine with or without aura 1 29.7 PRL POMC MMP9 INS IL6
36 gastrinoma 29.7 SST POMC INS
37 intracranial berry aneurysm 29.7 MMP9 IL6 HMGB1 AVP
38 empty sella syndrome 29.6 TRH PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
39 neuroendocrine tumor 29.6 SST POMC IGF1
40 pre-eclampsia 29.5 MMP9 INS IL6 IGF1
41 acute pancreatitis 29.5 SST INS IL6
42 adult syndrome 29.5 POMC INS IL6 IGF1
43 hepatic encephalopathy 29.4 SST MMP9 IL6
44 congenital hypothyroidism 29.4 TRH PRL IGF1 GH1
45 functionless pituitary adenoma 29.4 SST POMC IGF1
46 multiple endocrine neoplasia 29.4 SST PRL POMC AIP
47 acth-secreting pituitary adenoma 29.4 SST PRL POMC AIP
48 amenorrhea 29.4 TRH PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
49 meningioma, familial 29.2 SST PRL POMC MMP9 IGF1
50 functioning pituitary adenoma 29.2 TRH SST PRL POMC IGF1 GH1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pituitary Apoplexy:



Diseases related to Pituitary Apoplexy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pituitary Apoplexy

Human phenotypes related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

58 30 (show all 44)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 bitemporal hemianopia 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0030521
2 thunderclap headache 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0030907
3 nausea and vomiting 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0002017
4 diplopia 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0000651
5 hypotension 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0002615
6 hypertension 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0000822
7 cranial nerve paralysis 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0006824
8 hypoglycemia 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0001943
9 hyponatremia 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0002902
10 impotence 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0000802
11 hypergonadotropic hypogonadism 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0000815
12 pituitary hypothyroidism 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0008245
13 adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0011748
14 oligomenorrhea 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0000876
15 reduced circulating prolactin concentration 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0008202
16 pituitary adenoma 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0002893
17 abnormal kinetic perimetry test 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0030591
18 abnormal static automated perimetry test 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0030595
19 ptosis 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000508
20 photophobia 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000613
21 fatigue 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0012378
22 fever 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0001945
23 pallor 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000980
24 reduced visual acuity 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0007663
25 galactorrhea 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0100829
26 coma 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0001259
27 mydriasis 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0011499
28 increased circulating prolactin concentration 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000870
29 blurred vision 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0000622
30 abnormality of the cerebrospinal fluid 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0002921
31 decreased response to growth hormone stimulation test 30 Occasional (7.5%) HP:0000824
32 trigeminal neuralgia 58 30 Very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%)
HP:0100661
33 confusion 58 30 Very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%)
HP:0001289
34 excessive daytime somnolence 58 30 Very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%)
HP:0001262
35 central diabetes insipidus 58 30 Very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%)
HP:0000863
36 normochromic anemia 58 30 Very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%)
HP:0001895
37 abnormal caudate nucleus morphology 58 30 Very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%)
HP:0002339
38 increased circulating cortisol level 30 Very rare (1%) HP:0003118
39 elevated circulating growth hormone concentration 30 Very rare (1%) HP:0000845
40 headache 58 Frequent (79-30%)
41 growth hormone excess 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
42 hypercortisolism 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
43 growth hormone deficiency 58 Occasional (29-5%)
44 hypopituitarism 58 Occasional (29-5%)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

45 (show all 11)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 10.22 AVP GH1 GNRH1 IGF1 IL6 INS
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.18 AIP AVP GH1 GNRH1 HMGB1 IGF1
3 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 10.11 AVP GH1 GNRH1 IGF1 IL6 INS
4 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.06 AIP GH1 GNRH1 HMGB1 IGF1 IL6
5 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.04 AIP GNRH1 IGF1 IL6 MMP9 POMC
6 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.98 AIP GH1 GNRH1 IL6 INS POMC
7 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.96 AIP GH1 GNRH1 HMGB1 IGF1 IL6
8 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.88 GH1 IGF1 IL6 INS POMC SST
9 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.85 AVP GH1 HMGB1 IL6 INS MMP9
10 immune system MP:0005387 9.7 AVP GH1 GNRH1 HMGB1 IGF1 IL6
11 integument MP:0010771 9.23 AIP GNRH1 IGF1 IL6 INS MMP9

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pituitary Apoplexy

Search Clinical Trials, NIH Clinical Center for Pituitary Apoplexy

Cochrane evidence based reviews: pituitary apoplexy

Genetic Tests for Pituitary Apoplexy

Anatomical Context for Pituitary Apoplexy

Organs/tissues related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

MalaCards : Pituitary, Caudate Nucleus, Prostate, Adrenal Cortex, Temporal Lobe, Thyroid, Breast

Publications for Pituitary Apoplexy

Articles related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

(show top 50) (show all 1335)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Acquired prolactin deficiency in patients with disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. 53 62
17556861 2007
2
Long-term efficacy of bromocriptine in macroprolactinomas and giant prolactinomas in men. 53 62
16379032 2005
3
Apoplexy of pituitary macroadenoma after combined test of anterior pituitary function. 53 62
11036877 2000
4
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced partial empty sella clinically mimicking pituitary apoplexy in a woman with a suspected non-secreting macroadenoma. 53 62
10800766 2000
5
Symptoms of pituitary apoplexy rapidly reversed with bromocriptine. Case report. 53 62
8929510 1996
6
Pituitary apoplexy following adenoviral vector-based COVID-19 vaccination. 62
35464129 2023
7
Afferent and Efferent Pupillary Defect With a Right Cranial Nerve Sixth Palsy (the Parkinson Sign) as the Presenting Symptom of Pituitary Apoplexy. 62
34803140 2022
8
An Unusual Case of Acute Confusion in an Elderly Man: Pituitary Apoplexy With Lateral Rectus Palsy. 62
36382316 2022
9
Adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pituitary adenoma with pituitary apoplexy treated by surgical decompression: a case report. 62
36369011 2022
10
Pituitary apoplexy and SARS-CoV-2 infection: we need to look beyond the acute phase. 62
36070423 2022
11
Pituitary apoplexy in SARS-CoV-2 infected is not necessarily related to the virus. 62
36070418 2022
12
Giant Prolactinoma with Pituitary Apoplexy in Pregnancy: High Fetomaternal Risk. 62
36458062 2022
13
Primary Intrasellar Amyloidoma. 62
36210492 2022
14
Pituitary apoplexy after COVID-19 vaccination: Correspondence. 62
36213212 2022
15
Spot the adenoma after pituitary apoplexy following a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. 62
36276782 2022
16
Pituitary apoplexy after COVID-19 vaccination: Correspondence. 62
35933187 2022
17
Delayed identification of massive pituitary apoplexy in pregnancy: A case report. 62
36261935 2022
18
Pituitary apoplexy secondary to metastatic breast carcinoma into a gonadotroph cell adenoma of the pituitary. 62
30475069 2022
19
Pituitary apoplexy in the aftermath of a SARS-CoV-2 infection: a case series from Amiens University Hospital. 62
35895701 2022
20
Thyrotropinoma with silent somatotroph and lactotroph adenoma during pregnancy. 62
36137189 2022
21
Recovery of Complete Blindness and Internal Ophthalmoplegia After Transsphenoidal Decompression of Pituitary Apoplexy. 62
36199649 2022
22
Cardiac myxoma presenting with multisystem involvement. 62
36104063 2022
23
Pituitary apoplexy after COVID-19 vaccination: A case report. 62
35942396 2022
24
Pituitary Apoplexy: A Retrospective Study of 36 Cases From a Single Center. 62
36340531 2022
25
The presenting visual symptoms of optic chiasmal disease. 62
36147020 2022
26
Revisiting Pituitary Apoplexy. 62
35928242 2022
27
Pituitary Apoplexy: Risk Factors and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms. 62
35955859 2022
28
Conservative management of complicated Rathke's cleft cyst mimicking pituitary apoplexy. 62
35916193 2022
29
Visual recovery following surgical intervention for pituitary apoplexy correlated with preoperative optical coherence tomography. 62
35999788 2022
30
Pituitary apoplexy presenting as isolated third cranial nerve palsy: case series. 62
36017525 2022
31
Role of MRI and CT in the Evaluation of Headache in Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period. 62
35871790 2022
32
Suppression of Pituitary Hormone Genes in Subjects Who Died From COVID-19 Independently of Virus Detection in the Gland. 62
35567590 2022
33
Pituitary Apoplexy Presenting as Isolated Unilateral Third Nerve Palsy. 62
36076692 2022
34
Sparsely Granulated Corticotroph Pituitary Macroadenoma Presenting With Pituitary Apoplexy Resulting in Remission of Hypercortisolism. 62
35959088 2022
35
Pituitary apoplexy and COVID-19 vaccination. 62
35873081 2022
36
Surgery for Pituitary Tumor Apoplexy Is Associated with Rapid Headache and Cranial Nerve Improvement. 62
35877250 2022
37
[Pituitary apoplexy with macroadenoma]. 62
34043085 2022
38
Pituitary apoplexy and COVID-19 vaccination. 62
35305809 2022
39
Prolactinoma with apoplexy in the context of thrombocytopaenia: A case report. 62
35617738 2022
40
[Pituitary apoplexy in pediatric patients: systematic review]. 62
35700475 2022
41
Estimating Risk of Pituitary Apoplexy after Resection of Giant Pituitary Adenomas. 62
35832980 2022
42
An altered state of consciousness while using anticoagulants and the incidental discovery of a pituitary lesion: considering pituitary apoplexy. 62
35730462 2022
43
Recovery of Cranial Nerve Deficits in Patients Presenting with Pituitary Apoplexy: A Case Series. 62
35832969 2022
44
Unusual manifestations of adrenal insufficiency: A case report of hypopituitarism and Well's syndrome after apoplexy of a silent pituitary gonadotropic adenoma. 62
35665730 2022
45
Predictive Clinical and Surgical Factors Associated with Recurrent Apoplexy in Pituitary Adenomas. 62
35832949 2022
46
Natural history of pituitary apoplexy: a long-term follow-up study. 62
35701171 2022
47
Pituitary apoplexy in an adolescent male with macroprolactinoma presenting as middle cerebral artery territory infarction. 62
35592897 2022
48
Case report: Pituitary apoplexy after COVID-19 vaccination. 62
35702720 2022
49
Case report: Pituitary apoplexy after COVID-19 vaccination. 62
34895747 2022
50
Pituitary apoplexy: An emergent and potential life-threatening complication of pituitary adenomas. 62
35485523 2022

Variations for Pituitary Apoplexy

Expression for Pituitary Apoplexy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pituitary Apoplexy.

Pathways for Pituitary Apoplexy

Pathways related to Pituitary Apoplexy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 26)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 13.22 TRH SST POMC MMP9 INS IL6
2
Show member pathways
12.88 PRL POMC MMP9 IL6 HMGB1 GH1
3
Show member pathways
12.87 INS IL6 IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
4
Show member pathways
12.75 PRL INS IL6 IGF1 GH1
5
Show member pathways
12.54 IL6 IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
6 12.44 MMP9 INS IL6 IGF1 HMGB1
7
Show member pathways
12.21 IL6 IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
8 12 SST IL6 AVP
9
Show member pathways
11.99 POMC INS IGF1 GH1
10 11.91 INS IL6 IGF1
11
Show member pathways
11.88 MMP9 IGF1 GH1
12 11.81 POMC MMP9 IL6
13 11.79 INS IL6 IGF1 GH1
14 11.78 IGF1 IL6 INS
15 11.73 INS IL6 IGF1
16 11.64 IL6 IGF1 HMGB1
17 11.6 PRL POMC IL6
18 11.58 MMP9 IL6 HMGB1
19 11.56 IL6 IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
20 11.49 IGF1 IL6 MMP9
21 11.45 POMC INS GNRH1
22 11.33 INS IL6 IGF1
23 10.96 HMGB1 IL6 MMP9
24 10.47 MMP9 IL6 IGF1
25 10.1 PRL POMC INS
26 9.71 SST GNRH1

GO Terms for Pituitary Apoplexy

Cellular components related to Pituitary Apoplexy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 10 AVP GH1 GNRH1 HMGB1 IGF1 IL6
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.7 TRH SST PRL POMC MMP9 INS
3 endosome lumen GO:0031904 9.63 PRL INS GH1

Biological processes related to Pituitary Apoplexy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of cell population proliferation GO:0008284 10.16 PRL INS IL6 IGF1 AVP
2 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.92 INS IL6 IGF1 HMGB1
3 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.91 INS IGF1 GH1
4 signal transduction GO:0007165 9.86 TRH PRL POMC INS IL6 IGF1
5 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.85 IL6 IGF1 GH1
6 positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT GO:0046427 9.73 GH1 IL6 PRL
7 regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150077 9.71 MMP9 IL6
8 positive regulation of DNA binding GO:0043388 9.63 MMP9 IGF1 HMGB1
9 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.4 TRH SST POMC INS GNRH1 AVP

Molecular functions related to Pituitary Apoplexy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.53 TRH SST PRL POMC INS IGF1
2 prolactin receptor binding GO:0005148 9.26 PRL GH1

Sources for Pituitary Apoplexy

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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