PCP
MCID: PNM001
MIFTS: 63

Pneumocystosis (PCP)

Categories: Infectious diseases, Rare diseases, Respiratory diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Pneumocystosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Pneumocystosis:

Name: Pneumocystosis 11 19 58 75 14 16 31 33
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia 11 19 2
Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia 11 14
Pulmonary Pneumocystosis 11 33
Pneumocystis Pneumonia 11 2
Pcp 47 2
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia 71
Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii 53
Pneumocystosis Pneumonia 11
Pneumonia, Pneumocystis 43

Characteristics:


Age Of Onset:

All ages 58

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 11 DOID:11339
ICD9CM 34 136.3
MeSH 43 D011020
NCIt 49 C3334
SNOMED-CT 68 57541005
ICD10 31 B59
ICD10 via Orphanet 32 B59+ J17.3*
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C1535939
Orphanet 58 ORPHA723
UMLS 71 C1535939

Summaries for Pneumocystosis

CDC: 2 Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a serious infection caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii. Most people who get PCP have a medical condition that weakens their immune system, like HIV/AIDS, or take medicines that lower the body's ability to fight germs and sickness. In the United States, people with HIV/AIDS are less likely to get PCP today than before the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, PCP is still a substantial public health problem.1-3 Much of the information we have about PCP and its treatment comes from caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. Scientists have changed both the classification and the name of this organism since it first appeared in patients with HIV in the 1980s. Pneumocystis jirovecii used to be classified as a protozoan but is now considered a fungus.4 Pneumocystis jirovecii used to be called Pneumocystis carinii. When scientists renamed P. carinii to P. jirovecii, some people considered using the abbreviation "PJP," but to avoid confusion, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is still abbreviated "PCP."5

MalaCards based summary: Pneumocystosis, also known as pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, is related to immunodeficiency with hyper-igm, type 1 and human cytomegalovirus infection. An important gene associated with Pneumocystosis is DHPS (Deoxyhypusine Synthase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are ERK Signaling and Innate Immune System. The drugs Prednisolone phosphate and Prednisolone acetate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone marrow, small intestine and thyroid, and related phenotypes are fever and hypoxemia

GARD: 19 Human pneumocystosis is caused by an infectious agent, which (after recent nomenclature and taxonomy revisions) is now classed as the fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci. The prevalence is unknown. Pneumocystis jiroveci is an opportunistic infectious agent, developing in immunosuppressed patients. It is an air-borne infection, localised to the lungs. However, extrapulmonary involvement is seen in AIDS patients. The disease manifests progressively with coughing, respiratory problems (dyspnea) and fever, followed by acute respiratory insufficiency and death within a few weeks in untreated cases. The most reliable diagnostic method is bronchoalveolar lavage. The treatment of choice is cotrimoxazole.

Orphanet: 58 Human pneumocystosis is caused by an infectious agent, which (after recent nomenclature and taxonomy revisions) is now classed as the fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci. The prevalence is unknown. Pneumocystis jiroveci is an opportunistic infectious agent, developing in immunosuppressed patients. It is an air-borne infection, localised to the lungs. However, extrapulmonary involvement is seen in AIDS patients. The disease manifests progressively with coughing, respiratory problems (dyspnea) and fever, followed by acute respiratory insufficiency and death within a few weeks in untreated cases. The most reliable diagnostic method is bronchoalveolar lavage. The treatment of choice is cotrimoxazole.

Disease Ontology: 11 An opportunistic mycosis that is located in lungs, but can also occur in eyes, ears, skin, thyroid, pituitary, palate, parathyroid, esophagus, pleura, heart, liver, spleen, small intestine, adrenals, kidneys, bone marrow, and lymph nodes, has material basis in Pneumocystis jirovecii that effects interstitial and alveolar tissues and has symptom nonproductive cough, has symptom shortness of breath, and has symptom fever.

Wikipedia: 75 Pneumocystosis is a fungal infection that most often presents as Pneumocystis pneumonia in people with... more...

Related Diseases for Pneumocystosis

Diseases related to Pneumocystosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1349)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 immunodeficiency with hyper-igm, type 1 32.1 CD40LG CD4 CD19 CCR6 BTK
2 human cytomegalovirus infection 31.3 TNF IL6 CD8A CD4 CCR6
3 inflammatory bowel disease 1 31.1 TNF IL6 CCR6
4 adult t-cell leukemia/lymphoma 31.1 IL2 CD8A CD4 CCR6
5 oral candidiasis 31.0 IL6 CLEC7A CD8A CD4 CCR6
6 macs syndrome 30.9 TNF IFNG CD8A CD4
7 t-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia 30.9 IL2 DHFR CD8A CD4 CCR6
8 esophageal candidiasis 30.9 CLEC7A CD8A CD4 CCR6
9 nocardiosis 30.8 TNF CRP CD4
10 sleeping sickness 30.8 TNF MT-CYB ALB
11 polyarteritis nodosa 30.8 TNF IL6 GPT CRP
12 pyoderma gangrenosum 30.7 TNF CSF3 CCR6
13 extrinsic allergic alveolitis 30.7 TNF SFTPD MUC1 CD8A CD4 CCR6
14 congenital hypogammaglobulinemia 30.7 CD4 CD19 BTK
15 adult syndrome 30.7 TNF IL6 CRP
16 coccidioidomycosis 30.7 CLEC7A CD4 CCR6
17 neuromyelitis optica 30.6 IL6 CRP CD40LG
18 legionnaire disease 30.6 TNF IL6 CRP CD4
19 herpes zoster 30.6 IL2 IFNG DHFR CD8A CD4 CCR6
20 angioimmunoblastic t-cell lymphoma 30.6 CD8A CD4 CCR6
21 autoimmune glomerulonephritis 30.6 CD8A CD4 CCR6
22 marasmus 30.6 CRP CD4 ALB
23 nutritional deficiency disease 30.6 IL6 CRP CCR6 ALB
24 clostridium difficile colitis 30.6 CRP CCR6 ALB
25 pulmonary edema 30.6 TNF CSF3 CRP
26 enterocolitis 30.6 TNF IL6 CRP
27 congenital syphilis 30.6 CRP CD40LG CD4
28 psoriatic arthritis 30.6 TNF IL6 CRP CCR6
29 aplastic anemia 30.6 TNF IL6 IFNG CSF3 CD8A CD4
30 neutrophilic dermatosis, acute febrile 30.5 TNF CSF3 CRP
31 iga glomerulonephritis 30.5 IL6 CD40LG CCR6 ALB
32 glomerulonephritis 30.5 TNF IL6 CRP CD40LG ALB
33 posterior scleritis 30.5 TNF IFNG CRP
34 goodpasture syndrome 30.5 CRP CD4 CCR6 ALB
35 pyoderma 30.5 TNF CSF3 CRP CCR6 BTK
36 spontaneous tension pneumothorax 30.5 GPT CRP
37 burkitt lymphoma 30.4 TNF IL6 CSF3 CD40LG CD19
38 endocarditis 30.4 TNF IL6 IFNG CRP ALB
39 immunodeficiency 14 30.4 CD8A CD4 CCR6
40 arthropathy 30.4 TNF IL6 CRP CCR6
41 marginal zone b-cell lymphoma 30.4 CD19 CCR6 BTK
42 neuritis 30.4 TNF IL6 IFNG
43 hypopyon 30.4 TNF IL6 CRP CD4
44 hyper ige recurrent infection syndrome 1 30.4 IL6 CLEC7A CD4 CCR6
45 central nervous system lymphoma 30.4 CD4 CD19 BTK
46 pleurisy 30.4 TNF IFNG CRP
47 crohn's colitis 30.4 TNF IL6 CRP CCR6
48 disseminated intravascular coagulation 30.4 TNF IL6 GPT CRP
49 ulcerative colitis 30.4 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CRP CCR6
50 lymphangitis 30.4 MUC1 CRP CD4 ALB

Comorbidity relations with Pneumocystosis via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Deficiency Anemia Heart Disease
Neutropenia Oral Candidiasis
Postinflammatory Pulmonary Fibrosis Respiratory Failure

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pneumocystosis:



Diseases related to Pneumocystosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pneumocystosis

Human phenotypes related to Pneumocystosis:

58 30 (show all 25)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 fever 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0001945
2 hypoxemia 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0012418
3 acute infectious pneumonia 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0011949
4 pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia 58 30 Hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%)
HP:0020102
5 immunodeficiency 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0002721
6 weight loss 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0001824
7 respiratory failure 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0002878
8 pleural effusion 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0002202
9 exertional dyspnea 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0002875
10 interstitial pneumonitis 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0006515
11 nonproductive cough 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0031246
12 respiratory failure requiring assisted ventilation 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0004887
13 abnormal neutrophil count 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0011991
14 combined cystic and ground-glass pattern on pulmonary hrct 58 30 Frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%)
HP:0025395
15 increased circulating antibody level 30 Frequent (33%) HP:0010702
16 neoplasm 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0002664
17 chronic oral candidiasis 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0009098
18 parenchymal consolidation 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0032177
19 multiple pulmonary cysts 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0005948
20 bloodstream infectious agent 58 30 Occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%)
HP:0031863
21 increased circulating lactate dehydrogenase concentration 30 Occasional (7.5%) HP:0025435
22 respiratory insufficiency 58 Frequent (79-30%)
23 dyspnea 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
24 increased antibody level in blood 58 Frequent (79-30%)
25 increased lactate dehydrogenase activity 58 Occasional (29-5%)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Pneumocystosis:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.31 ALB BTK CCR6 CD19 CD4 CD40LG
2 immune system MP:0005387 10.19 ALB BTK CCR6 CD19 CD4 CD40LG
3 cellular MP:0005384 10.1 ALB BTK CD19 CD4 CD40LG CD8A
4 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.07 ALB BTK CD19 CD4 CLEC7A IFNG
5 neoplasm MP:0002006 10.06 ALB BTK CD19 IFNG IL2 IL6
6 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.03 ALB CD19 DHFR IFNG IL2 IL6
7 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.03 BTK CCR6 CD19 CD4 CD40LG CD8A
8 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.8 ALB BTK CD19 CD4 CD40LG CD8A
9 integument MP:0010771 9.36 BTK CD19 CD4 CD40LG CD8A CSF3

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pneumocystosis

Drugs for Pneumocystosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 62)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
2
Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
3
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 4894 5755
4
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5 1875
5
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 4159 6741
6
Sulfisoxazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 127-69-5 5344
7
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7 4897
8 Protective Agents Phase 4
9 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
10 Antiemetics Phase 4
11
Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4 584547
12 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
13 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 4
14
Cobicistat Approved Phase 3 1004316-88-4 24950485 25151504
15
Darunavir Approved Phase 3 635728-49-3, 206361-99-1 213039
16
Zidovudine Approved Phase 3 30516-87-1 35370
17
Pyrimethamine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 58-14-0, 19085-09-7 4993
18
Sulfadoxine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 2447-57-6 17134
19
Hydroxychloroquine Approved Phase 3 118-42-3 3652
20
Caspofungin Approved Phase 3 179463-17-3, 162808-62-0 2826718
21
Fluconazole Approved, Investigational Phase 3 86386-73-4 3365
22
Posaconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 3 171228-49-2 147912
23
Trimetrexate Approved, Investigational Phase 3 52128-35-5 5583
24
Isoniazid Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 54-85-3 3767
25
Rezafungin Investigational Phase 3 1396640-59-7
26
Maleic acid Experimental, Investigational Phase 3 110-16-7, 110-17-8 444266 444972
27
Pafuramidine Investigational Phase 3 186953-56-0 459963
28 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 3
29 Cobicistat mixture with darunavir Phase 3
30 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors Phase 3
31
protease inhibitors Phase 3
32 Antiviral Agents Phase 3
33 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 3
34 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Phase 3
35 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 3
36 Echinocandins Phase 3
37 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 3
38 Vitamins Phase 3
39 Trace Elements Phase 3
40 Antimetabolites Phase 3
41 Antidotes Phase 3
42 Calcium, Dietary Phase 3
43 Micronutrients Phase 3
44 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
46
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 3 7440-70-2 271
47
Phylloquinone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 84-80-0 5284607
48
Azithromycin Approved Phase 2 83905-01-5 447043
49
Menadione Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2 58-27-5 4055
50 Menaquinone Investigational Phase 2 1182-68-9

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 85)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study to Compare Efficacy of Caspofungin Combined With Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Versus Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole as First-line Therapy in Non-HIV Patients With Severe Pneumocystis Pneumonia Unknown status NCT03978559 Phase 4 caspofungin;TMP/SMZ(trimethoprim/sulfisoxazole);Methylprednisolone
2 A Phase IV, Randomised, Multicentre, Double-blind, Study to Evaluate the Clinical Utility of Prospective Genetic Screening (HLA-B*1301) for Susceptibility to Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome Unknown status NCT02550080 Phase 4 Dapsone
3 Gradual Initiation of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole as Primary Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Prophylaxis Completed NCT00000816 Phase 4 Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim
4 Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess Whether the Duration of Cotrimoxazole Preventive Therapy in HIV Patients With CD4 Counts >350 CD4 Cells/µL by Antiretroviral Treatment Influences the Rate of Carriage of Multidrug-resistant Bacteria Completed NCT03087890 Phase 4 Cotrimoxazole;Placebo
5 Oral Corticosteroids Therapy and Interstitial Fibrosis in Patients With Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP) and pO2 of >70 at Presentation. Withdrawn NCT00636935 Phase 4 Antibiotics only;Antibiotics + Corticosteroids;Corticosteroids + antibiotics
6 The Safety and Effectiveness of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole as Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP) Prophylaxis in Patients With Connective Tissue Diseases Unknown status NCT01747278 Phase 2, Phase 3 Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole
7 Efficacy and Safety of Darunavir and Cobicistat for Treatment of COVID-19 Unknown status NCT04252274 Phase 3 Darunavir and Cobicistat
8 Intérêt de la corticothérapie Dans la Pneumocystose Grave du Patient immunodéprimé Non VIH. Essai Prospectif Multicentrique Randomisé Contrôlé : PIC Unknown status NCT02944045 Phase 3 Methylprednisolone;Placebo
9 A Study of Trimetrexate With Leucovorin Rescue for AIDS Patients Who Are Refractory to Standard Therapies for Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Completed NCT00000724 Phase 3 Trimetrexate glucuronate;Leucovorin calcium
10 A Randomized, Comparative, Double-Blind Trial of Trimetrexate (CI-898) With Leucovorin Calcium Rescue Versus Trimethoprim / Sulfamethoxazole for Moderately Severe Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in Patients With AIDS Completed NCT00001013 Phase 3 Trimetrexate glucuronate;Pentamidine isethionate;Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim;Leucovorin calcium
11 A Randomized, Open-Label Trial of High Dose Atovaquone Versus Low Dose Atovaquone Versus Aerosolized Pentamidine for Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in Patients With HIV Infection Who Are Intolerant of TMP/SMX Completed NCT00002340 Phase 3 Atovaquone;Pentamidine isethionate
12 A Treatment Protocol for the Use of Trimetrexate With Leucovorin Rescue for AIDS Patients With Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia and Serious Intolerance to Approved Therapies Completed NCT00001016 Phase 3 Trimetrexate glucuronate;Leucovorin calcium
13 A Controlled Comparative Trial of Trimethoprim - Sulfamethoxazole Versus Aerosolized Pentamidine for Secondary Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in AIDS Patients Receiving Azidothymidine (AZT) Completed NCT00000727 Phase 3 Pentamidine isethionate;Pyrimethamine;Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim;Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine;Zidovudine
14 A Randomized, Comparative, Double-Blind Trial of Trimetrexate (CI-898) With Leucovorin Calcium Rescue Versus Trimethoprim / Sulfamethoxazole for Moderately Severe Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in Patients With AIDS Completed NCT00001014 Phase 3 Trimetrexate glucuronate;Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim;Leucovorin calcium
15 An Open, Prospective, Multicenter Study of Trimetrexate With Leucovorin Rescue for AIDS Patients With Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP) and Serious Intolerance to Approved Therapies Completed NCT00000714 Phase 3 Trimetrexate glucuronate;Leucovorin calcium
16 A Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Aerosolized Pentamidine and Parenteral/Oral Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole in the Treatment of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in AIDS Completed NCT00000715 Phase 3 Pentamidine isethionate;Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim
17 A Randomized, Comparative Study of Daily Dapsone and Daily Atovaquone for Prophylaxis Against PCP in HIV-Infected Patients Who Are Intolerant of Trimethoprim and/or Sulfonamides Completed NCT00000802 Phase 3 Atovaquone;Dapsone
18 A Randomized Trial of Three Anti-Pneumocystis Agents Plus Zidovudine for the Primary Prevention of Serious Infections in Patients With Advanced HIV Infection Completed NCT00000991 Phase 3 Pentamidine isethionate;Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim;Dapsone;Zidovudine
19 A Randomized, Comparative, Prospective Study of Monthly Aerosolized Pentamidine and Thrice Weekly Dapsone for Prophylaxis Against PCP in HIV-Infected Patients Who Are Intolerant to Trimethoprim and/or Sulfonamides Completed NCT00001028 Phase 3 Pentamidine isethionate;Dapsone
20 A Phase III Comparative Study of Dapsone / Trimethoprim and Clindamycin / Primaquine Versus Trimethoprim / Sulfamethoxazole in the Treatment of Mild-to-Moderate PCP in Patients With AIDS Completed NCT00000640 Phase 3 Primaquine;Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim;Dapsone;Clindamycin
21 A Randomized, Comparative, Prospective Study of Daily Trimethoprim / Sulfamethoxazole (TMS) and Thrice-Weekly TMS for Prophylaxis Against PCP in HIV-Infected Patients Completed NCT00000748 Phase 3 Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim
22 Efficacy and Safety of Hydroxychloroquine for Treatment of COVID-19 Completed NCT04261517 Phase 3 Hydroxychloroquine
23 A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Rezafungin for Injection Versus the Standard Antimicrobial Regimen to Prevent Invasive Fungal Diseases in Adults Undergoing Allogeneic Blood and Marrow Transplantation (The ReSPECT Study) Recruiting NCT04368559 Phase 3 Rezafungin for Injection;Posaconazole;Fluconazole;Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX);Intravenous Placebo;Oral Placebo
24 Low Dose Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole for the Treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia Not yet recruiting NCT04851015 Phase 3 trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
25 International Randomized, Controlled Phase 3 Trial of DB289 Versus Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the Treatment of Acute Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia (PCP) in Patients With HIV/AIDS Terminated NCT00302341 Phase 3 Pafuramidine maleate (DB289);Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX)
26 A Randomized, Comparative Trial of Trimetrexate With Leucovorin Rescue Versus Standard Anti-Pneumocystis Therapy Versus Standard Anti-Pneumocystis Therapy With High Dose Steroids for AIDS Patients With Pneumocystis Pneumonia Who Appear to Be Refractory to Conventional Drugs Terminated NCT00000730 Phase 3 Trimetrexate glucuronate;Methylprednisolone;Pentamidine isethionate;Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim;Leucovorin calcium
27 A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Isoniazid (INH) in Preventing Tuberculosis Disease and Latent Tuberculosis Infection Among Infants With Perinatal Exposure to HIV Terminated NCT00080119 Phase 2, Phase 3 Isoniazid (INH);Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX);Isoniazid Placebo (PL)
28 A Controlled Randomized Trial to Study the Efficacy of Adjunctive Methylprednisolone for the Treatment of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP) in Pediatric AIDS Patients Withdrawn NCT00000741 Phase 3 Methylprednisolone
29 A Randomized, Double-Blind Study of 566C80 Versus Septra (Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole) for the Treatment of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in AIDS Patients Completed NCT00000655 Phase 2 Atovaquone;Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim
30 A Phase II Study of WR 6026 for Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in People With HIV Infection Completed NCT00000863 Phase 2 Sitamaquine
31 A Phase II Open Randomized Comparison of 566C80 and Pentamidine Isethionate for the Treatment of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in AIDS Patients Who Are Intolerant of Trimethoprim / Sulfamethoxazole Completed NCT00001996 Phase 2 Atovaquone;Pentamidine isethionate
32 A Randomized, Phase II/III, Double-Blind, Two-Armed Study of Micronized Atovaquone and Azithromycin (AT/AZ) as Compared to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in the Prevention of Serious Bacterial Infections When Used in Children Aged 3 Months to 19 Years With HIV Infection Completed NCT00000811 Phase 2 Azithromycin;Atovaquone;Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim
33 Comparison of Two Dosage Regimens of Oral Dapsone for Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in Pediatric HIV Infection Completed NCT00000739 Phase 1 Dapsone
34 Evaluation of Escalating Doses of Intravenous Trimetrexate as Therapy for Previously Untreated Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in AIDS Patients With Subsequent Comparison of Intravenous and Oral Pharmacokinetics Completed NCT00000998 Phase 1 Trimetrexate glucuronate;Leucovorin calcium
35 Randomized Phase I Study of Trimetrexate Glucuronate (TMTX) With Leucovorin (LCV) Protection Plus Dapsone Versus Trimethoprim / Sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) for Treatment of Moderately Severe Episodes of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Completed NCT00002120 Phase 1 Trimetrexate glucuronate;Trimethoprim;Sulfamethoxazole;Dapsone;Leucovorin calcium
36 A Phase I Study of the Safety, Tolerance, and Study of the Pharmacokinetics of Aerosolized Pentamidine and Parenteral Pentamidine in Children With HIV Infection and Suspected Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Completed NCT00000974 Phase 1 Pentamidine isethionate
37 A Phase I/II Trial of Parenteral Pentamidine for PCP Prophylaxis in HIV-Infected Children Who Are Intolerant to Oral Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Completed NCT00001027 Phase 1 Pentamidine isethionate
38 Escalating Multiple-Dose Safety and Tolerance of WR 6026 Hydrochloride in HIV-Infected Subjects Completed NCT00000740 Phase 1 Sitamaquine
39 Phase I Safety and Pharmacokinetics Study of Microparticulate Atovaquone (m-Atovaquone; 566C80) in HIV-Infected and Perinatally Exposed Infants and Children Completed NCT00000773 Phase 1 Atovaquone
40 A Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenetic Study in Patients Receiving Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim Therapy Unknown status NCT02045160
41 Effects and Safety of Caspofungin and Corticosteroids in Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Non-HIV Patients Unknown status NCT02603575 caspofungin;corticosteroids;Sulfanilamides
42 Prospective Registration of Severe Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia Requiring ICU Unknown status NCT03201497
43 Assessment of the Safety and Intravenous Pentamidine for Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies and Stem Cell Transplant Recipients. Completed NCT02669706 Pentamidine
44 Clindamycin - Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia After Solid Organ Transplantation Population (CTSTOP) Completed NCT04328688
45 A Study of Neutrexin (Trimetrexate Glucuronate) With Leucovorin Protection for Pediatric Patients (Ages 2-12) With Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia Completed NCT00002317 Trimetrexate glucuronate;Leucovorin calcium
46 A Double-Blind Group Comparative Study To Evaluate the Safety and Effectiveness of Three Different Doses of Aerosol Pentamidine in the Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in Patients With AIDS Post First Episode PCP Completed NCT00002291 Pentamidine isethionate
47 Randomized Prospective Study of Dapsone Versus Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole in the Treatment of First Episode Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in AIDS Patients Completed NCT00002283 Trimethoprim;Sulfamethoxazole;Dapsone
48 Lipid-Based Parenteral Nutritional Support in Patients With the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia. A Comparison of Two Lipid Formulations Completed NCT00002275 Fat Emulsion 2%;Fat Emulsion 20%
49 A Compassionate Treatment Protocol for the Use of Trimetrexate Glucuronate With Leucovorin Protection for Patients With Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia. Completed NCT00002102 Trimetrexate glucuronate;Leucovorin calcium
50 The Safety and Efficacy of Clindamycin and Primaquine in the Treatment of Mild - Moderate Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia in Patients With AIDS Completed NCT00000717 Primaquine;Clindamycin

Search NIH Clinical Center for Pneumocystosis

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Atovaquone
CLINDAMYCIN PHOSPHATE PWDR
Pentamidine
Pentamidine Isethionate
Sulfadoxine
TRIMETHOPRIM SULFATE
Trimetrexate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: pneumonia, pneumocystis

Genetic Tests for Pneumocystosis

Anatomical Context for Pneumocystosis

Organs/tissues related to Pneumocystosis:

MalaCards : Bone Marrow, Small Intestine, Thyroid, Spleen, Liver, Bone, Pituitary

Publications for Pneumocystosis

Articles related to Pneumocystosis:

(show top 50) (show all 7001)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Absence of Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase gene mutations among samples from a group of AIDS patients in China. 53 62
19085210 2009
2
Structural analysis of a holoenzyme complex of mouse dihydrofolate reductase with NADPH and a ternary complex with the potent and selective inhibitor 2,4-diamino-6-(2'-hydroxydibenz[b,f]azepin-5-yl)methylpteridine. 53 62
18703847 2008
3
Pneumocystosis: survey and DHPS genotype analysis in 14 Parisian hospitals in 2003 and 2004. 53 62
17169018 2006
4
Caspase-9 as a target for Pneumocystis pneumonia therapy. 53 62
17169033 2006
5
Severity and outcome of HIV-associated Pneumocystis pneumonia containing Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase gene mutations. 53 62
15867494 2005
6
Cloning of the Pneumocystis jirovecii trifunctional FAS gene and complementation of its DHPS activity in Escherichia coli. 53 62
15531210 2004
7
Prevalence of dihydropteroate synthase mutants in HIV-infected South African children with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. 53 62
15472859 2004
8
Pneumocystis jiroveci isolates with dihydropteroate synthase mutations in patients with chronic bronchitis. 53 62
15175932 2004
9
Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase genotypes in immunocompetent infants and immunosuppressed adults, Amiens, France. 53 62
15200857 2004
10
Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase genotypes in French patients with pneumocystosis: a 1998-2001 prospective study. 53 62
14725329 2003
11
Multilocus genotyping of Pneumocystis jirovecii in patients developing diverse forms of parasitism: implication for a wide human reservoir for the fungus. 53 62
14736212 2003
12
Surfactant protein D and KL-6 as serologic indicators of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 53 62
11321887 2001
13
[Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome followed by KL-6, surfactant protein-D and beta-D-glucan in serum]. 53 62
11061091 2000
14
Rapid detection of dihydropteroate polymorphism in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by restriction fragment length polymorphism. 53 62
11055650 2000
15
Diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients by using polymerase chain reactions on serum specimens. 53 62
7594732 1995
16
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a term newborn infant with a transiently depressed T lymphocyte count, primarily of cells carrying the CD4 antigen. 53 62
8496763 1993
17
Reduced expression of macrophage-associated antigens on alveolar mononuclear phagocytes from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. 53 62
7691271 1993
18
Rates of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and prophylaxis prescribing patterns in a large electronic health record cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. 62
36279805 2022
19
Infectious complications in adult patients with idiopathic minimal change nephrotic syndrome undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. 62
36209374 2022
20
Pulmonary Co-infection with Cryptococcus Species and Pneumocystis jirovecii in an Old Patient Without a Previous Predisposing Illness. 62
35939225 2022
21
Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia Prophylaxis with Intravenous Pentamidine in Adult Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients. 62
36214573 2022
22
A comprehensive clinical guide for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a missing therapeutic target in HIV-uninfected patients. 62
36440485 2022
23
Hypercalcaemia in an immunocompromised patient: consider Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. 62
36263984 2022
24
Outcomes and factors contributing to poor prognosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-negative patients: a cross-sectional retrospective study in a Chinese single center. 62
36319918 2022
25
Efficacy of sulfasalazine for the prevention of Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A multicentric self-controlled case series study. 62
36334836 2022
26
Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A systematic review. 62
36222368 2022
27
Favorable Outcome Following Sotrovimab Monoclonal Antibody in a Patient with Prolonged SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Infection with HIV/AIDS. 62
36070950 2022
28
[HIV First Diagnoses in Germany in 2014 - A Regional Analysis]. 62
35176792 2022
29
The Pathogenesis and Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia. 62
36354934 2022
30
Incidence of opportunistic infections in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with different molecular-targeted drugs: A population-based retrospective cohort study. 62
36308397 2022
31
Anidulafungin Treatment Blocks the Sexual Cycle of Pneumocystis murina and Prevents Growth and Survival without Rescue by an Alternative Mode of Replication. 62
36287071 2022
32
Effectiveness and safety of pneumocystis pneumonia prophylaxis for patients receiving temozolomide chemoradiotherapy. 62
35312784 2022
33
Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in bronchoalveolar lavage among naïve non-small cell lung cancer from tertiary respiratory hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. 62
36332219 2022
34
Chronic Granulomatous Disease: an Updated Experience, with Emphasis on Newly Recognized Features. 62
35696001 2022
35
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia [PJP]: An unrecognized concern in AML patients on Venetoclax. 62
35994889 2022
36
Pneumocystis pneumonia in patient with lung adenocarcinoma: early side effects from pembrolizumab. 62
36032207 2022
37
False-positive Elevation of Beta-D-glucan and Aspergillus Galactomannan Levels Due to Mendelson's Syndrome after Rice Aspiration. 62
35314546 2022
38
Dapsone-Associated Anemia in Heart Transplant Recipients with Normal Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity. 62
36362606 2022
39
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease - A case series. 62
36223253 2022
40
Clinical characteristics of and risk factors for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (Anti-MDA5) antibody-positive dermatomyositis patients: a single-center retrospective study. 62
36301369 2022
41
Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Non-Immunocompromised Lung Cancer Patient after Surgery: A Case Report. 62
36292509 2022
42
Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of the Modified Probable Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Korean Children, 2001-2021. 62
36291531 2022
43
Spatiotemporal Clusters and Trends of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Korea. 62
36320109 2022
44
Metagenomic next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in solid organ transplant recipients. 62
36228150 2022
45
Chemoprophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in Japanese patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis: an observational study. 62
36197746 2022
46
Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients with Solid Malignancies: A Retrospective Study in Two Hospitals. 62
36297226 2022
47
Prophylactic effect of low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in adult recipients of kidney transplantation: a real-world data study. 62
36243280 2022
48
Osimertinib-induced lymphocytopenia and pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. 62
35701337 2022
49
Combine use of glucocorticoid with other immunosuppressants is a risk factor for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in autoimmune inflammatory disease patients: a meta-analysis. 62
36149536 2022
50
Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with Cushing's syndrome: A French multicenter retrospective study. 62
36183804 2022

Variations for Pneumocystosis

Expression for Pneumocystosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pneumocystosis.

Pathways for Pneumocystosis

Pathways related to Pneumocystosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 49)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.82 TNF MUC1 IL6 IL2 CSF3 CD40LG
2
Show member pathways
13.8 TNF SFTPD MUC1 IL6 IL2 IFNG
3
Show member pathways
13.63 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CSF3 CD40LG
4
Show member pathways
13.4 TNF IL6 IL2 CSF3 CD40LG CD4
5
Show member pathways
13.3 TNF MUC1 IL6 IL2 IFNG CSF3
6
Show member pathways
13.27 TNF IL6 IL2 CSF3 CD40LG CD4
7
Show member pathways
12.83 TNF SFTPD IL6 IL2 BTK
8
Show member pathways
12.59 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CD4
9 12.52 TNF IL2 IFNG CD8A CD40LG CD19
10
Show member pathways
12.41 TNF SFTPD MUC1 IL6 IFNG
11
Show member pathways
12.09 CD4 CD40LG CD8A IFNG IL2 TNF
12 12.08 SFTPD CD8A CD40LG CD19
13 11.99 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG
14
Show member pathways
11.97 CD4 CD8A IFNG IL2
15
Show member pathways
11.91 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CD4
16 11.87 CD40LG IFNG IL2 TNF
17
Show member pathways
11.77 IL6 CRP CD8A CD4
18 11.76 IL6 IL2 IFNG
19 11.75 IL6 IL2 IFNG CD40LG CD4
20 11.71 IL6 IL2 IFNG
21 11.71 IL6 IL2 IFNG CD4
22 11.7 CCR6 CD4 CD8A IFNG IL2 TNF
23
Show member pathways
11.68 TNF IL2 IFNG CD40LG
24 11.67 TNF IL6 CSF3
25 11.67 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CD8A CD4
26 11.66 TNF IL6 CD40LG
27
Show member pathways
11.62 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG
28 11.6 BTK CD4 TNF
29
Show member pathways
11.6 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CD40LG
30 11.59 IL6 IL2 IFNG
31 11.55 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CRP CD40LG
32 11.54 CD40LG IFNG IL6 TNF
33 11.52 TNF IL6 CSF3
34 11.52 TNF IL2 IFNG CD40LG CD4
35 11.51 IL2 IFNG CD4
36 11.5 TNF IL6 IFNG
37
Show member pathways
11.39 IFNG IL2 TNF
38 11.34 IL2 IFNG CD40LG
39 11.32 TNF IL6 IFNG
40 11.29 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CSF3 CD8A
41 11.23 IL2 IFNG CD4
42 11.23 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG
43 11.05 TNF IL6 CRP
44 11.02 TNF IL6 IL2 CSF3 CD40LG BTK
45 10.93 IL2 IFNG CD4
46 10.9 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CSF3 CD4
47 10.7 IL2 IFNG
48 10.7 IL6 IL2
49
Show member pathways
10.38 TNF IL6

GO Terms for Pneumocystosis

Cellular components related to Pneumocystosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.73 TNF CD8A CD40LG CD4 CD19 CCR6
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.64 TNF SFTPD MUC1 IL6 IL2 IFNG

Biological processes related to Pneumocystosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 25)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 adaptive immune response GO:0002250 10.35 BTK CD19 CD4 CD8A IFNG IL2
2 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 10.2 TNF IL6 CSF3 CLEC7A
3 positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production GO:0032760 10.17 IL6 IFNG CLEC7A BTK
4 positive regulation of inflammatory response GO:0050729 10.12 BTK IFNG IL2 TNF
5 calcium-mediated signaling GO:0019722 10.11 TNF CD4 CCR6 BTK
6 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 10.11 TNF IL6 CLEC7A CD40LG BTK
7 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production GO:0032735 10.1 IFNG CLEC7A CD40LG
8 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 10.09 TNF IFNG CLEC7A
9 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production GO:0032733 10.09 IL6 CLEC7A CD40LG
10 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 10.08 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG
11 positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production GO:0032731 10.03 CLEC7A IFNG IL6 TNF
12 positive regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002639 10.01 BTK IL2 IL6
13 positive regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response GO:1900017 10 TNF IL6 CLEC7A
14 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.95 IL6 IL2 DHPS CD40LG
15 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.92 CCR6 IFNG IL6 TNF
16 immune system process GO:0002376 9.91 SFTPD IL2 CLEC7A CD8A CD4 CD19
17 positive regulation of synoviocyte proliferation GO:1901647 9.89 TNF BTK
18 cellular response to molecule of fungal origin GO:0071226 9.88 CLEC7A BTK
19 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.86 TNF IFNG
20 positive regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process GO:0051173 9.85 TNF IFNG
21 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.85 TNF IL6 IFNG CLEC7A BTK
22 positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process GO:0060557 9.8 IFNG TNF
23 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.73 TNF IL6 CRP
24 positive regulation of phagocytosis GO:0050766 9.65 BTK CLEC7A IFNG SFTPD TNF
25 immune response GO:0006955 9.47 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CSF3 CD8A

Molecular functions related to Pneumocystosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.4 TNF IL6 IL2 IFNG CSF3 CD40LG

Sources for Pneumocystosis

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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