MCID: PNM007
MIFTS: 67

Pneumonia

Categories: Infectious diseases, Respiratory diseases
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Aliases & Classifications for Pneumonia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Pneumonia:

Name: Pneumonia 11 75 28 53 41 2 43 14 63 63 16 71 33
Acute Pneumonia 11 71 33
Human Metapneumovirus Infection Resulting in Pneumonia 33
Bronchopneumonia Due to Streptococcus Pneumoniae 33
Bronchopneumonia Due to Hemophilus Influenzae 33
Pyemic Pneumococcal Embolism with Pneumonia 33
Streptococcus Pneumoniae Lobar Pneumonia 33
Pneumonia Due to Streptococcus, Group B 33
Pneumonia Due to Hemophilus Influenzae 33
Haemophilus Influenzae Lobar Pneumonia 33
Pneumonia Due to Chlamydia Pneumoniae 33
Bronchopneumonia Due to H. Influenzae 33
Bronchopneumonia Due to S. Pneumoniae 33
Pneumonia Respiratory Syncytial Viral 33
Streptococcal Pneumoniae Pneumonia 33
Staphylococcal Purulent Pneumonia 33
Escherichia Coli Lobar Pneumonia 33
Staphylococcal Double Pneumonia 33
Staphylococcal Bronchopneumonia 33
Group B Streptococcal Pneumonia 33
Human Metapneumovirus Pneumonia 33
Pneumonia Due to H. Influenzae 33
Acute Staphylococcal Pneumonia 33
Staphylococcal Lobar Pneumonia 33
Parainfluenza Viral Pneumonia 33
Parainfluenza Virus Pneumonia 33
Interstitial Lobar Pneumonia 33
Pneumococcal Lobar Pneumonia 33
Pseudomonas Lobar Pneumonia 33
Pneumonia Due to Chlamydia 33
Adenovirus Viral Pneumonia 33
Pneumonia Due to E. Coli 33
Staphylococcal Pneumonia 33
Staphylococcus Pneumonia 33
Parainfluenzal Pneumonia 33
Pneumocystis Pneumonia 33
Pneumonia, Unspecified 33
Pneumococcal Pneumonia 33
Pneumococcus Pneumonia 33
Plasma Cells Pneumonia 33
Orthostatic Pneumonia 33
Chronic Pneumonia Nos 33
Pseudomonal Pneumonia 33
Pseudomonas Pneumonia 33
Infectious Pneumonia 33
Multifocal Pneumonia 33
Adenovirus Pneumonia 33
Adenoviral Pneumonia 33
Lobar Pneumonia Nos 33
Atypical Pneumonia 33
Purulent Pneumonia 33
Passive Pneumonia 33
Pn - [pneumonia] 33
Pneumonia Nos 33
Pneumonias 14

Classifications:



Summaries for Pneumonia

MedlinePlus: 41 What is pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection in one or both of the lungs. It causes the air sacs of the lungs to fill up with fluid or pus. It can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of germ causing the infection, your age, and your overall health. What causes pneumonia? Bacterial, viral, and fungal infections can cause pneumonia. Bacteria are the most common cause. Bacterial pneumonia can occur on its own. It can also develop after you've had certain viral infections such as a cold or the flu. Several different types of bacteria can cause pneumonia, including: Streptococcus pneumoniae Legionella pneumophila; this pneumonia is often called Legionnaires' disease Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae Viruses that infect the respiratory tract may cause pneumonia. Viral pneumonia is often mild and goes away on its own within a few weeks. But sometimes it is serious enough that you need to get treatment in a hospital. If you have viral pneumonia, you are at risk of also getting bacterial pneumonia. The different viruses that can cause pneumonia include: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Some common cold and flu viruses SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 Fungal pneumonia is more common in people who have chronic health problems or weakened immune systems. Some of the types include: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) Coccidioidomycosis, which causes valley fever Histoplasmosis Cryptococcus Who is at risk for pneumonia? Anyone can get pneumonia, but certain factors can increase your risk: Age; the risk is higher for children who are age 2 and under and adults age 65 and older Exposure to certain chemicals, pollutants, or toxic fumes Lifestyle habits, such as smoking, heavy alcohol use, and malnourishment Being in a hospital, especially if you are in the ICU. Being sedated and/or on a ventilator raises the risk even more. Having a lung disease Having a weakened immune system Have trouble coughing or swallowing, from a stroke or other condition Recently being sick with a cold or the flu What are the symptoms of pneumonia? The symptoms of pneumonia can range from mild to severe and include: Fever Chills Cough, usually with phlegm (a slimy substance from deep in your lungs) Shortness of breath Chest pain when you breathe or cough Nausea and/or vomiting Diarrhea The symptoms can vary for different groups. Newborns and infants may not show any signs of the infection. Others may vomit and have a fever and cough. They might seem sick, with no energy, or be restless. Older adults and people who have serious illnesses or weak immune systems may have fewer and milder symptoms. They may even have a lower than normal temperature. Older adults who have pneumonia sometimes have sudden changes in mental awareness. What other problems can pneumonia cause? Sometimes pneumonia can cause serious complications such as: Bacteremia, which happens when the bacteria move into the bloodstream. It is serious and can lead to septic shock. Lung abscesses, which are collections of pus in cavities of the lungs Pleural disorders, which are conditions that affect the pleura. The pleura is the tissue that covers the outside of the lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity. Kidney failure Respiratory failure How is pneumonia diagnosed? Sometimes pneumonia can be hard to diagnose. This is because it can cause some of the same symptoms as a cold or the flu. It may take time for you to realize that you have a more serious condition. Your health care provider may use many tools to make a diagnosis: A medical history, which includes asking about your symptoms A physical exam, including listening to your lungs with a stethoscope Various tests, such as A chest x-ray Blood tests such as a complete blood count (CBC) to see if your immune system is actively fighting an infection A Blood culture to find out whether you have a bacterial infection that has spread to your bloodstream If you are in the hospital, have serious symptoms, are older, or have other health problems, you may also have more tests, such as: Sputum test, which checks for bacteria in a sample of your sputum (spit) or phlegm (slimy substance from deep in your lungs). Chest CT scan to see how much of your lungs is affected. It may also show if you have complications such as lung abscesses or pleural effusions. Pleural fluid culture, which checks for bacteria in a fluid sample that was taken from the pleural space Pulse oximetry or blood oxygen level test, to check how much oxygen is in your blood Bronchoscopy, a procedure used to look inside your lungs' airways What are the treatments for pneumonia? Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia, which germ is causing it, and how severe it is: Antibiotics treat bacterial pneumonia and some types of fungal pneumonia. They do not work for viral pneumonia. In some cases, your provider may prescribe antiviral medicines for viral pneumonia Antifungal medicines treat other types of fungal pneumonia You may need to be treated in a hospital if your symptoms are severe or if you are at risk for complications. While there, you may get additional treatments. For example, if your blood oxygen level is low, you may receive oxygen therapy. It may take time to recover from pneumonia. Some people feel better within a week. For other people, it can take a month or more. Can pneumonia be prevented? Vaccines can help prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria or the flu virus. Having good hygiene, not smoking, and having a healthy lifestyle may also help prevent pneumonia. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

MalaCards based summary: Pneumonia, also known as acute pneumonia, is related to cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and pneumocystosis, and has symptoms including fever, hemoptysis and pruritus. An important gene associated with Pneumonia is SKAP1-AS1 (SKAP1 Antisense RNA 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are ERK Signaling and MIF Mediated Glucocorticoid Regulation. The drugs Tazobactam and Piperacillin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, bone marrow and heart, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and immune system

CDC: 2 Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages. Depending on the cause, doctors often treat pneumonia with medicine. In addition, vaccines can prevent some types of pneumonia. However, it is still the leading infectious cause of death in children younger than 5 years old worldwide. Common signs of pneumonia include cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. You can help prevent pneumonia and other respiratory infections by following good hygiene practices. These practices include washing your hands regularly and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces. Making healthy choices, like quitting smoking and managing ongoing medical conditions, can also help prevent pneumonia.

PubMed Health : 63 Pneumonia: Pneumonia (nu-MO-ne-ah) is an infection in one or both of the lungs. Many germs—such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi—can cause pneumonia. The infection inflames your lungs' air sacs, which are called alveoli (al-VEE-uhl-eye). The air sacs may fill up with fluid or pus, causing symptoms such as a cough with phlegm (a slimy substance), fever, chills, and trouble breathing.

Disease Ontology: 11 A lung disease that involves lung parenchyma or alveolar inflammation and abnormal alveolar filling with fluid (consolidation and exudation). It results from a variety of causes including infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites, and chemical or physical injury to the lungs. It is accompanied by fever, chills, cough, and difficulty in breathing.

Wikipedia: 75 Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung primarily affecting the small air sacs known as... more...

Related Diseases for Pneumonia

Diseases in the Pneumonia family:

Viral Pneumonia Bacterial Pneumonia

Diseases related to Pneumonia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2463)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cryptogenic organizing pneumonia 33.5 SFTPD CXCL8 CRP
2 pneumocystosis 33.4 TNF SFTPD IL6 IL10 CSF3 CRP
3 legionnaire disease 33.3 TNF IL6 IL1B CRP
4 viral pneumonia 33.2 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CSF3
5 aspiration pneumonia 33.2 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CRP
6 chronic eosinophilic pneumonia 33.2 IL6 CSF3 CCL3 CCL2
7 mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia 33.2 TNF LINC02258 IL6 IL10 CXCL8 CRP
8 bacterial pneumonia 33.1 TNF SFTPD MPO IL6 IL1B IL10
9 lymphoid interstitial pneumonia 33.1 TNF MUC5B MPO IL6 CRP
10 nonspecific interstitial pneumonia 33.0 SFTPD SFTPA2 MUC5B MPO CRP
11 acute interstitial pneumonia 33.0 SFTPD SFTPA2 MUC5B IL6 CRP
12 interstitial pneumonitis, desquamative, familial 33.0 SFTPD SFTPA2 MUC5B
13 idiopathic interstitial pneumonia 32.8 TNF SFTPD SFTPA2 SFTPA1 MUC5B MPO
14 bronchopneumonia 32.7 TNF MPO IL6 IL1B IL10 ELANE
15 aspiration pneumonitis 32.7 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CRP
16 interstitial lung disease 2 32.7 TNF SFTPD SFTPA2 SFTPA1 MUC5B MPO
17 anaerobic pneumonia 32.6 SFTPD IL1B
18 bronchiolitis obliterans 32.6 TNF SFTPD MPO IL6 IL10 CXCL8
19 covid-19 32.5 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
20 adult respiratory distress syndrome 32.5 TNF SFTPD MPO IL6 IL1B IL10
21 extrinsic allergic alveolitis 32.5 TNF SFTPD MUC5B ELANE CXCL8 CCL3
22 respiratory failure 32.4 TNF SFTPD MPO IL6 IL1B IL10
23 q fever 32.4 TNF MBL2 IL6 IL1B IL10 CCL2
24 bronchiolitis 32.4 TNF SFTPD IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
25 toxic shock syndrome 32.4 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CSF3
26 legionellosis 32.4 TNF IL6 IL1B CRP CD40LG
27 melioidosis 32.4 TNF IL6 IL10 CSF3
28 severe cutaneous adverse reaction 32.4 TNF IL6 CRP
29 chickenpox 32.4 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CSF3 CRP
30 common cold 32.3 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
31 haemophilus influenzae 32.3 TNF IL1B CXCL8
32 avian influenza 32.3 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CCL3
33 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 32.2 TNF SFTPD MPO IL6 IL1B ELANE
34 chronic granulomatous disease 32.2 TNF MPO IL1B CSF3 CD40LG
35 invasive aspergillosis 32.1 TNF IL6 IL10 CSF3 CRP
36 cryptococcosis 32.1 TNF MBL2 IL10
37 pasteurellosis 32.1 MPO ELANE CXCL8
38 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 32.1 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CRP CD40LG
39 chlamydia 32.1 TNF MBL2 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
40 plague 32.1 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
41 tularemia 32.1 TNF MBL2 IL6 IL1B
42 cryptococcal meningitis 32.1 TNF IL6 IL10
43 lung disease 32.0 TNF SFTPD SFTPA2 SFTPA1 MUC5B MPO
44 severe combined immunodeficiency 32.0 TNF IL6 IL10 CSF3 CD40LG
45 good syndrome 32.0 TNF IL6 IL10 CRP
46 toxocariasis 32.0 IL6 IL10 CRP
47 severe covid-19 32.0 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CSF3
48 severe acute respiratory syndrome 32.0 TNF MBL2 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
49 aspergillosis 32.0 TNF SFTPD SFTPA2 SFTPA1 MBL2 IL6
50 common variable immunodeficiency 32.0 TNF MPO MBL2 IL6 IL1B IL10

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pneumonia:



Diseases related to Pneumonia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pneumonia

UMLS symptoms related to Pneumonia:


fever; hemoptysis; pruritus; snoring; coughing

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Pneumonia:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.06 CCL2 CCL3 CD40LG CRP CXCL2 ELANE
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.89 CCL2 CCL3 CD40LG CRP CSF3 CXCL2
3 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.53 CCL2 CCL3 CD40LG CSF3 CXCL2 ELANE

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pneumonia

PubMed Health treatment related to Pneumonia: 63

Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia you have and how severe it is. Most people who have community-acquired pneumonia—the most common type of pneumonia—are treated at home. The goals of treatment are to cure the infection and prevent complications.

Drugs for Pneumonia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 691)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Tazobactam Approved Phase 4 89786-04-9 123630
2
Piperacillin Approved Phase 4 66258-76-2 43672
3
Tigecycline Approved Phase 4 220620-09-7 5282044
4
Polymyxin B Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 1405-20-5, 1404-26-8 4868
5
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85721-33-1, 93107-08-5 2764
6
Reviparin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9041-08-1
7
Ertapenem Approved, Investigational Phase 4 153832-46-3 150610
8
Sulfisoxazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 127-69-5 5344
9
Hydrogen peroxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 7722-84-1 784
10
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 10118-90-8, 13614-98-7 54675783 5281021
11
Bromhexine Approved Phase 4 3572-43-8
12
Benzylpenicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 61-33-6 5904
13
Acyclovir Approved Phase 4 59277-89-3 2022
14
Ganciclovir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 82410-32-0 3454
15
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 471-34-1
16
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 50-18-0, 6055-19-2 2907
17
Meropenem Approved, Investigational Phase 4 119478-56-7, 96036-03-2 441130
18
Doripenem Approved, Investigational Phase 4 148016-81-3 73303
19
Fluticasone Approved, Experimental Phase 4 90566-53-3 4659387 5311101
20
Clavulanic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 58001-44-8 5280980
21
Cefoxitin Approved Phase 4 35607-66-0 441199
22
Ranitidine Approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 66357-59-3, 82530-72-1, 66357-35-5 3001055 5039
23
Sucralfate Approved Phase 4 54182-58-0
24
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
25
Dibekacin Approved Phase 4 34493-98-6 3021 470999
26
Cefuroxime Approved Phase 4 55268-75-2 5479529
27
Netilmicin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56391-56-1 6857423
28
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
29
Lumefantrine Approved Phase 4 82186-77-4 6437380
30
Cefditoren Approved, Investigational Phase 4 117467-28-4, 104145-95-1 9870843
31
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 249296-44-4 5310966
32
Oxacillin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 66-79-5 6196
33
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
34
Lenalidomide Approved Phase 4 191732-72-6 216326
35
Bortezomib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 179324-69-7 387447 93860
36
Daratumumab Approved Phase 4 945721-28-8
37
Ixazomib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1072833-77-2 25183872
38
Meticillin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 61-32-5 6087
39
Avibactam Approved Phase 4 1192500-31-4
40
Spironolactone Approved Phase 4 1952-01-7, 52-01-7 5833
41
Remdesivir Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1809249-37-3 121304016
42
Canrenoic acid Approved, Withdrawn Phase 4 4138-96-9 4872
43
Pirfenidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53179-13-8 40632
44
Imipenem Approved Phase 4 74431-23-5, 64221-86-9 104838
45
Cilastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 82009-34-5 6435415
46
Relebactam Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1174018-99-5
47
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6 774
48
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
49
Valproic acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
50
Famotidine Approved Phase 4 76824-35-6 3325 5702160

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2345)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Individualizing Duration of Antibiotic Therapy in Hospitalized Patients With Community - Acquired Pneumonia: a Non-inferiority, Randomized, Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT01492387 Phase 4
2 Effects of Oral Steroid in Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Pneumonia With Lobar Consolidation or Pleural Effusion in Children Unknown status NCT02618057 Phase 4 Prednisolone;Levofloxacin
3 Chlorhexidine Gluconate for Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Unknown status NCT01883596 Phase 4 0.12% chlorhexidine solution;Placebo
4 The Applicability of Different Scoring Systems and Use of Steroids in the Treatment of Hospital Acquired Pneumonia Unknown status NCT03121690 Phase 4 Prednisone;placebo
5 Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of 10-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV10) in Children Aged 12-59 Months Unknown status NCT01028326 Phase 4
6 Aerosolized Antibiotics in the Treatment of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02478710 Phase 4 Aerosolized Tobramycin or Vancomycin;Aerosolized Placebo
7 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study to Compare Efficacy of Caspofungin Combined With Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole Versus Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole as First-line Therapy in Non-HIV Patients With Severe Pneumocystis Pneumonia Unknown status NCT03978559 Phase 4 caspofungin;TMP/SMZ(trimethoprim/sulfisoxazole);Methylprednisolone
8 Linezolid Alone or Combined With Carbapenem Against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in Vitro and in Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Unknown status NCT01356472 Phase 4 Imipenem/cilastatin
9 Prospective Analysis of the Incidence of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Related to the Humidification System: Heat and Moisture Exchanger Versus Heated Humidification Unknown status NCT01546974 Phase 4
10 Comparison of the Incidence of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in Patients Intubated With the Taper Guard Endotracheal Tube Versus a Normal Endotracheal Tube Unknown status NCT01501227 Phase 4
11 Randomized Controlled Trial of Fermented Dairy Product Containing L. Casei Shirota for Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Unknown status NCT01301131 Phase 4
12 Efficacy of Methylprednisolone in Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia,A Multi-center Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02552342 Phase 4 methylprednisolone;Normal saline
13 Safety and Efficacy of the Tong-Fu-Xing-Shen Herbal Formula for Stroke-Associated Pneumonia (TFXSHF) Unknown status NCT04275219 Phase 4 Tongfu capsules;The Placebo of Tongfu capsules
14 An Open, Prospective/Retrospective, Randomized Controlled Cohort Study to Compare the Efficacy of Two Therapeutic Schemes(Abidol Hydrochloride,Abidol Hydrochloride Combined With Interferon Atomization)in the Treatment of 2019-nCoV Pneumonia. Unknown status NCT04254874 Phase 4 Abidol hydrochloride;Abidol Hydrochloride combined with Interferon atomization
15 Use of Bromhexine and Hydroxychloroquine for Treatment of COVID-19 Pneumonia Unknown status NCT04355026 Phase 4 Bromhexine Oral Tablet and/or hydroxychloroquine tablet
16 D-dimer Adjusted Versus Therapeutic Dose Low-molecular-weight Heparin in Patients With COVID-19 Pneumonia Unknown status NCT04584580 Phase 4 low-molecular-weight heparin
17 Shortened Antibiotic Treatment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Nationwide Danish Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT04089787 Phase 4
18 An Open, Prospective/Retrospective, Randomized Controlled Cohort Study to Compare the Efficacy of Three Antiviral Drugs(Abidol Hydrochloride, Oseltamivir and Lopinavir/Ritonavir) in the Treatment of 2019-nCoV Pneumonia. Unknown status NCT04255017 Phase 4 Abidol hydrochloride;Oseltamivir;Lopinavir/ritonavir
19 Anerning Particle for Reducing the Application of Antibiotics of Childhood Community-acquired Pneumonia: a Randomized, Double Blind, Control of Placebo, Multi-center Clinical Study Unknown status NCT03675178 Phase 4 Anerning particle;control group
20 Evaluation of a Clinical Pathway Based on Procalcitonin Levels for the Management of Community-acquired Pneumonia in Outpatients Unknown status NCT02600806 Phase 4 Azithromycin;Levofloxacin
21 Multi-Centre, Prospective, Open Label, Randomized Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Moxifloxacin Versus Levofloxacin Plus Metronidazole in the Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia With Aspiration Factors Unknown status NCT00752947 Phase 4 moxifloxacin;levofloxacin;metronidazole
22 An Open, Prospective/Retrospective, Randomized Controlled Cohort Study to Compare the Efficacy of Different Hormone Doses in the Treatment of 2019-nCoV Severe Pneumonia Unknown status NCT04263402 Phase 4 Methylprednisolone
23 Adequate Duration of Antibiotic Treatment in Community-acquired Pneumonia With High Risk Class and Adequate Initial Clinical Response Unknown status NCT03609099 Phase 4 Moxifloxacin;Placebo
24 Antiviral and Chinese Medicinal Herbs Treatment on Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Pneumonia: Multi-centre, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Study Unknown status NCT00936013 Phase 4 oseltamivir;oseltamivir and chinese medicinal herbs
25 Comparison of Cefdinir and Cefdinir/Clavulanic Acid Combination in Treatment of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (AECB) and Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Adults Unknown status NCT03400735 Phase 4 Cefdinir 300Mg Capsule
26 Adjunctive Therapy of Andrographolid Sulfonatein Community Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02913118 Phase 4 Andrographolid Sulfonate Injection (AS Injection);Cephalosporin;Azithromycin, Minocycline or Doxycycline;Amoxicillin-clavulantic acid;Fluoroquinolones;Placebo
27 Randomized, Open, Parallel, Single-center, Non-inferiority Clinical Trial, With an Active Control Group, Comparing Two Oral Prednisone Regimens With the Aim of Optimizing the Therapeutic Strategy in Patients With Organizing Pneumonia Post-COVID-19 Infection Unknown status NCT04534478 Phase 4 Prednisone
28 The Norwegian Antibiotics for Pneumonia in Children Study Unknown status NCT03446534 Phase 4 Amoxicillin;Placebos
29 A Phase IV, Randomised, Multicentre, Double-blind, Study to Evaluate the Clinical Utility of Prospective Genetic Screening (HLA-B*1301) for Susceptibility to Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome Unknown status NCT02550080 Phase 4 Dapsone
30 Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Young Children With Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa Unknown status NCT02054182 Phase 4 Vitamin D
31 Use of the Endothelin-1 Antagonist Bosentan in Patients With Established Pulmonary Hypertension and Fibrotic Lung Disease. - A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded Study. Unknown status NCT00637065 Phase 4 Bosentan;Placebo
32 The Use of Tocilizumab in the Management of Patients Who Have Severe COVID-19 With Suspected Pulmonary Hyperinflammation Unknown status NCT04377750 Phase 4 Tocilizumab
33 Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Mask Ventilation vs Extrathoracic Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure: A Randomized Prospective Study. Unknown status NCT00331656 Phase 4
34 Efficacy and Safety Study to Evaluate the Use of Nebulized Heparin in Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Covid-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Unknown status NCT04530578 Phase 4 Heparin sodium;Enoxaparin
35 The Impact of Lactobacillus Preparation on the Incidence of Diarrhea in Intensive Care Unit-admitted Patients : Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01792739 Phase 4 Lactobacillus casei variety rhamnosus granules;Placebo
36 Procalcitonin as a Marker of Antibiotic Therapy in Patients With Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Can Measurement of Procalcitonin Reduce the Use of Antibiotics? Unknown status NCT02171338 Phase 4
37 SELECTIVE DIGESTIVE DECONTAMINATION USING ORAL GENTAMICIN AND ORAL POLYMYXIN E FOR ERADICATION OF CARBAPENEM-RESISTANT KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE CARRIAGE IN HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS Unknown status NCT01761487 Phase 4
38 Efficacy of a Preemptive Treatment by Ganciclovir or by Aciclovir in ICU Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation and Presenting a Viral Replication (CMV and/or HSV) - Prospective, Randomized, Double-blinded Multicenter Trial Unknown status NCT02152358 Phase 4 Aciclovir;Ganciclovir;Placebo
39 Piperacillin/Tazobactam Versus Carbapenems in Non-bacteremic Urinary Tract Infections Due to Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Escherichia Coli or Klebsiella Pneumoniae - (CAPITIS Study) Unknown status NCT03891433 Phase 4 Meropenem;Ertapenem 1000 MG;Piperacillin, Tazobactam 4-0.5G Solution for Injection
40 Comparative Clinical Study Between Colistin-Tigecycline Combined Therapy Versus Colistin-Meropenem Combined Therapy in Treatment of Blood Stream Infections With Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Pneumoniae Unknown status NCT04489459 Phase 4 Colistin;Meropenem;Tigecycline
41 Comparing the Effect of Oral Methyl Prednisolone on Different Radiological Patterns of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Unknown status NCT04402177 Phase 4 Methyl Prednisolonate
42 Randomized Open-label Study of the Impact of Prolonged Systemic Corticosteroid Therapy on the Course and Relapse Risk of Checkpoint Inhibitor Interstitial Lung Disease (Pneumonitis) Related to the Treatment of Solid Tumors With Anti-programmed-death Type 1 Receptor or Ligand Antibodies Unknown status NCT04036721 Phase 4 Prolonged glucocorticosteroid (prednisone) regimen;Short glucocorticosteroid (prednisone) regimen
43 Cyclosporine A in the TReatment of Interstitial Pneumonitis Associated With Sjogren's Syndrome(CTRIPS): A Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02370550 Phase 4 Cyclosporin A;Prednisone;Placebo;Calcium carbonate D
44 Effect of Oral Decontamination Using Chlorhexidine or Potassium Permanganate in ICU Patients: an Open-Labelled Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT00610324 Phase 4 Chlorhexidine gluconate;Potassium permanganate
45 A Post Marketing Surveillance Study on the Safety and Effectiveness of Doripenem in the Therapy of Thai Patients With Nosocomial Pneumonia, Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections and Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Completed NCT00965848 Phase 4 Doripenem
46 Response to Pneumococcal Vaccination in Patients After Community Acquired Pneumonia With Streptococcus Pneumoniae Compared to Pneumonia Patients With Another Pathogen. Completed NCT02141009 Phase 4
47 A Prospective Study on the Usage Patterns of Doripenem in the Asia Pacific Region Completed NCT00986102 Phase 4 doripenem
48 Procalcitonin to Reduce Antibiotic Use in Pediatric Pneumonia Completed NCT04963764 Phase 4 Amoxicillin;Placebo
49 Efficacy and Toxicity of Aerosolised Colistin in Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: A Prospective, Randomized Trial Completed NCT02683603 Phase 4 AS colistin and "imipenem";IV colistin " and "imipenem" .;AS colimycin (colistin);IV colimycin (colistin);AS colistin and imipenem;IV colistin and imipenem
50 Clinical Evaluation of a Vancomycin Dosage Strategy Based on a Serum Trough Concentration Model in Elderly Patients With Severe Pneumonia Completed NCT04088305 Phase 4 Individualized therapy

Search NIH Clinical Center for Pneumonia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :


Acetylcysteine
Oxygen
Sucralfate

Cochrane evidence based reviews: pneumonia

Genetic Tests for Pneumonia

Genetic tests related to Pneumonia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Pneumonia 28

Anatomical Context for Pneumonia

Organs/tissues related to Pneumonia:

MalaCards : Lung, Bone Marrow, Heart, Kidney, Bone, Eye, Brain

Publications for Pneumonia

Articles related to Pneumonia:

(show top 50) (show all 40980)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Influenza vaccine to reduce adverse vascular events in patients with heart failure: a multinational randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 41
36400089 2022
2
Nomogram for prediction of severe community-acquired pneumonia development in diabetic patients: a multicenter study. 41
36344933 2022
3
Comparison of frailty in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease and bronchiectasis: a prospective cohort study. 41
36329435 2022
4
Successful resolution of pneumonia developed in a patient affected by Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis and recurrent uveitis during concomitant treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and conventional immunosuppressive drugs. 53 62
19551384 2010
5
Accuracy of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to guide site of care of community-acquired pneumonia. 53 62
20232049 2010
6
Secretory immunoglobulin A abrogates inflammatory responses and improves mortality after pseudomonas pneumonia. 53 62
20386278 2010
7
The impact of time on the systemic inflammatory response in pneumococcal pneumonia. 53 62
19608588 2010
8
Diagnostic importance of pulmonary interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8 in ventilator-associated pneumonia. 53 62
19825784 2010
9
Systemic and bronchoalveolar cytokines as predictors of in-hospital mortality in severe community-acquired pneumonia. 53 62
19592208 2010
10
Blockade of neutrophil responses in aspiration pneumonia via ELR-CXC chemokine antagonism does not predispose to airway bacterial outgrowth. 53 62
19751843 2010
11
Clinical review: the role of biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia. 53 62
20236471 2010
12
CRP gene variation and risk of community-acquired pneumonia. 53 62
19947988 2010
13
Role of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in differentiation of tuberculosis from bacterial community acquired pneumonia. 53 62
19949732 2009
14
Plasma CC16 levels are associated with development of ALI/ARDS in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia: a retrospective observational study. 53 62
19958527 2009
15
Autoantibodies against bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) in children with acute pneumonia. 53 62
19702878 2009
16
Procalcitonin kinetics in Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. 53 62
19438643 2009
17
C-reactive protein to distinguish pneumonia from acute decompensated heart failure. 53 62
19703436 2009
18
C-reactive protein, severity of pneumonia and mortality in elderly, hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia. 53 62
19729453 2009
19
Utility of C-reactive protein in assessing the disease severity and complications of community-acquired pneumonia. 53 62
19548923 2009
20
Accuracy of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and fibrinogen compared to C-reactive protein (CRP) in differentiating pneumonia from acute bronchitis in primary care. 53 62
19330269 2009
21
Influence of age on symptoms and laboratory findings at presentation in patients with influenza-associated pneumonia. 53 62
19150140 2009
22
TREM-1 activation alters the dynamics of pulmonary IRAK-M expression in vivo and improves host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia. 53 62
19596984 2009
23
Nosocomial pneumonia risk and stress ulcer prophylaxis: a comparison of pantoprazole vs ranitidine in cardiothoracic surgery patients. 53 62
19318661 2009
24
[Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and concurrent ventilator-associated pneumonia]. 53 62
19695190 2009
25
C-terminal provasopressin (copeptin) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia--influence of antibiotic pre-treatment: results from the German competence network CAPNETZ. 53 62
19403654 2009
26
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after cessation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha blocker adalimumab in cryptococcal pneumonia. 53 62
19501793 2009
27
First reported United States case of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 pneumonia in a patient receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. 53 62
19583105 2009
28
Acute-phase responsiveness of mannose-binding lectin in community-acquired pneumonia is highly dependent upon MBL2 genotypes. 53 62
19438602 2009
29
Role of IL-10 deficiency in pneumonia induced by Corynebacterium kutscheri in mice. 53 62
19421001 2009
30
C-reactive protein and community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory care: systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies. 53 62
19074757 2009
31
Suppression of pulmonary innate host defence in smokers. 53 62
18852155 2009
32
Mannose-binding lectin is present in the infected airway: a possible pulmonary defence mechanism. 53 62
18988662 2009
33
Immune reconstitution during Pneumocystis lung infection: disruption of surfactant component expression and function by S-nitrosylation. 53 62
19201882 2009
34
[Respiratory infections research: a perspective from the tuberculosis and respiratory infections area (TIR)]. 53 62
19303524 2009
35
Plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 level in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and association with disease severity. 53 62
19181604 2009
36
Mannose-binding lectin genotypes in susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia. 53 62
18641104 2008
37
Children with absent surfactant protein D in bronchoalveolar lavage have more frequently pneumonia. 53 62
18266831 2008
38
Usefulness of consecutive C-reactive protein measurements in follow-up of severe community-acquired pneumonia. 53 62
18508833 2008
39
Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphic variants predispose to the development of bronchopulmonary complications but have no influence on other clinical and laboratory symptoms or signs of common variable immunodeficiency. 53 62
18637104 2008
40
Mannose-binding lectin and mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 in susceptibility, severity, and outcome of pneumonia in adults. 53 62
18582923 2008
41
Prognostic role of clinical and laboratory criteria to identify early ventilator-associated pneumonia in brain injury. 53 62
18403669 2008
42
Alveolar epithelial STAT3, IL-6 family cytokines, and host defense during Escherichia coli pneumonia. 53 62
18192501 2008
43
Resveratrol ameliorates Serratia marcescens-induced acute pneumonia in rats. 53 62
18174363 2008
44
Assessment of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with pneumonia. 53 62
17916178 2008
45
C-reactive protein is an independent predictor of severity in community-acquired pneumonia. 53 62
18328306 2008
46
The utility of serum C-reactive protein in differentiating bacterial from nonbacterial pneumonia in children: a meta-analysis of 1230 children. 53 62
18174874 2008
47
Co-infection of respiratory bacterium with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus induces an exacerbated pneumonia in mice. 53 62
18380809 2008
48
Procalcitonin predicts patients at low risk of death from community-acquired pneumonia across all CRB-65 classes. 53 62
17959641 2008
49
Copeptin, a novel prognostic biomarker in ventilator-associated pneumonia. 53 62
18252006 2008
50
[Detection of serum Th1 and Th2 cytokines and its significance in neonates with cytomegalovirus pneumonia]. 53 62
18322603 2007

Variations for Pneumonia

Expression for Pneumonia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pneumonia.

Pathways for Pneumonia

Pathways related to Pneumonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 66)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.87 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2
2
Show member pathways
13.68 CCL2 CCL3 CD40LG CSF3 CXCL2 CXCL8
3
Show member pathways
13.66 CCL2 CCL3 CD40LG CRP CSF3 CXCL2
4
Show member pathways
13.48 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2
5
Show member pathways
13.39 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2
6
Show member pathways
13.36 CCL2 CCL3 CD40LG CSF3 CXCL2 CXCL8
7
Show member pathways
12.93 TNF SFTPD SFTPA2 MBL2 IL6 IL1B
8 12.73 IL6 IL1B IL10 CSF3 CCL2
9
Show member pathways
12.67 CRP ELANE MBL2 SFTPA1 SFTPA2
10
Show member pathways
12.67 TNF MUC5B IL6 IL1B CXCL8
11
Show member pathways
12.67 CCL2 IL10 IL1B IL6 MPO TNF
12 12.65 TNF MPO IL1B IL10 CD40LG CCL2
13
Show member pathways
12.53 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8
14
Show member pathways
12.52 CXCL8 IL1B IL6 SFTPA1 SFTPD TNF
15
Show member pathways
12.34 TNF MUC5B IL6 CXCL8 CXCL2 CSF3
16
Show member pathways
12.33 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8
17 12.26 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
18 12.15 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
19
Show member pathways
12.11 CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL3 CCL2
20 12.11 TNF MPO IL6 IL10 CSF3
21 12.09 CCL2 CXCL2 CXCL8 IL1B IL6 TNF
22 12.05 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CCL2
23 12.01 CCL3 CXCL8 IL1B IL6
24 12.01 CCL2 CCL3 CXCL8 IL10 IL6
25
Show member pathways
11.99 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
26 11.99 TNF IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CD40LG
27 11.89 TNF IL1B IL10 CCL3
28
Show member pathways
11.88 IL6 CXCL8 CSF3
29 11.88 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CCL2
30
Show member pathways
11.86 IL6 CXCL8 CRP CCL2
31 11.84 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
32 11.83 TNF IL6 IL10 CRP CD40LG
33 11.81 IL6 IL10 CXCL8 CCL2
34 11.78 IL6 IL10 CD40LG
35 11.76 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CD40LG
36
Show member pathways
11.75 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CXCL2 CD40LG
37
Show member pathways
11.73 TNF CXCL8 CD40LG
38 11.73 TNF IL6 IL10 ELANE CXCL8 CCL3
39
Show member pathways
11.67 IL10 IL6 TNF
40 11.66 TNF IL6 CXCL8 CD40LG CCL2
41 11.62 TNF IL10 CCL2
42 11.62 TNF IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL3 CCL2
43 11.58 TNF IL1B CCL2
44 11.56 TNF IL6 CCL2
45 11.55 TNF IL6 IL1B
46 11.52 TNF IL6 CCL2
47 11.49 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
48
Show member pathways
11.47 SFTPD SFTPA2 SFTPA1
49
Show member pathways
11.44 TNF IL10 CCL3
50 11.42 CCL2 CXCL8 IL6

GO Terms for Pneumonia

Cellular components related to Pneumonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 10.19 CCL2 CCL3 CD40LG CRP CSF3 CXCL2
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.88 CCL2 CCL3 CD40LG CRP CSF3 CXCL2
3 multivesicular body GO:0005771 9.8 SFTPD SFTPA2 SFTPA1
4 collagen trimer GO:0005581 9.76 SFTPD SFTPA2 SFTPA1 MBL2
5 clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle GO:0045334 9.73 SFTPD SFTPA2 SFTPA1

Biological processes related to Pneumonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 43)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.51 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2
2 chemotaxis GO:0006935 10.29 CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL3 CCL2
3 MAPK cascade GO:0000165 10.28 TNF IL1B CCL3 CCL2
4 defense response to bacterium GO:0042742 10.26 ELANE IL10 MBL2 MPO SFTPD TNF
5 chemokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070098 10.21 CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL3 CCL2
6 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 10.21 TNF MBL2 IL6 IL1B CRP
7 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 10.19 TNF IL6 IL1B ELANE
8 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 10.19 TNF MPO IL1B IL10 ELANE
9 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 10.19 CSF3 IL10 IL1B IL6 TNF
10 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 10.17 TNF IL6 IL1B
11 response to activity GO:0014823 10.16 TNF IL6 IL10
12 monocyte chemotaxis GO:0002548 10.16 IL6 CCL3 CCL2
13 cellular response to organic cyclic compound GO:0071407 10.16 TNF IL1B CCL3 CCL2
14 protein kinase B signaling GO:0043491 10.15 TNF IL1B CCL3 CCL2
15 acute-phase response GO:0006953 10.14 MBL2 IL6 CRP
16 positive regulation of receptor signaling pathway via JAK-STAT GO:0046427 10.13 IL10 IL6 TNF
17 respiratory gaseous exchange by respiratory system GO:0007585 10.12 SFTPD SFTPA2 SFTPA1
18 liver regeneration GO:0097421 10.11 TNF IL6 IL10
19 inflammatory response GO:0006954 10.11 CCL2 CCL3 CD40LG CRP CXCL2 CXCL8
20 negative regulation of neurogenesis GO:0050768 10.1 TNF IL6 IL1B
21 positive regulation of glial cell proliferation GO:0060252 10.08 TNF IL6 IL1B
22 positive regulation of phagocytosis GO:0050766 10.08 TNF SFTPD MBL2 IL1B
23 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 10.07 IL1B IL6 TNF
24 defense response GO:0006952 10.06 TNF MPO CXCL8 CXCL2
25 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 10.05 IL10 IL1B TNF
26 macrophage chemotaxis GO:0048246 10.04 CCL2 CCL3 SFTPD
27 lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway GO:0031663 10.01 TNF IL1B CCL3 CCL2
28 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 9.97 TNF IL10
29 positive regulation of fever generation GO:0031622 9.97 TNF IL1B
30 neutrophil chemotaxis GO:0030593 9.96 IL1B CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL3 CCL2
31 sequestering of triglyceride GO:0030730 9.95 TNF IL1B
32 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.95 IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2
33 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.93 TNF IL1B
34 positive regulation of neuroinflammatory response GO:0150078 9.93 TNF IL6 IL1B
35 signaling GO:0023052 9.92 TNF CD40LG CCL3
36 chronic inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus GO:0002439 9.92 IL10 TNF
37 response to gold nanoparticle GO:1990268 9.91 MPO TNF
38 negative regulation of lipid storage GO:0010888 9.91 CRP IL6 TNF
39 opsonization GO:0008228 9.85 SFTPA1 MBL2 CRP
40 leukocyte migration GO:0050900 9.82 TNF IL1B ELANE
41 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.8 IL1B IL6 TNF
42 immune response GO:0006955 9.73 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2
43 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.5 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2

Molecular functions related to Pneumonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signaling receptor binding GO:0005102 9.76 TNF MBL2 IL6 CSF3 CD40LG CCL2
2 chemokine activity GO:0008009 9.56 CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL3 CCL2
3 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.53 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2

Sources for Pneumonia

2 CDC
6 CNVD
8 Cosmic
9 dbSNP
10 DGIdb
16 EFO
17 ExPASy
18 FMA
19 GARD
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HMDB
30 HPO
31 ICD10
32 ICD10 via Orphanet
33 ICD11
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 LifeMap
38 LOVD
40 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
52 NINDS
53 Novoseek
55 ODiseA
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 08-Dec-2022)
61 PubChem
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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