Placenta Praevia

Categories: Fetal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Placenta Praevia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Placenta Praevia:

Name: Placenta Praevia 12 15 17 32
Placenta Previa 44 70


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:11060
MeSH 44 D010923
NCIt 50 C26858
SNOMED-CT 67 157059004
ICD10 32 O44 O44.1
UMLS 70 C0032046

Summaries for Placenta Praevia

Disease Ontology : 12 A placenta disease that is characterized by placenta attachment to the uterine wall close to or covering the cervix.

MalaCards based summary : Placenta Praevia, also known as placenta previa, is related to placenta accreta and neonatal anemia. An important gene associated with Placenta Praevia is OXT (Oxytocin/Neurophysin I Prepropeptide), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) transport and uptake by Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs). The drugs Tranexamic Acid and Oxytocin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include placenta, uterus and cervix.

Wikipedia : 73 Placenta praevia is when the placenta attaches inside the uterus but in an abnormal position near or... more...

Related Diseases for Placenta Praevia

Diseases related to Placenta Praevia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 142)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 placenta accreta 31.3 PGF PAPPA OXT
2 neonatal anemia 30.8 PGF PAPPA
3 placental abruption 30.6 PGF PAPPA F2
4 hepatic coma 30.2 NDUFA12 F2
5 placental insufficiency 29.9 PGF PAPPA F2
6 trophoblastic neoplasm 29.8 CSH2 CSH1
7 eclampsia 29.7 PGF PAPPA OXT F2
8 placental site trophoblastic tumor 29.7 CSH2 CSH1
9 gestational diabetes 29.6 PGF PAPPA CSH2 CSH1
10 pre-eclampsia 29.4 PGF PAPPA OXT F2 CSH2 CSH1
11 placenta disease 29.1 PGF PAPPA OXT F2 CSH2 CSH1
12 gestational trophoblastic neoplasm 29.1 PGF PAPPA OXT CSH2 CSH1
13 varicose veins 10.3
14 chorioamnionitis 10.3
15 severe pre-eclampsia 10.3
16 infertility 10.3
17 vaginal adenoma 10.3 PGF OXT
18 amenorrhea 10.3
19 vaginal benign neoplasm 10.3 PGF OXT
20 myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 1a, slow-channel 10.2 OXT CHRND
21 cystic lymphangioma 10.2 PAPPA CHRND
22 deficiency anemia 10.2
23 thrombosis 10.2
24 endometritis 10.2
25 leiomyoma 10.2
26 thrombocytopenia 10.2
27 cerebral palsy 10.2
28 twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome 10.2 PGF PAPPA
29 mild pre-eclampsia 10.2 PGF PAPPA
30 endometriosis 10.2
31 prosopagnosia 10.2 OXTR OXT
32 inhibited female orgasm 10.2 OXTR OXT
33 bestiality 10.2 OXTR OXT
34 lipoid proteinosis of urbach and wiethe 10.1 OXTR OXT
35 leiomyoma, uterine 10.1
36 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.1
37 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 10.1
38 afibrinogenemia, congenital 10.1
39 enterocolitis 10.1
40 metabolic crises, recurrent, with rhabdomyolysis, cardiac arrhythmias, and neurodegeneration 10.1
41 encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with episodic rhabdomyolysis 10.1
42 limb ischemia 10.1
43 asphyxia neonatorum 10.1
44 adult respiratory distress syndrome 10.1
45 pulmonary edema 10.1
46 periventricular leukomalacia 10.1
47 perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 10.1
48 lupus erythematosus 10.1
49 separation anxiety disorder 10.1 OXTR OXT
50 patau syndrome 10.1 PGF PAPPA

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Placenta Praevia:

Diseases related to Placenta Praevia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Placenta Praevia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Placenta Praevia

Drugs for Placenta Praevia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 40)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Tranexamic Acid Approved Phase 4 1197-18-8 5526
Oxytocin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-56-6 439302 53477758
Carbetocin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 37025-55-1 71715 16681432
Misoprostol Approved Phase 4 59122-46-2 5282381
Alprostadil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 745-65-3 149351 5280723
6 Antifibrinolytic Agents Phase 4
7 Coagulants Phase 4
8 Hemostatics Phase 4
9 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
10 Antacids Phase 4
11 Anti-Ulcer Agents Phase 4
Nifedipine Approved Phase 3 21829-25-4 4485
13 Vasodilator Agents Phase 3
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 57-83-0 5994
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 50-02-2 5743
Dexamethasone acetate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 1177-87-3
17 11-hydroxyprogesterone Phase 2
18 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2
19 17 alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate Phase 2
20 Progestins Phase 2
21 Caproate Phase 2
22 Estrogen Antagonists Phase 2
23 Estrogen Receptor Antagonists Phase 2
24 Estrogens Phase 2
25 Hormones Phase 2
26 Anesthetics Phase 2
27 calcium channel blockers Phase 2
28 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2
29 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 2
30 Anticonvulsants Phase 2
31 Analgesics Phase 2
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 2 7440-70-2 271
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational 38396-39-3, 2180-92-9 2474
34 Vasopressins
35 Vasoconstrictor Agents
36 Arginine Vasopressin
37 Antioxidants
38 Complement System Proteins
39 acivicin
Arginine Investigational, Nutraceutical 74-79-3 6322

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 65)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Perioperative Administration of Tranexamic Acid for Placenta Previa and Accreta Study (TAPPAS): A Randomized, Placebo-controlled Double Blind Trial Completed NCT02806024 Phase 4 Tranexamic Acid;Placebo Drug
2 Carbetocin Versus Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Cases With Placenta Previa After C.S. Recruiting NCT02277041 Phase 4 Carbetocin;Misoprostol
3 Oral Nifedipine Versus Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate for Prevention of Preterm Labor in Symptomatic Placenta Previa: Randomized Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT03542552 Phase 3 Magnesium Sulfate;Nifedipine
4 Carbetocin Versus Oxytocin in the Prevention of Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH) in Women Undergoing Caesarean Sections for Placenta Previa: A Randomised Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02303418 Phase 3 Carbetocin;Oxytocin
5 Tranexamic Acid Use in Elective Cesarean Section for Women With Placenta Previa: A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03060889 Phase 3 Tranexamic acid
6 Lower Uterine Compression Sutures for the Treatment of Postpartum Hemorrhage Due to Placenta Previa Complete Centralis; Prospective Study Completed NCT02157441 Phase 2, Phase 3
7 TRAnexamic Acid for Preventing Blood Loss Following a Cesarean Delivery in Women With Placenta pREVIA: a Multicenter Randomised, Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT04304625 Phase 3 Tranexamic Acid / Sodium chloride
8 Efficacy of Antenatal Tranexamic Acid in Pregnant Women With Symptomatic Placenta Previa in Decreasing Antepartum Hemorrhage - A Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT04055194 Phase 2, Phase 3 Tranexamic acid tablets;Placebo oral tablet
9 Management of Placenta Accreta Spectrum Recruiting NCT04609527 Phase 2, Phase 3
10 Cerclage Placement for the Prevention of Preterm Birth in Women With Placenta Previa - A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Withdrawn NCT01442207 Phase 3
11 Efficacy of Prophylactic Vaginal Progesterone in Prevention of Preterm Delivery in Women With Placenta Previa Unknown status NCT03633175 Phase 2 Vaginal progesterone
12 Efficacy of Tranexamic Acid In Reducing Blood Loss Among Pregnant Women During Cesarean Section Because Of Placenta Previa Completed NCT02688127 Phase 1, Phase 2 Tranexamic Acid
13 Maintenance Oral Nifedipine for Management of Symptomatic Placenta Previa : A Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT00620724 Phase 2 Placebo;Nifedipine
14 Random Placenta Margin Incision for Hemorrhage Control During Cesarean Section of Complete Placenta Previa Pregnancies Completed NCT02695069 Phase 2
15 The Use Of Intramuscular Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate For Management Of Placenta Previa Before 34 Weeks Of Gestation Completed NCT03130504 Phase 2 17α hydroxy progesterone caproate
16 High Versus Low Dose of Magnesium Sulfate as Initial Tocolytic Agent for Preterm Labour in Symptomatic Placenta Previa: A Randomized Controlled Study Not yet recruiting NCT04599868 Phase 2 magnesium sulfate
17 Cell-free Fetal DNA Circulating in the Maternal Plasma as a Marker for Morbidly Adherent Placenta in a High Risk Population Unknown status NCT02784886
18 Topical Tranexamic Acid Plus Bilateral Uterine Artery Ligation During Hemorrhagic Cesarean Delivery for Complete Placenta Previa: a Randomized Double-blind Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03741075 topical tranexamic acid;placebo
19 A Randomized Clinical Trial Examines the Efficacy of Intra-myometrial Local Injection of Vasopressin to Reduces the Blood Loss During Cesarean Section in Placenta Previa Unknown status NCT03725553 Intramyometrial Vasopressin;Placebo
20 Antenatal Diagnosis of Placental Attachment Disorders Unknown status NCT02442518
21 Intrauterine Inflated Foley's Catheter Balloon Plus Intravenous Tranexamic Acid During Cesarean Delivery for Complete Placenta Previa: a Randomized Double-blind Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT03741114 TA;Placebo
22 Diagnostic Accuracy of Doppler Ultrasound and Role of Uterine Artery Doppler in Cases of Placenta Accreta Unknown status NCT03530475
23 The Cervix as a Natural Tamponade in Postpartum Hemorrhage Caused by Placenta Previa and Placenta Previa Accreta: a Prospective Study Unknown status NCT02590484
24 Incidence of Placenta Accreta & it's Complications in Cases of Previous Cesarean With Placenta Previa Anterior Unknown status NCT02606474
25 Value of Third Trimester Cervical Length Measurement in Predicting Risk and Severity if Antepartum Haemorrhage in Cases of Placenta Previa Unknown status NCT03451136
26 ADAMTS, Proteoglycan and Oxidant / Antioxidant Enzyme Levels of Placenta Previa Totalis(Accreta, Increta, Percreta) Unknown status NCT02270593
27 Relation of Implantation Site to Placental Site in Presence or Absence of Cesarean Section Scar With Doppler Assessment of Retro Chorionic Blood Flow Unknown status NCT03208842
28 Effect of Uterine Artery Ligation Prior to Uterine Incision in Women With Placenta Previa Unknown status NCT03124472
29 Predictive Value of Cell-free Fetal DNA Concentration in the Maternal Plasma for Abnormal Placental Invasion in Cases of Placenta Previa. Unknown status NCT03638024
30 Comparison Between the Role of Transabdominal Ultrasound Versus Transvaginal Ultrasound in Evaluation of Placental Invasion in Cases of Placenta Previa Anterior Wall With Previous Uterine Scar Unknown status NCT03437291
31 Clinical Situations at High Risk of Placenta Accreta / Percreta: Impact of Diagnostic Methods and Management on Maternal Morbidity. Completed NCT02010229
32 Management Of Placenta Previa Cases And Determination Of Hospitalization Criteria Completed NCT04264234
33 Effects of Peri Partum Integrated Nursing Care Versus Routine Care in Placenta Previa : A Randomized Controlled Trail Completed NCT04274062
34 The Sono-VE Study: Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of Transperineal Ultrasound and Developing an Ultrasound Based Predictive Model for Labour Outcome. Completed NCT02430038
35 The Effect of Placenta Previa on Fetal Weight and Feto-maternal Blood Flow Completed NCT03321435
36 Dynamics of Serum Immunologic Markers Levels in During the Delivery and Possible Benefit for Obstetric Emergency Diagnostics Completed NCT03664999
37 Efficacy of Ultrasound Staging System in Prediction of Morbidly Adherent Placenta Completed NCT04253197
38 Accuracy of Placenta Accreta Index in Diagnosing Placenta Accreta Spectrum: A Prospective Study Completed NCT04314791
39 Alalfy Modofied Cervical Inversion During CS in Placenta Previa Completed NCT03772184
40 The Effectiveness of Intraoperative Non-invasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Parturients With Placenta Previa Undergoing Cesarean Section: Prospective Observational Study Completed NCT03409822
41 The Prediction of Risk Factors of Progression of Low Implanted Placenta at 18- 24 Weeks to Placenta Previa at Term Completed NCT03431116
42 Uterine Artery Ligation to Minimize Blood Loss in Patients With Central Placenta Previa Completed NCT02002026
43 the Efficacy of Prophylactic Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Catheterization in the Management of Placenta Previa and Accreta Completed NCT02966197
44 A.Chohan Continuous Squeezing Suture (ACCSS) for Controlling Hemorrhage From the Lower Uterine Segment at the Cesarean Section for Placenta Previa Completed NCT04660578
45 Use of Foley's Catheter Balloon Tamponade to Control Placental Site Bleeding Resulting From Placenta Previa During Cesarean Section Completed NCT02640885
46 Influence of Spinal Anaesthesia on Hemodynamic Stability in Women With Placenta Previa Percreta Undergoing Caesarean Section Completed NCT02686242
47 Evaluation of Role of Ultrasound TA,TV,TP in Diagnosis of Placenta Previa and MAP(Morbidly Adherent Placenta ) Completed NCT03416296
48 Evaluation of the Uterine Cavity and Blood Flow After Conservative Management of Placenta Previa/Accreta Completed NCT02878187
49 Long Term Comparison of Double Layer Continuously Locked Closure of Uterine Incision in Cesarean Section Versus Double Layer Purse String Closure (Turan Technique): A Prospective Randomized Study Completed NCT01289262
50 Global Network First Look: A Cluster-Randomized Trial of Ultrasound Use to Improve Pregnancy Outcomes in Low Income Country Settings Completed NCT01990625

Search NIH Clinical Center for Placenta Praevia

Cochrane evidence based reviews: placenta previa

Genetic Tests for Placenta Praevia

Anatomical Context for Placenta Praevia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Placenta Praevia:

Placenta, Uterus, Cervix, Ovary, Lung, Endothelial, Thyroid

Publications for Placenta Praevia

Articles related to Placenta Praevia:

(show top 50) (show all 3490)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Embolization of uterine arteriovenous malformation causing postpartum hemorrhage using n-butyl cyanoacrylate: A case report. 61
33777284 2021
Comment on "The effectiveness of prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon occlusion in the treatment of patients with pernicious placenta previa coexisting with placenta accreta". 61
31315487 2021
Midwife-performed checklist and ultrasound to identify obstetric conditions at labour triage in Uganda: A quasi-experimental study. 61
33631411 2021
Effect of a labor triage checklist and ultrasound on obstetric referral at three primary health centers in Eastern Uganda. 61
33047332 2021
Ethnic disparities in postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean delivery: a retrospective case-control study. 61
33507393 2021
The impact of adolescent pregnancy on maternal and infant health in Turkey: Systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33592347 2021
Uterine arteries prophylactic occlusion balloon placement in pregnancies with placenta praevia. 61
31642721 2021
A multicenter observational survey of management strategies in 442 pregnancies with suspected placenta accreta spectrum. 61
33483943 2021
[Postpartum hemorrhage and need of blood transfusions]. 61
33720382 2021
Uterine arteriovenous malformation - Possible association to uterine fibroids? 61
33742646 2021
Clusterin and Its Potential Regulatory microRNAs as a Part of Secretome for the Diagnosis of Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Accreta, Increta, and Percreta Cases. 61
33805203 2021
[Perinatal conditions of late preterm twins versus early term twins]. 61
33691916 2021
Repeated pregnancies in uncorrected double outlet right ventricle: a rare occurrence. 61
33722336 2021
Minimizing abdominal incision for transverse uterine fundal incision by aspiration of amniotic fluid and reduction of uterine size. 61
33331020 2021
[Pregnancy after the first uterine fribrom embolization procedures in sub-saharian Africa in Côte d'Ivoire]. 61
33677123 2021
Midgestational pre-labor spontaneous uterine rupture: a systematic review. 61
33691570 2021
Association between Number of Prior Cesareans and Early Preterm Delivery in Women with Abnormal Placentation. 61
32992353 2021
Factors affecting mode of delivery in women of advanced maternal age. 61
33504739 2021
First trimester serum PAPP-A is associated with placenta accreta: a retrospective study. 61
33515274 2021
Endometriosis and assisted reproductive techniques independently related to mother-child morbidities: a French longitudinal national study. 61
33388264 2021
The relation between maternal obesity and placenta accreta spectrum: A multinational database study. 61
33811335 2021
Unexpected placenta accreta spectrum after the use of assisted reproductive technology in women with adenomyomectomy. 61
33731511 2021
Criteria for placenta accreta spectrum in the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics classification, and topographic invasion area are associated with massive hemorrhage in patients with placenta previa. 61
33715171 2021
Letter to the Editor, further supplement to the article "Transverse parallel compression suture: a new suturing method for successful treating pernicious placenta previa during cesarean section", submitted to your Journal. Arch Gynecol Obstet (2020) 301:465-472. 61
33786642 2021
Analysis of clinical features of 231 cases with pernicious placenta previa: A retrospective cohort study. 61
33725977 2021
A Case Report of the Anesthetic Management of a Parturient With Congenital Hypofibrinogenemia and Complete Placenta Previa. 61
33760775 2021
Clinical management of coagulation status and placenta previa in a pregnant woman with Marfan's syndrome after mitral and aortic mechanical heart valve replacement. 61
32980987 2021
Uterine torsion in patient with major placenta previa. 61
33483151 2021
The effect prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon occlusion in patients with placenta previa or placental accreta spectrum: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33663536 2021
Risk Factors for Atonic Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 61
33417319 2021
[Placental Locations in Subsequent Pregnancies - A Retrospective Study]. 61
32590876 2021
[A multicenter study of the birth condition of preterm infants and the causes of preterm birth in Henan Province, China]. 61
33627204 2021
Endometriosis and Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 61
33572322 2021
Maternal age at first cesarean delivery related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in a second cesarean delivery: a multicenter, historical, cross-sectional cohort study. 61
33579220 2021
Clinical Outcomes in High-Risk Pregnancies Due to Advanced Maternal Age. 61
33185505 2021
Scar Pregnancy and Extrauterine Implants. 61
33541589 2021
Obstetric outcome in major vs minor placenta praevia. 61
33523465 2021
Development and validation of nomograms for predicting blood loss in placenta previa with placenta increta or percreta. 61
33708914 2021
Evaluation of the Tramline Sign in the Prediction of Placenta Accreta Spectrum and Perioperative Outcomes in Anterior Placenta Previa. 61
33556967 2021
Exercise during pregnancy: how much active are pregnant women at risk of gestational diabetes despite few contraindications? 61
32490696 2021
Placenta Accreta Spectrum Among Women With Twin Gestations. 61
33278284 2021
Ultrasonic assessment of cesarean section scar to vesicovaginal fold distance: an instrument to estimate pre-labor uterine rupture risk. 61
33397168 2021
Placenta percreta after Strassman metroplasty of complete bicornuate uterus: a case report. 61
33514327 2021
The comparison of predictive value of cervical length in singleton spontaneous preterm labor with in vitro fertilization pregnancies: A cohort study. 61
33554003 2021
Advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes: A cohort study. 61
33494983 2021
The Impact of Down-Regulation on Obstetrics and Perinatal Outcomes in Singleton Pregnancies After In Vitro Fertilization. 61
33776920 2021
The role of thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroglobulin antibody in abnormally invasive placenta. 61
33478300 2021
Prompt evaluation and treatment of third-trimester bleeding. 61
33332831 2021
Impact of trophectoderm biopsy on obstetric and perinatal outcomes following frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. 61
33313768 2021
Peripartum Hysterectomies over a Fifteen-year Period. 61
33513629 2021

Variations for Placenta Praevia

Expression for Placenta Praevia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Placenta Praevia.

Pathways for Placenta Praevia

GO Terms for Placenta Praevia

Cellular components related to Placenta Praevia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.5 SIAE PGF PAPPA OXT F2 CSH2
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.17 SIAE PGF PAPPA OXT F2 CSH2

Biological processes related to Placenta Praevia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.61 PAPPA OXTR OXT
2 response to cocaine GO:0042220 9.58 OXTR OXT
3 response to progesterone GO:0032570 9.58 OXTR OXT
4 response to steroid hormone GO:0048545 9.57 OXTR OXT
5 response to amphetamine GO:0001975 9.56 OXTR OXT
6 eating behavior GO:0042755 9.55 OXTR OXT
7 animal organ development GO:0048513 9.54 CSH2 CSH1
8 positive regulation of blood pressure GO:0045777 9.52 OXTR OXT
9 growth hormone receptor signaling pathway GO:0060396 9.51 CSH2 CSH1
10 positive regulation of growth GO:0045927 9.49 CSH2 CSH1
11 maternal behavior GO:0042711 9.48 OXTR OXT
12 sleep GO:0030431 9.46 OXTR OXT
13 positive regulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction GO:0070474 9.4 OXTR OXT
14 negative regulation of gastric acid secretion GO:0060455 9.37 OXTR OXT
15 positive regulation of penile erection GO:0060406 9.32 OXTR OXT
16 sperm ejaculation GO:0042713 9.26 OXTR OXT
17 positive regulation of norepinephrine secretion GO:0010701 9.16 OXTR OXT
18 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.13 F2 CSH2 CSH1
19 regulation of digestive system process GO:0044058 8.62 OXTR OXT

Molecular functions related to Placenta Praevia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.33 OXT CSH2 CSH1
2 growth hormone receptor binding GO:0005131 8.96 CSH2 CSH1
3 growth factor activity GO:0008083 8.92 PGF F2 CSH2 CSH1

Sources for Placenta Praevia

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 20-May-2021)
61 PubMed
69 Tocris
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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