MCID: PTT004
MIFTS: 48

Pituitary Apoplexy

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Eye diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Pituitary Apoplexy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Pituitary Apoplexy:

Name: Pituitary Apoplexy 12 58 54 43 15 17 71
Pituitary Tumor Apoplexy 58

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
pituitary apoplexy
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare endocrine diseases


Summaries for Pituitary Apoplexy

MalaCards based summary : Pituitary Apoplexy, also known as pituitary tumor apoplexy, is related to cranial nerve palsy and lymphocytic hypophysitis. An important gene associated with Pituitary Apoplexy is PRL (Prolactin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Relaxin signaling pathway. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, testes and prostate, and related phenotypes are bitemporal hemianopia and thunderclap headache

Wikipedia : 74 Pituitary apoplexy is bleeding into or impaired blood supply of the pituitary gland. This usually occurs... more...

Related Diseases for Pituitary Apoplexy

Diseases related to Pituitary Apoplexy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 403)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cranial nerve palsy 30.9 PRL POMC AVP
2 lymphocytic hypophysitis 30.9 POMC GH1
3 abducens nerve disease 30.8 PRL POMC
4 diabetes insipidus 30.6 PRL POMC INS GH1 AVP
5 non-functioning pituitary adenoma 30.5 SST GH1
6 prolactin producing pituitary tumor 30.4 PRL POMC
7 inappropriate adh syndrome 30.4 POMC AVP
8 gigantism 30.3 PRL GH1 AIP
9 graves disease 1 30.3 TRH POMC INS
10 galactorrhea 30.3 PRL IGF1
11 thyroiditis 30.2 TRH PRL INS
12 chromophobe adenoma 30.2 TRH PRL POMC GH1
13 secondary adrenal insufficiency 30.2 INS IGF1 AVP
14 hypogonadism 30.1 PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1
15 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 30.1 POMC IGF1 GH1
16 impotence 30.0 PRL POMC INS GNRH1
17 congenital hypothyroidism 29.8 PRL IGF1 GH1
18 chiasmal syndrome 29.8 SST POMC
19 hypopituitarism 29.6 TRH PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
20 insulin-like growth factor i 29.6 PRL INS IGF1 GH1
21 pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 2 29.5 TRH PRL POMC IGF1 GH1 AVP
22 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 29.5 PRL INS GNRH1
23 adenohypophysitis 29.4 TRH PRL POMC GH1
24 functionless pituitary adenoma 29.3 SST POMC IGF1
25 neuroendocrine tumor 29.2 SST POMC MEN1
26 hyperglycemia 29.2 SST INS IGF1 GH1
27 sheehan syndrome 29.1 PRL POMC INS IGF1 AVP
28 craniopharyngioma 29.1 TRH PRL INS IGF1 GNRH1 GH1
29 pituitary tumors 29.0 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 GH1
30 gastrinoma 28.9 SST POMC MEN1 INS
31 acth-secreting pituitary adenoma 28.9 SST PRL POMC MEN1 AIP
32 amenorrhea 28.8 TRH PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
33 hypoglycemia 28.7 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1 GH1
34 empty sella syndrome 28.7 TRH PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
35 meningioma, familial 28.7 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1
36 adenoma 28.7 TRH SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1
37 pituitary carcinoma 28.6 SST PRL POMC MEN1 AIP
38 diabetes insipidus, neurohypophyseal 28.4 TRH PRL POMC IGF1 GNRH1 AVP
39 pituitary adenoma 28.3 TRH SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1
40 goiter 28.3 TRH SST PRL INS IGF1
41 growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma 28.0 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 AIP
42 carney complex variant 28.0 SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1 AIP
43 acidophil adenoma 28.0 TRH SST PRL POMC INS IGF1
44 hyperprolactinemia 27.9 TRH SST PRL POMC INS IGF1
45 hypothyroidism 27.7 TRH SST PRL POMC INS IGF1
46 functioning pituitary adenoma 27.6 TRH SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1
47 hyperthyroidism 27.6 TRH SST PRL POMC INS IGF1
48 pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting 27.6 TRH SST PRL POMC MEN1 IGF1
49 acromegaly 27.5 TRH SST PRL POMC MEN1 INS
50 diabetes mellitus 27.2 SST PRL POMC MEN1 INS IGF1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pituitary Apoplexy:



Diseases related to Pituitary Apoplexy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pituitary Apoplexy

Human phenotypes related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

58 31 (show all 43)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 bitemporal hemianopia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0030521
2 thunderclap headache 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0030907
3 cranial nerve paralysis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0006824
4 hypoglycemia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001943
5 nausea and vomiting 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002017
6 hypertension 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000822
7 hyponatremia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002902
8 impotence 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000802
9 hypergonadotropic hypogonadism 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000815
10 hypotension 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002615
11 diplopia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000651
12 pituitary hypothyroidism 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0008245
13 adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011748
14 pituitary adenoma 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002893
15 oligomenorrhea 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000876
16 abnormal kinetic perimetry test 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0030591
17 abnormal static automated perimetry test 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0030595
18 reduced circulating prolactin concentration 31 frequent (33%) HP:0008202
19 photophobia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000613
20 fatigue 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012378
21 fever 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001945
22 ptosis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000508
23 pallor 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000980
24 reduced visual acuity 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0007663
25 galactorrhea 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0100829
26 mydriasis 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0011499
27 coma 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001259
28 growth hormone deficiency 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000824
29 blurred vision 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000622
30 increased circulating prolactin concentration 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000870
31 abnormality of the cerebrospinal fluid 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002921
32 growth hormone excess 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000845
33 trigeminal neuralgia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0100661
34 confusion 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001289
35 excessive daytime somnolence 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001262
36 central diabetes insipidus 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000863
37 normochromic anemia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001895
38 abnormal caudate nucleus morphology 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0002339
39 increased circulating cortisol level 31 very rare (1%) HP:0003118
40 headache 58 Frequent (79-30%)
41 hypercortisolism 58 Very rare (<4-1%)
42 hypopituitarism 58 Occasional (29-5%)
43 prolactin deficiency 58 Frequent (79-30%)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.07 AIP AVP GNRH1 IGF1 INS MEN1
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.01 AIP GNRH1 IGF1 INS MEN1 POMC
3 immune system MP:0005387 9.92 AVP GNRH1 IGF1 INS MEN1 POMC
4 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.73 AIP GNRH1 INS MEN1 POMC PRL
5 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.63 AIP GNRH1 IGF1 MEN1 POMC PRL
6 nervous system MP:0003631 9.61 AVP GNRH1 IGF1 INS MEN1 POMC
7 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.1 AVP GNRH1 IGF1 INS POMC TRH

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pituitary Apoplexy

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Prevalence of a High-intensity Signal of the Oculomotor Nerve on T2 MRI Sequence in Patients With Ophthalmoplegia Recruiting NCT03135574
2 Prevalence of Contrast Enhancement of the Oculomotor Nerve on 3D PD T1 MRI Sequence in Patients With Ophthalmoplegia Recruiting NCT03269682

Search NIH Clinical Center for Pituitary Apoplexy

Cochrane evidence based reviews: pituitary apoplexy

Genetic Tests for Pituitary Apoplexy

Anatomical Context for Pituitary Apoplexy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

40
Pituitary, Testes, Prostate, Thyroid, Caudate Nucleus, Brain, Eye

Publications for Pituitary Apoplexy

Articles related to Pituitary Apoplexy:

(show top 50) (show all 1149)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Acquired prolactin deficiency in patients with disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. 54 61
17556861 2007
2
Long-term efficacy of bromocriptine in macroprolactinomas and giant prolactinomas in men. 61 54
16379032 2005
3
Apoplexy of pituitary macroadenoma after combined test of anterior pituitary function. 61 54
11036877 2000
4
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced partial empty sella clinically mimicking pituitary apoplexy in a woman with a suspected non-secreting macroadenoma. 61 54
10800766 2000
5
Symptoms of pituitary apoplexy rapidly reversed with bromocriptine. Case report. 54 61
8929510 1996
6
Pituitary apoplexy and Cerebral Infarction: Case Report and Literature Review. 61
32522640 2020
7
Significant Benefits of AIP Testing and Clinical Screening in Familial Isolated and Young-onset Pituitary Tumors. 61
31996917 2020
8
Pituitary apoplexy induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist administration: a rare complication of prostate cancer treatment. 61
32554827 2020
9
Pituitary tumors: epidemiology and clinical presentation spectrum. 61
31933100 2020
10
Pituitary Apoplexy Leading to Cerebral Infarction: A Systematic Review. 61
32544913 2020
11
Optimizing pre-, intra-, and postoperative management of patients with sellar pathology undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. 61
32480374 2020
12
Pituitary Apoplexy Accompanying Temporal Lobe Seizure as a Complication. 61
32147553 2020
13
Evolution of macroprolactinomas during pregnancy: A cohort study of 85 pregnancies. 61
31957911 2020
14
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and pituitary apoplexy: a case report. 61
32429846 2020
15
Pituitary Apoplexy Case Series: Outcomes After Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery at a Single Tertiary Center. 61
32032792 2020
16
Neuro-Endocrine Recovery After Pituitary Apoplexy: Prolactin as a Predictive Factor. 61
29966153 2020
17
Hemorrhagic Presentation of Rathke Cleft Cysts: A Surgical Case Series. 61
31504863 2020
18
Cut-off values for sufficient cortisol response to low dose Short Synacthen Test after surgery for non-functioning pituitary adenoma. 61
31907611 2020
19
Pearls & Oy-sters: Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy due to pituitary apoplexy missed on CT scan. 61
32221028 2020
20
Letter to the Editor Regarding "Pituitary Apoplexy: Large Surgical Series with Grading System". 61
32143261 2020
21
Corticotroph adenoma and pituitary fungal infection: a rare association. 61
32213650 2020
22
Imaging findings in hypophysitis: a review. 61
31863360 2020
23
Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Triggered by Pituitary Apoplexy. 61
31761886 2020
24
Pituitary apoplexy after regadenoson myocardial perfusion scan. 61
30168027 2020
25
Comparative preoperative characteristics and postoperative outcomes at a private versus a safety-net hospital following endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas. 61
32109866 2020
26
Pituitary apoplexy mimicking meningoencephalitis: case report and scoping study. 61
31976773 2020
27
A case of atypical macroprolactinoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy during pregnancy and review of the literature. 61
31389277 2020
28
In Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "Visual and Endocrine Recovery Following Conservative and Surgical Treatment of Pituitary Apoplexy: A Meta-Analysis". 61
32059283 2020
29
Letter to the Editor Regarding "Visual and Endocrine Recovery Following Conservative and Surgical Treatment of Pituitary Apoplexy: A Meta-Analysis". 61
32059282 2020
30
[Case report: transient ischemic stroke caused by internal carotid artery occlusion due to compression by pituitary apoplexy and hemodynamic mechanism]. 61
31956196 2020
31
Anesthetic management of a patient with Sheehan's syndrome and twin pregnancy while undergoing a cesarean section. 61
31929313 2020
32
Comparison of intraoperative cortisol levels after preoperative hydrocortisone administration versus placebo in patients without adrenal insufficiency undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal removal of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas: a double-blind randomized trial. 61
31978882 2020
33
Pituitary apoplexy causing acute ischemic stroke: Which treatment should be given priority. 61
32494388 2020
34
Concurrent pituitary apoplexy and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis: A case report. 61
32000433 2020
35
Visual and Endocrine Recovery Following Conservative and Surgical Treatment of Pituitary Apoplexy: A Meta-Analysis. 61
31470146 2019
36
Recurrent Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Sella in a Patient with Lynch Syndrome. 61
31491579 2019
37
Management of Hypopituitarism. 61
31817511 2019
38
A Case Report from the Ancient Past. 61
31860634 2019
39
Gestational pituitary apoplexy: Case series and review of the literature. 61
31059861 2019
40
Pituitary apoplexy after cardiac surgery in a 14-year-old girl with Carney complex: a case report. 61
31484850 2019
41
A rare case of retroclival epidural hematoma: case report and review of the literature. 61
31721055 2019
42
MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Visual morbidity in patients with pituitary adenoma. 61
31416048 2019
43
Spontaneous "pneumo-apoplexy" as a presentation of pituitary adenoma. 61
31376705 2019
44
Clinical investigation of pituitary incidentalomas: A two-center study. 61
31890450 2019
45
Evaluation of prognostic utility of Ki-67, P53, and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression in pituitary tumors. 61
31929698 2019
46
Pituitary Apoplexy: Results of Surgical and Conservative Management Clinical Series and Review of the Literature. 61
31302273 2019
47
The Role of Surgery in the Management of Prolactinomas. 61
31471058 2019
48
Prolactin-Secreting Lung Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Pituitary Mimicking a Prolactinoma: A Case Report. 61
30137505 2019
49
VENUS BY BOTTICELLI AND HER PITUITARY ADENOMA. 61
31170360 2019
50
Acute Headache in the Emergency Setting. 61
31589569 2019

Variations for Pituitary Apoplexy

Expression for Pituitary Apoplexy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pituitary Apoplexy.

Pathways for Pituitary Apoplexy

GO Terms for Pituitary Apoplexy

Cellular components related to Pituitary Apoplexy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.61 SST PRL POMC INS IGF1 HMGB1
2 secretory granule lumen GO:0034774 9.5 POMC INS HMGB1
3 secretory granule GO:0030141 9.43 TRH POMC AVP
4 endosome lumen GO:0031904 9.33 PRL INS GH1
5 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.32 TRH SST PRL POMC INS IGF1

Biological processes related to Pituitary Apoplexy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.85 PRL INS IGF1 AVP
2 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway GO:0007186 9.73 TRH SST POMC INS GNRH1 AVP
3 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.61 INS IGF1 HMGB1
4 signal transduction GO:0007165 9.56 TRH PRL POMC INS IGF1 GNRH1
5 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division GO:0045840 9.54 INS IGF1
6 regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040014 9.52 PRL IGF1
7 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation GO:0042104 9.51 IGF1 HMGB1
8 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.5 INS IGF1 GH1
9 positive regulation of glycolytic process GO:0045821 9.49 INS IGF1
10 negative regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria GO:0090201 9.48 IGF1 AVP
11 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process GO:0045725 9.46 INS IGF1
12 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.46 PRL MEN1 INS IGF1
13 JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway GO:0060397 9.4 PRL GH1
14 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 9.37 IGF1 GH1
15 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.1 TRH SST POMC INS GNRH1 AVP

Molecular functions related to Pituitary Apoplexy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 insulin receptor binding GO:0005158 9.32 INS IGF1
2 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.28 TRH SST PRL POMC INS IGF1
3 four-way junction DNA binding GO:0000400 9.26 MEN1 HMGB1
4 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding GO:0005159 9.16 INS IGF1
5 prolactin receptor binding GO:0005148 8.96 PRL GH1

Sources for Pituitary Apoplexy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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