Categories: Blood diseases, Infectious diseases, Respiratory diseases

Summaries for Pneumonia

MedlinePlus : 42 What is pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection in one or both of the lungs. It causes the air sacs of the lungs to fill up with fluid or pus. It can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of germ causing the infection, your age, and your overall health. What causes pneumonia? Bacterial, viral, and fungal infections can cause pneumonia. Bacteria are the most common cause. Bacterial pneumonia can occur on its own. It can also develop after you've had certain viral infections such as a cold or the flu. Several different types of bacteria can cause pneumonia, including Streptococcus pneumoniae Legionella pneumophila; this pneumonia is often called Legionnaires' disease Mycoplasma pneumoniae Chlamydia pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae Viruses that infect the respiratory tract may cause pneumonia. Viral pneumonia is often mild and goes away on its own within a few weeks. But sometimes it is serious enough that you need to get treatment in a hospital. If you have viral pneumonia, you are at risk of also getting bacterial pneumonia. The different viruses that can cause pneumonia include Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Some common cold and flu viruses SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 Fungal pneumonia is more common in people who have chronic health problems or weakened immune systems. Some of the types include Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) Coccidioidomycosis, which causes valley fever Histoplasmosis Cryptococcus Who is at risk for pneumonia? Anyone can get pneumonia, but certain factors can increase your risk: Age; the risk is higher for children who are age 2 and under and adults age 65 and older Exposure to certain chemicals, pollutants, or toxic fumes Lifestyle habits, such as smoking, heavy alcohol use, and malnourishment Being in a hospital, especially if you are in the ICU. Being sedated and/or on a ventilator raises the risk even more. Having a lung disease Having a weakened immune system Have trouble coughing or swallowing, from a stroke or other condition Recently being sick with a cold or the flu What are the symptoms of pneumonia? The symptoms of pneumonia can range from mild to severe and include Fever Chills Cough, usually with phlegm (a slimy substance from deep in your lungs) Shortness of breath Chest pain when you breathe or cough Nausea and/or vomiting Diarrhea The symptoms can vary for different groups. Newborns and infants may not show any signs of the infection. Others may vomit and have a fever and cough. They might seem sick, with no energy, or be restless. Older adults and people who have serious illnesses or weak immune systems may have fewer and milder symptoms. They may even have a lower than normal temperature. Older adults who have pneumonia sometimes have sudden changes in mental awareness. What other problems can pneumonia cause? Sometimes pneumonia can cause serious complications such as Bacteremia, which happens when the bacteria move into the bloodstream. It is serious and can lead to septic shock. Lung abscesses, which are collections of pus in cavities of the lungs Pleural disorders, which are conditions that affect the pleura. The pleura is the tissue that covers the outside of the lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity. Kidney failure Respiratory failure How is pneumonia diagnosed? Sometimes pneumonia can be hard to diagnose. This is because it can cause some of the same symptoms as a cold or the flu. It may take time for you to realize that you have a more serious condition. To make a diagnosis, your health care provider Will ask about medical history and symptoms Will do a physical exam, including listening to your lungs with a stethoscope May do tests, including Chest x-ray Blood tests such as a complete blood count (CBC) to see if your immune system is actively fighting an infection Blood culture to find out whether you have a bacterial infection that has spread to your bloodstream If you are in the hospital, have serious symptoms, are older, or have other health problems, you may also have more tests, such as Sputum test, which checks for bacteria in a sample of your sputum (spit) or phlegm (slimy substance from deep in your lungs). Chest CT scan to see how much of your lungs is affected. It may also show if you have complications such as lung abscesses or pleural effusions. Pleural fluid culture, which checks for bacteria in a fluid sample that was taken from the pleural space Pulse oximetry or blood oxygen level test, to check how much oxygen is in your blood Bronchoscopy, a procedure used to look inside your lungs' airways What are the treatments for pneumonia? Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia, which germ is causing it, and how severe it is: Antibiotics treat bacterial pneumonia and some types of fungal pneumonia. They do not work for viral pneumonia. In some cases, your provider may prescribe antiviral medicines for viral pneumonia Antifungal medicines treat other types of fungal pneumonia You may need to be treated in a hospital if your symptoms are severe or if you are at risk for complications. While there, you may get additional treatments. For example, if your blood oxygen level is low, you may receive oxygen therapy. It may take time to recover from pneumonia. Some people feel better within a week. For other people, it can take a month or more. Can pneumonia be prevented? Vaccines can help prevent pneumonia caused by pneumococcal bacteria or the flu virus. Having good hygiene, not smoking, and having a healthy lifestyle may also help prevent pneumonia. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

MalaCards based summary : Pneumonia, also known as acute pneumonia, is related to cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, and has symptoms including fever, hemoptysis and pruritus. An important gene associated with Pneumonia is TTR (Transthyretin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and ERK Signaling. The drugs Bosentan and Lenograstim have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, neutrophil and skin, and related phenotypes are Reduced mammosphere formation and hematopoietic system

Disease Ontology : 12 A lung disease that involves lung parenchyma or alveolar inflammation and abnormal alveolar filling with fluid (consolidation and exudation). It results from a variety of causes including infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites, and chemical or physical injury to the lungs. It is accompanied by fever, chills, cough, and difficulty in breathing.

CDC : 3 Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can cause mild to severe illness in people of all ages. Depending on the cause, doctors often treat pneumonia with medicine. In addition, vaccines can prevent some types of pneumonia. However, it is still the leading infectious cause of death in children younger than 5 years old worldwide. Common signs of pneumonia include cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. You can help prevent pneumonia and other respiratory infections by following good hygiene practices. These practices include washing your hands regularly and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces. Making healthy choices, like quitting smoking and managing ongoing medical conditions, can also help prevent pneumonia.

PubMed Health : 62 About pneumonia: Pneumonia (nu-MO-ne-ah) is an infection in one or both of the lungs. Many germs—such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi—can cause pneumonia. The infection inflames your lungs' air sacs, which are called alveoli (al-VEE-uhl-eye). The air sacs may fill up with fluid or pus, causing symptoms such as a cough with phlegm (a slimy substance), fever, chills, and trouble breathing.

Wikipedia : 74 Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung primarily affecting the small air sacs known as... more...

Related Diseases for Pneumonia

Diseases in the Pneumonia family:

Viral Pneumonia Bacterial Pneumonia

Diseases related to Pneumonia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 2053)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cryptogenic organizing pneumonia 33.5 TNF SFTPD MPO CXCL8 CRP
2 mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia 33.5 TNF SFTPD IL6 IL10 CRP
3 pneumocystosis 33.5 TNF SFTPD IL6 CSF3 CRP CD40LG
4 eosinophilic pneumonia 33.4 SFTPD IL5 CXCL8
5 viral pneumonia 33.4 TNF SFTPD IL6 IL10 CXCL8 CRP
6 bacterial pneumonia 33.4 TNF SFTPD IL6 IL1B IL10 ELANE
7 aspiration pneumonia 33.3 TNF IL6 CRP
8 chronic eosinophilic pneumonia 33.3 IL6 IL5 CSF3 CCL3 CCL2
9 idiopathic interstitial pneumonia 33.3 SFTPD MUC5B ELANE CXCL8 CCL2
10 klebsiella pneumonia 33.2 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
11 nonspecific interstitial pneumonia 33.2 SFTPD MUC5B CCL2
12 acute interstitial pneumonia 33.1 TNF SFTPD IL6 CRP
13 chlamydia pneumonia 33.0 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
14 pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic 33.0 TNF SFTPD MUC5B MPO IL6 IL5
15 bronchopneumonia 33.0 TNF MPO IL6 IL1B IL10 ELANE
16 streptococcus pneumonia 33.0 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
17 anaerobic pneumonia 32.8 MPO IL6 IL1B
18 lymphoid interstitial pneumonia 32.8 TNF IL6 FOXP3 CRP
19 aspiration pneumonitis 32.7 TNF CXCL8 CRP
20 covid-19 32.7 IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CCL2
21 bronchiolitis 32.6 TNF SFTPD IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10
22 respiratory failure 32.6 TTR TNF SFTPD MPO IL6 IL5
23 q fever 32.6 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CCL2
24 adult respiratory distress syndrome 32.6 TNF SFTPD MPO IL6 IL1B IL10
25 toxic shock syndrome 32.6 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
26 chickenpox 32.6 TNF IL6 IL10 CRP
27 melioidosis 32.5 TNF IL6 IL10 CSF3
28 lung disease 32.5 TNF SFTPD MUC5B MPO IL6 IL5
29 legionellosis 32.5 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CXCL2
30 bronchiolitis obliterans 32.4 TNF SFTPD MPO IL6 IL10 FOXP3
31 pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive 32.4 TNF SFTPD MPO IL6 IL5 IL1B
32 chronic granulomatous disease 32.3 TNF MPO IL1B ELANE CXCL8 CSF3
33 avian influenza 32.3 TNF SFTPD IL6 CXCL8
34 chlamydia 32.3 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
35 stroke, ischemic 32.3 TNF IL6 IL1B CRP CCL3
36 extrinsic allergic alveolitis 32.3 SFTPD MPO IL6 IL1B IL10 ELANE
37 erythema multiforme 32.3 TNF IL6 IL5 CXCL8
38 invasive aspergillosis 32.3 SFTPD IL10 CXCL8 CSF3
39 severe acute respiratory syndrome 32.2 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
40 haemophilus influenzae 32.2 TNF CXCL8
41 pasteurellosis 32.2 TNF MPO ELANE CXCL8
42 plague 32.2 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
43 common cold 32.2 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
44 myeloma, multiple 32.2 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CSF3
45 pulmonary fibrosis 32.2 SFTPD MUC5B MPO IL1B ELANE CXCL8
46 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 32.2 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CRP CD40LG
47 silicosis 32.1 TNF SFTPD IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CCL2
48 ascaris lumbricoides infection 32.1 IL6 IL5 IL1B CXCL8
49 disease by infectious agent 32.1 TNF SFTPD IL6 IL1B IL10 CRP
50 pyuria 32.1 IL6 CXCL8 CRP

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pneumonia:

Diseases related to Pneumonia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pneumonia

UMLS symptoms related to Pneumonia:

fever, hemoptysis, pruritus, snoring, coughing

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Pneumonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Reduced mammosphere formation GR00396-S 9.17 CCL2 CCL3 CSF3 CXCL2 CXCL8 IL5

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Pneumonia:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 9.77 CD40LG CSF3 CXCL2 ELANE FOXP3 IL10
2 immune system MP:0005387 9.5 CCL2 CD40LG CRP CSF3 CXCL2 ELANE

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pneumonia

PubMed Health treatment related to Pneumonia: 62

Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia you have and how severe it is. Most people who have community-acquired pneumonia—the most common type of pneumonia—are treated at home. The goals of treatment are to cure the infection and prevent complications.

Drugs for Pneumonia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 664)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Bosentan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 147536-97-8 104865
Lenograstim Approved, Investigational Phase 4 135968-09-1
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 10118-90-8 5281021
Linezolid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 165800-03-3 441401
Vancomycin Approved Phase 4 1404-90-6 441141 14969
Cefuroxime Approved Phase 4 55268-75-2 5361202 5479529
Oxacillin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 66-79-5 6196
Amikacin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 37517-28-5 37768
Lumefantrine Approved Phase 4 82186-77-4 6437380
Varenicline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 249296-44-4 5310966
Cisatracurium Approved Phase 4 96946-41-7 62887
Atracurium Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 64228-79-1 47319
Efavirenz Approved, Investigational Phase 4 154598-52-4 64139
Zidovudine Approved Phase 4 30516-87-1 35370
Nevirapine Approved Phase 4 129618-40-2 4463
Cefoxitin Approved Phase 4 35607-66-0 441199
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2
Sucralfate Approved Phase 4 54182-58-0
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6, 75614-87-8 774
Netilmicin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56391-56-1 441306 6857423
Dibekacin Approved Phase 4 34493-98-6
Cefdinir Approved Phase 4 91832-40-5 6915944
Meropenem Approved, Investigational Phase 4 96036-03-2, 119478-56-7 64778 441130
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
26 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
Tazobactam Approved Phase 4 89786-04-9 123630
Piperacillin Approved Phase 4 66258-76-2 43672
Tigecycline Approved Phase 4 220620-09-7 5282044
Cefditoren Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104145-95-1, 117467-28-4 9571074 9870843
Bromhexine Approved Phase 4 3572-43-8
Enoxaparin Approved Phase 4 9005-49-6 772
Posaconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 171228-49-2 147912
Heparin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9005-49-6 772 9812414
Dalteparin Approved Phase 4 9005-49-6
Tinzaparin Approved Phase 4 9041-08-1, 9005-49-6 25244225
Ertapenem Approved, Investigational Phase 4 153832-46-3 150610
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
Clopidogrel Approved Phase 4 120202-66-6, 113665-84-2 60606
Ticagrelor Approved Phase 4 274693-27-5 9871419
Hydrogen peroxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 7722-84-1 784
Caspofungin Approved Phase 4 162808-62-0, 179463-17-3 468682 2826718
Sulfisoxazole Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 127-69-5 5344
Apremilast Approved, Investigational Phase 4 608141-41-9 11561674
Interferon beta-1a Approved, Investigational Phase 4 145258-61-3 6438354
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
Calcium carbonate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 471-34-1

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 2012)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Norwegian Antibiotics for Pneumonia in Children Study Unknown status NCT03446534 Phase 4 Amoxicillin;Placebos
2 Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Linezolid Administered Intravenously in MRSA-positive, Morbidly Obese Patients With Pneumonia Unknown status NCT01805284 Phase 4 Linezolid
3 Effects of Oral Steroid in Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Pneumonia With Lobar Consolidation or Pleural Effusion in Children Unknown status NCT02618057 Phase 4 Prednisolone;Levofloxacin
4 Individualizing Duration of Antibiotic Therapy in Hospitalized Patients With Community - Acquired Pneumonia: a Non-inferiority, Randomized, Controlled Trial. Unknown status NCT01492387 Phase 4
5 Effectiveness Trial of Day-care Versus Usual Care Management of Severe Pneumonia With or Without Malnutrition in Children Using the Existing Health System of Bangladesh Unknown status NCT02669654 Phase 4
6 Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Plus N-Acetyl Cysteine In Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis Unknown status NCT02971306 Phase 4 standard medical therapy;G-CSF;n-Acetylcysteine
7 Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of 10-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV10) in Children Aged 12-59 Months Unknown status NCT01028326 Phase 4
8 Prospective Analysis of the Incidence of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Related to the Humidification System: Heat and Moisture Exchanger Versus Heated Humidification Unknown status NCT01546974 Phase 4
9 Comparison of the Incidence of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in Patients Intubated With the Taper Guard Endotracheal Tube Versus a Normal Endotracheal Tube Unknown status NCT01501227 Phase 4
10 Aerosolized Antibiotics in the Treatment of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: A Pilot Study Unknown status NCT02478710 Phase 4 Aerosolized Tobramycin or Vancomycin;Aerosolized Placebo
11 Ventilator Associated Pneumonia: Addition of Tobramycin Inhalation Antibiotic Treatment to Standard IV Antibiotic Treatment Unknown status NCT02440828 Phase 4 tobramycin inhalation;placebo
12 Evaluation of PCV Schedules in a Naive Population in Vietnam Unknown status NCT02961231 Phase 4
13 Linezolid Alone or Combined With Carbapenem Against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in Vitro and in Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Unknown status NCT01356472 Phase 4 Imipenem/cilastatin
14 Randomized Controlled Trial of Fermented Dairy Product Containing L. Casei Shirota for Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Unknown status NCT01301131 Phase 4
15 Chlorhexidine Gluconate for Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Unknown status NCT01883596 Phase 4 0.12% chlorhexidine solution;Placebo
16 Efficacy of Methylprednisolone in Severe Community-acquired Pneumonia,A Multi-center Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT02552342 Phase 4 methylprednisolone;Normal saline
18 Procalcitonin as a Marker of Antibiotic Therapy in Patients With Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Can Measurement of Procalcitonin Reduce the Use of Antibiotics? Unknown status NCT02171338 Phase 4
19 Evaluation of a Clinical Pathway Based on Procalcitonin Levels for the Management of Community-acquired Pneumonia in Outpatients Unknown status NCT02600806 Phase 4 Azithromycin;Levofloxacin
20 Multi-Centre, Prospective, Open Label, Randomized Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Moxifloxacin Versus Levofloxacin Plus Metronidazole in the Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia With Aspiration Factors Unknown status NCT00752947 Phase 4 moxifloxacin;levofloxacin;metronidazole
21 Anerning Particle for Reducing the Application of Antibiotics of Childhood Community-acquired Pneumonia: a Randomized, Double Blind, Control of Placebo, Multi-center Clinical Study Unknown status NCT03675178 Phase 4 Anerning particle;control group
22 Adjunctive Therapy of Andrographolid Sulfonatein Community Acquired Pneumonia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02913118 Phase 4 Andrographolid Sulfonate Injection (AS Injection);Cephalosporin;Azithromycin, Minocycline or Doxycycline;Amoxicillin-clavulantic acid;Fluoroquinolones;Placebo
23 Comparison of Cefdinir and Cefdinir/Clavulanic Acid Combination in Treatment of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (AECB) and Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Adults Unknown status NCT03400735 Phase 4 Cefdinir 300Mg Capsule
24 Antiviral and Chinese Medicinal Herbs Treatment on Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Pneumonia: Multi-centre, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Study Unknown status NCT00936013 Phase 4 oseltamivir;oseltamivir and chinese medicinal herbs
25 1-Year Longitudinal Follow-up Study of Serologic Responses to 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccination and Opsonophagocytic Activities for Streptococcus Pneumoniae Among Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Unknown status NCT00885625 Phase 4
26 Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Young Children With Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa Unknown status NCT02054182 Phase 4 Vitamin D
27 The Impact of Lactobacillus Preparation on the Incidence of Diarrhea in Intensive Care Unit-admitted Patients : Randomized Controlled Trial Unknown status NCT01792739 Phase 4 Lactobacillus casei variety rhamnosus granules;Placebo
28 Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Mask Ventilation vs Extrathoracic Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation in Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure: A Randomized Prospective Study. Unknown status NCT00331656 Phase 4
29 Use of the Endothelin-1 Antagonist Bosentan in Patients With Established Pulmonary Hypertension and Fibrotic Lung Disease. - A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded Study. Unknown status NCT00637065 Phase 4 Bosentan;Placebo
30 A Phase IV, Randomised, Multicentre, Double-blind, Study to Evaluate the Clinical Utility of Prospective Genetic Screening (HLA-B*1301) for Susceptibility to Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome Unknown status NCT02550080 Phase 4 Dapsone
31 Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Effectiveness Trial of the 23-Valent Pneumococcal Vaccine Among Military Trainees At Increased Risk of Respiratory Disease Completed NCT02079701 Phase 4
32 Comparison of Immune Response in Pneumococcal Pneumonia and After Vaccination Completed NCT01402245 Phase 4
33 COMPARISON OF CLINICAL EFFICACY OF COMBINATION Amoxycillin Plus Clavulanic Acid and Oxacillin Plus Ceftriaxone for HOSPITAL TREATMENT OF COMMUNITY Acquired PNEUMONIA IN CHILDREN : A Randomized Clinical Study Completed NCT01166932 Phase 4 Amoxycillin/clavulanic acid;ceftriaxone/oxacillin
34 Pharmacodynamic of Ceftaroline and Levofloxacin Against Pathogens Associated With Community Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (CABP) Completed NCT01524302 Phase 4 Ceftaroline;Levofloxacin
35 A Multicenter, Randomized, Observer-Blinded, Active-Controlled Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Ceftaroline Versus Ceftriaxone Plus Vancomycin in Pediatric Subjects With Complicated Community-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (CABP) Completed NCT01669980 Phase 4 Ceftaroline fosamil;IV Ceftriaxone and Vancomycin
36 A Multicenter, Multinational, Randomized, Double-blind Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Ceftaroline Fosamil Versus Ceftriaxone Plus Vancomycin in Adult Subjects With Community-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia at Risk for Infection Due to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Completed NCT01645735 Phase 4 Ceftaroline fosamil;Ceftriaxone plus vancomycin
37 Varenicline and Advanced Behavioral Support on Smoking Cessation and Quality of Life in Inpatients With Acute Exacerbation of COPD, Bronchial Asthma Attack, or Community-acquired Pneumonia: a Prospective Open-label 52-week Follow-up Trial Completed NCT02922387 Phase 4 Varenicline
38 A Phase 4, Open-label Trial to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of Prevenar in Older Infants and Young Children in China Who Are Naive to Previous Pneumococcal Vaccination. Completed NCT01193582 Phase 4
39 Systematic Early Use of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in ARDS Patients Completed NCT00299650 Phase 4 cisatracurium;Placebo;Cisatracurium besilate
40 The Impact of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Incidence of Post-bronchoscopy Fever and Change of Serum Cytokines Completed NCT01089218 Phase 4 oral amoxicillin/clavulanate 1g (875/125mg);control
41 Comparison of Azithromycin or Clarithromycin in 3drugs Protocol of H-pylori Eradication Regimen Completed NCT01667692 Phase 4 azithromycin;clarithmycin
42 Response to Pneumococcal Vaccination in Patients After Community Acquired Pneumonia With Streptococcus Pneumoniae Compared to Pneumonia Patients With Another Pathogen. Completed NCT02141009 Phase 4
43 Effect of Oral Decontamination Using Chlorhexidine or Potassium Permanganate in ICU Patients: an Open-Labelled Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT00610324 Phase 4 Chlorhexidine gluconate;Potassium permanganate
44 A Post Marketing Surveillance Study on the Safety and Effectiveness of Doripenem in the Therapy of Thai Patients With Nosocomial Pneumonia, Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections and Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Completed NCT00965848 Phase 4 Doripenem
45 Community Case Management of Chest Indrawing Pneumonia With Oral Amoxicillin in Children Aged 2-59 Months Old by Community Oriented Resources Persons (CORPs) in Niger State, Nigeria Completed NCT02878031 Phase 4 Oral amoxicillin for CI pneumonia
46 Target-controlled Versus Manually-controlled Propofol Sedation in Flexible Bronchoscopy. A Randomized Non-inferiority Trial. Completed NCT02246023 Phase 4
47 Evaluation of World Health Organization (WHO) Recommendations on Test and Treat Strategy, Managing Advanced HIV Disease and Rapid Initiation of ART Among People Living With HIV in Nepal: A Cluster Randomized Trial. Completed NCT03723525 Phase 4
48 The Pharmacodynamics of Imipenem in Critically Ill Patients With Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Following Administration by 4 h or 0.5 h Infusion Completed NCT01379157 Phase 4 Imipenem;Imipenem
49 The Pharmacodynamics of Doripenem Between 4-hour and 1-hour Infusion in Patients With Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Completed NCT01467648 Phase 4 Doripenem;Doripenem
50 The Pharmacodynamics of Meropenem in Patient With Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Completed NCT02615041 Phase 4 Meropenem;Meropenem;Meropenem

Search NIH Clinical Center for Pneumonia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 51 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: pneumonia

Genetic Tests for Pneumonia

Genetic tests related to Pneumonia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Pneumonia 29

Anatomical Context for Pneumonia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Pneumonia:

Lung, Neutrophil, Skin, Bone Marrow, Myeloid, T Cells, Bone

Publications for Pneumonia

Articles related to Pneumonia:

(show top 50) (show all 32162)
# Title Authors PMID Year
Guidelines and best practice recommendations on reproductive health services provision amid COVID-19 pandemic: scoping review. 42
33536001 2021
Childhood Obesity and COVID-19 Lockdown: Remarks on Eating Habits of Patients Enrolled in a Food-Education Program. 42
33530570 2021
COVID-19 and Pediatric Asthma: Clinical and Management Challenges. 42
33530624 2021
Successful resolution of pneumonia developed in a patient affected by Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis and recurrent uveitis during concomitant treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and conventional immunosuppressive drugs. 61 54
19551384 2010
Accuracy of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to guide site of care of community-acquired pneumonia. 61 54
20232049 2010
[Serum levels of IL-13 and TNF-alpha in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia]. 54 61
20416219 2010
Secretory immunoglobulin A abrogates inflammatory responses and improves mortality after pseudomonas pneumonia. 61 54
20386278 2010
Systemic and bronchoalveolar cytokines as predictors of in-hospital mortality in severe community-acquired pneumonia. 61 54
19592208 2010
The impact of time on the systemic inflammatory response in pneumococcal pneumonia. 61 54
19608588 2010
Diagnostic importance of pulmonary interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8 in ventilator-associated pneumonia. 61 54
19825784 2010
Blockade of neutrophil responses in aspiration pneumonia via ELR-CXC chemokine antagonism does not predispose to airway bacterial outgrowth. 54 61
19751843 2010
CRP gene variation and risk of community-acquired pneumonia. 61 54
19947988 2010
Clinical review: the role of biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia. 61 54
20236471 2010
Plasma CC16 levels are associated with development of ALI/ARDS in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia: a retrospective observational study. 54 61
19958527 2009
Role of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in differentiation of tuberculosis from bacterial community acquired pneumonia. 61 54
19949732 2009
C-reactive protein, severity of pneumonia and mortality in elderly, hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia. 61 54
19729453 2009
Utility of C-reactive protein in assessing the disease severity and complications of community-acquired pneumonia. 54 61
19548923 2009
Autoantibodies against bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) in children with acute pneumonia. 61 54
19702878 2009
C-reactive protein to distinguish pneumonia from acute decompensated heart failure. 61 54
19703436 2009
Procalcitonin kinetics in Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. 54 61
19438643 2009
Accuracy of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and fibrinogen compared to C-reactive protein (CRP) in differentiating pneumonia from acute bronchitis in primary care. 54 61
19330269 2009
Influence of age on symptoms and laboratory findings at presentation in patients with influenza-associated pneumonia. 54 61
19150140 2009
TREM-1 activation alters the dynamics of pulmonary IRAK-M expression in vivo and improves host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia. 54 61
19596984 2009
Nosocomial pneumonia risk and stress ulcer prophylaxis: a comparison of pantoprazole vs ranitidine in cardiothoracic surgery patients. 61 54
19318661 2009
[Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and concurrent ventilator-associated pneumonia]. 61 54
19695190 2009
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after cessation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha blocker adalimumab in cryptococcal pneumonia. 54 61
19501793 2009
C-terminal provasopressin (copeptin) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia--influence of antibiotic pre-treatment: results from the German competence network CAPNETZ. 54 61
19403654 2009
First reported United States case of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 pneumonia in a patient receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy. 54 61
19583105 2009
Acute-phase responsiveness of mannose-binding lectin in community-acquired pneumonia is highly dependent upon MBL2 genotypes. 61 54
19438602 2009
Old friends: pneumonia and interleukin-6. 61 54
19373054 2009
Role of IL-10 deficiency in pneumonia induced by Corynebacterium kutscheri in mice. 61 54
19421001 2009
Suppression of pulmonary innate host defence in smokers. 61 54
18852155 2009
Mannose-binding lectin is present in the infected airway: a possible pulmonary defence mechanism. 54 61
18988662 2009
C-reactive protein and community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory care: systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies. 54 61
19074757 2009
Plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 level in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and association with disease severity. 54 61
19181604 2009
Mannose-binding lectin genotypes in susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia. 54 61
18641104 2008
Children with absent surfactant protein D in bronchoalveolar lavage have more frequently pneumonia. 54 61
18266831 2008
Usefulness of consecutive C-reactive protein measurements in follow-up of severe community-acquired pneumonia. 54 61
18508833 2008
Mannose-binding lectin and mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 in susceptibility, severity, and outcome of pneumonia in adults. 61 54
18582923 2008
Prognostic role of clinical and laboratory criteria to identify early ventilator-associated pneumonia in brain injury. 61 54
18403669 2008
[Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia during infliximab therapy]. 54 61
18565304 2008
Alveolar epithelial STAT3, IL-6 family cytokines, and host defense during Escherichia coli pneumonia. 61 54
18192501 2008
Resveratrol ameliorates Serratia marcescens-induced acute pneumonia in rats. 61 54
18174363 2008
C-reactive protein is an independent predictor of severity in community-acquired pneumonia. 61 54
18328306 2008
Assessment of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with pneumonia. 61 54
17916178 2008
Co-infection of respiratory bacterium with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus induces an exacerbated pneumonia in mice. 61 54
18380809 2008
The utility of serum C-reactive protein in differentiating bacterial from nonbacterial pneumonia in children: a meta-analysis of 1230 children. 61 54
18174874 2008
[Granulocyte transfusion for the treatment of prolonged pneumonia in a patient with MDS-RAEB-2 at allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation]. 54 61
18341038 2008
Procalcitonin predicts patients at low risk of death from community-acquired pneumonia across all CRB-65 classes. 61 54
17959641 2008
Copeptin, a novel prognostic biomarker in ventilator-associated pneumonia. 61 54
18252006 2008

Variations for Pneumonia

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Pneumonia:

# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 FOXP3 NM_014009.3(FOXP3):c.1190G>A (p.Arg397Gln) SNV Pathogenic 379222 rs1057520529 X:49107901-49107901 X:49251440-49251440
2 TTR NM_000371.4(TTR):c.424G>A (p.Val142Ile) SNV Pathogenic 13426 rs76992529 18:29178618-29178618 18:31598655-31598655

Expression for Pneumonia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pneumonia.

Pathways for Pneumonia

Pathways related to Pneumonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 69)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
13.92 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
Show member pathways
13.77 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
Show member pathways
13.58 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
Show member pathways
13.49 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
Show member pathways
13.43 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
Show member pathways
13.33 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.96 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 FOXP3
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.72 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CD40LG
Show member pathways
12.72 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 FOXP3
Show member pathways
12.71 TNF MPO IL6 IL1B IL10 CCL2
16 12.69 TNF MPO IL1B IL10 FOXP3 CD40LG
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.44 IL6 IL5 IL10 CSF3
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
12.38 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
21 12.37 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL2
22 12.32 MPO IL6 ELANE CXCL8
Show member pathways
12.31 TNF IL1B IL10 CD40LG
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
26 12.3 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
27 12.29 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
Show member pathways
12.27 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
29 12.2 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CCL2
30 12.12 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL2 CCL2
31 12.12 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL2
32 12.1 TNF MPO IL6 IL5 IL10 CSF3
33 12.08 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CCL2
34 12.07 TNF IL1B CXCL8 CXCL2 CD40LG
35 12.05 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CCL2
36 12.04 IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CCL3
37 12.04 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B CSF3
Show member pathways
11.98 IL6 FOXP3 CXCL8 CSF3
39 11.98 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2
40 11.94 TNF IL5 IL1B IL10 CCL3
41 11.92 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL3
42 11.9 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.89 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
45 11.88 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
46 11.83 IL6 IL5 CXCL8
47 11.77 TNF IL6 IL5 IL10 FOXP3 CD40LG
48 11.75 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CXCL2
Show member pathways
50 11.71 IL5 IL10 CD40LG

GO Terms for Pneumonia

Cellular components related to Pneumonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.89 TTR TNF SFTPD MUC5B MPO IL6
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.55 TTR TNF SFTPD MUC5B MPO IL6

Biological processes related to Pneumonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 53)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.26 TTR IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
2 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893 10.17 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B IL10 FOXP3
3 negative regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008285 10.1 IL6 IL1B IL10 FOXP3 CXCL8
4 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.05 TNF IL6 IL1B FOXP3 CXCL8 CRP
5 MAPK cascade GO:0000165 10.03 TNF IL5 IL1B CCL3 CCL2
6 defense response to bacterium GO:0042742 10.03 TNF SFTPD MPO IL10 ELANE
7 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 9.97 TNF IL6 IL1B CD40LG
8 chemotaxis GO:0006935 9.97 CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL3 CCL2
9 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.97 MPO IL1B IL10 FOXP3 ELANE
10 defense response GO:0006952 9.96 TNF MPO CXCL8 CXCL2
11 neutrophil chemotaxis GO:0030593 9.91 CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL3 CCL2
12 chemokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070098 9.9 CXCL8 CXCL2 CCL3 CCL2
13 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.88 TNF IL6 IL1B
14 negative regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032715 9.88 TNF IL10 FOXP3
15 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051384 9.88 TNF IL6 IL10
16 cellular response to organic cyclic compound GO:0071407 9.88 TNF IL1B CCL3 CCL2
17 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.87 IL6 IL1B CD40LG
18 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:0048661 9.87 TNF IL6 ELANE
19 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.86 TNF IL6 CCL2
20 positive regulation of interleukin-1 beta production GO:0032731 9.86 TNF IL6 CCL3
21 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.86 TNF IL6 IL1B ELANE
22 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.86 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CXCL2
23 positive regulation of phagocytosis GO:0050766 9.85 TNF SFTPD IL1B
24 inflammatory response GO:0006954 9.85 TNF IL6 IL5 IL1B