PPROM
MCID: PRT082
MIFTS: 56

Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes (PPROM)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

MalaCards integrated aliases for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes:

Name: Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes 57 12 15
Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes 29 6 39 70
Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes, Susceptibility to 57 13
Pprom 57 12

Characteristics:

HPO:

31
preterm premature rupture of the membranes:
Inheritance polygenic inheritance


Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0111144
OMIM® 57 610504
MedGen 41 C0729264
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 237266003 44223004
UMLS 70 C0729264

Summaries for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

OMIM® : 57 Preterm premature rupture of the membranes is defined as rupture of membranes before 37 weeks of gestation, which occurs in approximately 3% of all pregnancies and accounts for about one-third of spontaneous preterm births (ACOG Practice Bulletin, 1998). Srinivas and Macones (2005) reviewed the pathophysiology of PPROM and noted that familial clustering and ethnic differences in the incidence of PPROM suggest possible genetic influences. (610504) (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

MalaCards based summary : Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes, also known as preterm premature rupture of membranes, is related to chorioamnionitis and endometritis. An important gene associated with Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes is SERPINH1 (Serpin Family H Member 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and PEDF Induced Signaling. The drugs Roxithromycin and Cefuroxime have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include cervix, placenta and thymus, and related phenotypes are premature rupture of membranes and Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor)

Disease Ontology : 12 A female reproductive system disease characterized by rupture of chorioamniotic membranes before 37 weeks of gestation.

Related Diseases for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

Diseases related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 712)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chorioamnionitis 31.5 TNF OXT MMP9 MMP8 IL6 IL1B
2 endometritis 31.5 TNF OXT IL6 IL1B CXCL8
3 enterocolitis 31.4 TNF IL6 IL10 CXCL8
4 cervical incompetence 31.4 OXT IL6 FN1
5 gestational diabetes 31.1 TNF IL6 IGFBP1 CRP
6 perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis 31.1 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
7 bacterial vaginosis 31.1 TNF MMP8 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
8 pain agnosia 31.0 TNF OXT IL6 IL1B
9 asphyxia neonatorum 30.9 OXT IL6 CRP
10 neonatal jaundice 30.9 TNF OXT IL6 IL1B IL10
11 pneumothorax 30.9 TIMP2 MMP9 MMP1
12 compartment syndrome 30.9 TNF IL6 CRP
13 pelvic organ prolapse 30.9 MMP9 MMP8 MMP1
14 bacterial infectious disease 30.9 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
15 bacterial sepsis 30.9 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
16 acute pyelonephritis 30.8 IL6 IL10 CXCL8 CRP
17 cerebral palsy 30.8 TNF MMP8 MMP1 IL6 IL1B IL10
18 haemophilus influenzae 30.8 TNF CXCL8
19 glucose intolerance 30.8 TNF IL6 IGFBP1 CRP
20 shigellosis 30.8 TNF IL1B IL10 CXCL8
21 conjunctivitis 30.7 TNF MMP9 IL6 IL10 CXCL8
22 pyelonephritis 30.7 TNF MMP9 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
23 trichomoniasis 30.7 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
24 cervicitis 30.7 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
25 disseminated intravascular coagulation 30.7 TNF IL6 IL10 FN1 CRP
26 bilirubin metabolic disorder 30.7 TNF OXT IL6 IL1B CRP
27 chlamydia 30.7 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
28 acute cystitis 30.7 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8 CRP
29 immune deficiency disease 30.7 TNF IL6R IL6 IL1B IL10 FN1
30 vaginal discharge 30.6 TNF OXT IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
31 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 30.5 TNF OXT IL6R IL6 IL1B IL10
32 funisitis 30.5 TNF OXT MMP8 IL6 IL1B IL10
33 vascular disease 30.4 TNF MMP9 IL6 IL10 IGFBP1 FN1
34 pre-eclampsia 30.4 TNF OXT MMP9 INHA IL6 IL1B
35 placenta disease 30.4 TNF OXT IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CRP
36 syphilis 30.3 TNF IL6 FN1 CRP
37 respiratory failure 30.3 TNF MMP8 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
38 candidiasis 30.2 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
39 vaginitis 30.1 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 FN1 CXCL8
40 pulmonary hypertension 30.1 TNF IL6 IL1B FN1 CXCL8 CRP
41 proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1 30.1 TNF MMP9 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
42 lung disease 29.8 TNF MMP9 MMP8 IL6 IL1B IL10
43 oligohydramnios 10.6
44 placental abruption 10.6
45 external pathological resorption 10.5 TNF IL6
46 tendinopathy 10.5 TIMP2 MMP8 MMP1
47 scorpion envenomation 10.5 TNF IL6
48 amaurosis fugax 10.5 MMP9 MMP8
49 spastic entropion 10.5 MMP9 MMP1
50 idiopathic anterior uveitis 10.5 TNF IL6 CXCL8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes:



Diseases related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

Human phenotypes related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes:

31
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 premature rupture of membranes 31 HP:0001788

Clinical features from OMIM®:

610504 (Updated 05-Apr-2021)

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-1 9.4 CXCL8 IL10 IL1B INHBA TNF
2 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-2 9.4 CXCL8 IL10 IL1B INHA INHBA PGRMC1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes:

46 (show all 13)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.39 CRP FN1 IL10 IL1B IL6 IL6R
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.34 CRP FN1 IL10 IL1B IL6 IL6ST
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.32 FN1 IL10 IL1B IL6 IL6R IL6ST
4 immune system MP:0005387 10.31 CRP FN1 IGFBP1 IL10 IL1B IL6
5 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.19 IL10 IL6 IL6R IL6ST INHA INHBA
6 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.17 FN1 IL10 IL1B IL6 IL6R IL6ST
7 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.16 IL10 IL6 IL6ST INHA INHBA MMP9
8 integument MP:0010771 10.1 FN1 IL10 IL1B IL6 IL6ST INHBA
9 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 10.02 FN1 IGFBP1 IL10 IL6 IL6R IL6ST
10 neoplasm MP:0002006 10 FN1 IL10 IL1B IL6 IL6R IL6ST
11 nervous system MP:0003631 9.93 FN1 IL10 IL1B IL6 IL6R IL6ST
12 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.7 FN1 IL10 IL6 IL6ST INHA INHBA
13 skeleton MP:0005390 9.36 FN1 IL10 IL1B IL6 IL6ST INHA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

Drugs for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 92)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Roxithromycin Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Phase 4 80214-83-1 6915744 444037
2
Cefuroxime Approved Phase 4 55268-75-2 5361202 5479529
3
Azithromycin Approved Phase 4 83905-01-5 447043 55185
4 cefuroxime axetil Phase 4
5 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
6 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
7
Cefazolin Approved Phase 3 25953-19-9 33255 656510
8
Tocopherol Approved, Investigational Phase 3 1406-66-2
9
Betamethasone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 378-44-9 9782
10
Nifedipine Approved Phase 3 21829-25-4 4485
11
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 26787-78-0 33613
12
Clarithromycin Approved Phase 3 81103-11-9 84029
13
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 137-58-6 3676
14
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 50-81-7 5785 54670067
15
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 59-02-9 14985
16 Tocotrienol Investigational Phase 3 6829-55-6
17 Protective Agents Phase 3
18 Antioxidants Phase 3
19 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors Phase 3
20 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 3
21 Nutrients Phase 3
22 Trace Elements Phase 3
23 Micronutrients Phase 3
24 Vitamins Phase 3
25 Tocopherols Phase 3
26 Tocotrienols Phase 3
27 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
28 Respiratory System Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
29 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
30 glucocorticoids Phase 2, Phase 3
31 Hormones Phase 3
32 Betamethasone Valerate Phase 2, Phase 3 2152-44-5
33 Betamethasone benzoate Phase 2, Phase 3
34 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
35 Betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate Phase 2, Phase 3
36 Betamethasone sodium phosphate Phase 2, Phase 3
37 Tocolytic Agents Phase 3
38 calcium channel blockers Phase 3
39 Calcium, Dietary Phase 3
40 Vasodilator Agents Phase 3
41 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 3
42 Anesthetics Phase 3
43
Calcium Nutraceutical Phase 3 7440-70-2 271
44
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 53-86-1 3715
45
Acetylcysteine Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 616-91-1 12035
46
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 103-90-2 1983
47
Progesterone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 57-83-0 5994
48
Castor oil Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 8001-79-4
49 Analgesics Phase 2
50 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 59)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Comparison of Two Antibiotic Prophylactic Protocols in Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes. A Randomized Prospective, Open Trial Unknown status NCT02819570 Phase 4 I.V cefuroxime 750 mg*3/d for 2 days;I.V ampicillin 2 gram x4/d for 2 days;P.O cefuroxime 500 mgx2/d for 5 days;P.O roxithromycin 150 mg*2/d for 7 days;P.O moxypen 500 mgx3/d for 5 days
2 Azithromycin Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Pregnancy and Preterm Birth Prevention: Optimizing Dosing to Improve Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes Recruiting NCT04294069 Phase 4 Azithromycin 500 mg;Azithromycin Oral Product
3 Removal Versus Retention of Cervical Cerclage in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes-A Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial Terminated NCT00201656 Phase 4
4 Duration of Antibiotics Treatment With Cefazolin and Clarithromycin in Women With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membrane, Phase III Study. Unknown status NCT01503606 Phase 3 Cefazolin;Clarithromycin;Cefazolin;Clarithromycin
5 Open Randomized Trial Comparing Perinatal Outcome Following Expectant Management Versus Amnioinfusion in PPROM <25 Wks With Persistent Oligohydramnios Unknown status NCT00787163 Phase 3
6 Randomized Phase III Trial of Cefazolin or Combination of Cefazolin and Erythromycin or Cefazolin and Clarithromycin in Women With Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes Completed NCT01401179 Phase 3 cefazolin, erythromycin, clarithromycin
7 Does Vitamins C and E Supplementation of After Preterm Rupture of Membranes Prolong the Duration of Latency? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT01266928 Phase 3 vitamine C and E
8 Does a Repeat Course of Antenatal Corticosteroids in Pregnant Women With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Decrease Neonatal Morbidity? Recruiting NCT02939742 Phase 2, Phase 3 Betamethasone;Placebo
9 TREAT: Treatment of ppROM With Erythromycin vs. Azithromycin Trial Recruiting NCT03060473 Phase 3 Azithromycin;Erythromycin;Ampicillin;Amoxicillin
10 Tocolysis in the Management of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Before 34 Weeks of Gestation: a Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT03976063 Phase 3 Nifedipine;Placebo of Nifedipine
11 Treatment of Classic Mid-trimester Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM) With Oligo/Anhydramnion Between 22/0-26/0 Week of Gestation by Means of Continuous Amnioinfusion: a Multicenter Prospectiv Randomized Trial Not yet recruiting NCT04696003 Phase 3
12 Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: Erythromycin Versus Azithromycin a Randomized Trial Comparing Their Efficacy to Prolong Latency (PEACE Trial) Withdrawn NCT01556334 Phase 3 Azithromycin;Erythromycin
13 A Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial With Indomethacin Versus Placebo in Women With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM) Between 24 and 32 Weeks Gestation Unknown status NCT00466128 Phase 2 indomethacin
14 Effect of N-acetylcysteine in Preventing Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Women With Intra-amniotic Infection/Inflammation Completed NCT00397735 Phase 1, Phase 2 N-acetylcysteine or placebo
15 Progesterone for the Management of Preterm, Premature Rupture of the Membranes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Completed NCT01050647 Phase 1, Phase 2 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate
16 Effect of Progesterone on Latent Phase Prolongation in Patients With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Completed NCT04807543 Phase 2 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate;Castor Oil
17 Pomegranate to Reduce Maternal and Fetal Oxidative Stress and Improve Outcome in Pregnancies Complicated With Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes Unknown status NCT01584323
18 Is Outpatient Management of PPROM Equivalent to Hospital Management Unknown status NCT02548013
19 Pomegranate to Reduce Maternal and Fetal Oxidative Stress and to Improve Outcome in Pregnancies Complicated With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Unknown status NCT02069587
20 Procalcitonin Has a Role to Play in Prediction of Intra-amniotic Subclinical Infection. Unknown status NCT02104791 procalcitonin
21 The Relation Between Serum Ascorbic Acid Concentration and Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Unknown status NCT02635451
22 Sonographic Assessment of Myometrial Thickness as a Predictor for the Latency Interval in Women With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Unknown status NCT02380560
23 The Use of Cranberries in Women With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Unknown status NCT00247104 Cranberries - Vaccinium macrocarpon
24 A Randomized Trial of Foley Bulb and PGE2 for Labor Induction in Premature Rupture of Membranes Unknown status NCT03744078
25 Circulating Cell-free Mitochondrial as a Novel Biomarker for Intra-amniotic Infection in Obstetrics Unknown status NCT03306719
26 Pro-omega-3, Reduction of Inflammation and Modulation of Prematurity Unknown status NCT03739463
27 Best Cutoff Value of Lactate Concentration in Vaginal Fluid to Predict Time of Spontaneous Onset of Labor in PPROM Unknown status NCT03463811
28 Contribution of the Study of Maternal Plasmatic Regulator T Cells and Th17 for the Diagnosis of Acute Chorioanmionitis Among Women Hospitalized for Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes (PPROM) Between 24 and 34 Gestation Weeks Unknown status NCT01610258
29 A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial On Complete Bed Rest Versus Activity Restriction After Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes Completed NCT03814278
30 Fetal Thymus Involution as a Predictor of Adverse Neonatal Outcome in Women at High Risk for Preterm Delivery Completed NCT01975792
31 Retrospective Review of Repeat Antenatal Corticosteroids in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Completed NCT03133104
32 Multimodales Monitoring Des Fetalen Inflammationsrisikos Bei frühem Vorzeitigen Blasensprung (PPROM) Completed NCT02702297
33 Premature Rupture of Membranes Assessment Via Transperineal Ultrasonography as an Alternative to Speculum Examinations Completed NCT02386644
34 Fetal and Maternal Outcome in Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM) at AIN Shams Maternity Hospital: A Retrospective Analysis of Last Five Years Admissions Completed NCT03491826
35 Monitoring of Women With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM) Between 28 and 33 Weeks of Gestation With Repetitive Immunochromatographic Bedside Test to Detect Inflammatory Protein in Vaginal Secretions. Completed NCT00940043
36 The Impact of Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) on Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM) Completed NCT04100252
37 Planned Domiciliary Versus Hospital Care for Women With Preterm Prelabor Rupture of the Membranes (PPROM) Completed NCT04413019
38 Identification of Proteomic Markers of Intra-amniotic Infection (IAI) in Patients With Preterm Premature Rupture of Amniotic Membranes (PPROM) Completed NCT00701350
39 Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: Erythromycin Versus Azithromycin. A Randomized Trial Comparing Their Efficacy to Prolong Latency Completed NCT01431248
40 Efficacy and Efficiency of Uterocervical Angle for Prediction of Labor Timing in Patients With Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes: a Prospective Cohort Study Completed NCT04095507
41 The Value of Amniopatch in Pregnancies Associated With Spontaneous Preterm Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes:A Randomized Controlled Trial Completed NCT03473210 Antibiotics;Corticosteroid
42 PPROM: Bed Rest Versus Activity Trial (BRAT) Completed NCT01544387
43 Ambulation for Latency During Expectant Management of PPROM: A Randomized Controlled Trial (AMBLE) Recruiting NCT04230967
44 Patient Registry for Women Diagnosed With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes or PPROM During Pregnancy Recruiting NCT02997345
45 Vaginal Cleansing With Chlorhexidine Gluconate in Women With Preterm Pre-labor Rupture of Membranes in Order to Prolong Pregnancy Latency and Reduce Intraamniotic Inflammation Recruiting NCT04516226
46 Computerized Cardiotocography Monitoring in Fetuses With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Recruiting NCT04632017
47 Fetal Heart Rate Variability Analysis for the Early Detection of Chorioamnionitis During Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Recruiting NCT02901795
48 Using Metagenomic Next-generation Sequencing to Identify Microbial DNA in Maternal Plasma in Cases of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Recruiting NCT04318470
49 Preterm Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes: Cervical Ultrasound and Biological Markers to Diagnose Prematurity. Recruiting NCT04237142
50 Inpatient vs Outpatient Management of Women With Short Cervix: A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) Recruiting NCT03979196

Search NIH Clinical Center for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

Genetic Tests for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

Genetic tests related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes 29 SERPINH1

Anatomical Context for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes:

40
Cervix, Placenta, Thymus, Neutrophil, Thyroid, T Cells, Uterus

Publications for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

Articles related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes:

(show top 50) (show all 2035)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
A functional SNP in the promoter of the SERPINH1 gene increases risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes in African Americans. 57 6 61
16938879 2006
2
Functionally significant SNP MMP8 promoter haplotypes and preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). 6 57 61
15367487 2004
3
A single nucleotide polymorphism in the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) promoter influences amnion cell MMP-1 expression and risk for preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes. 61 6 57
11741975 2002
4
Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms combine to control MMP1 expression and its association with preterm premature rupture of membranes. 61 57
18178580 2008
5
Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: current concepts. 57 61
16170284 2005
6
Evidence for the participation of interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase 1) in preterm premature rupture of membranes. 61 57
11035337 2000
7
A frequent functional SNP in the MMP1 promoter is associated with higher disease severity in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. 6
18030675 2008
8
The role of matrix metalloproteinase polymorphisms in the rate of decline in lung function. 6
11875051 2002
9
A single nucleotide polymorphism in the matrix metalloproteinase-1 promoter creates an Ets binding site and augments transcription. 6
9850057 1998
10
ACOG practice bulletin. Premature rupture of membranes. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. Number 1, June 1998. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 57
9849720 1998
11
Breastfeeding in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia during tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. 61
32787559 2021
12
Optimal timing of cervical cerclage removal following preterm premature rupture of membranes; a retrospective analysis. 61
33601316 2021
13
Tocolysis after preterm premature rupture of membranes: Time for change? 61
33431237 2021
14
Perinatal factors associated with bubbly/cystic appearance in bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a nationwide, population-based cohort study in Japan. 61
31170848 2021
15
Evaluating Progestogens for Preventing Preterm birth International Collaborative (EPPPIC): meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. 61
33773630 2021
16
Transcriptomic profiling of fetal membranes of mice deficient in biglycan and decorin as a model of preterm birth†. 61
33165521 2021
17
Perinatal outcome of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome complicated with incidental septostomy after laser surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33780009 2021
18
Emergency Cervical Cerclage. 61
33803886 2021
19
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Initiates Amniotic Membrane Rupture and Preterm Birth in a Mouse Model. 61
33772943 2021
20
Should the interval between doses of antenatal corticosteroids be shortened in certain cases? Factors predicting preterm delivery < 48 h from presentation. 61
33782713 2021
21
Hyperechoic amniotic membranes in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes (p-PROM) and pregnancy outcome. 61
33085637 2021
22
Prognostic Markers for Chorioamnionitis: IL-6, TNF-α, and MMP-8 in Vaginally Obtained Amniotic Fluid. 61
33800521 2021
23
Cause of preterm birth and late-onset sepsis in very preterm infants: the EPIPAGE-2 cohort study. 61
33627822 2021
24
Preterm Deliveries in Women with Uterine Myomas: The Japan Environment and Children's Study. 61
33668326 2021
25
A specific bacterial DNA signature in the vagina of Australian women in midpregnancy predicts high risk of spontaneous preterm birth (the Predict1000 study). 61
32861687 2021
26
Perinatal and maternal outcomes after frozen versus fresh embryo transfer cycles in women of advanced maternal age. 61
33131929 2021
27
Maternal Serum Haptoglobin Levels as a Marker of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes. 61
32464669 2021
28
Eotaxin-2 as a potential marker of preterm premature rupture of membranes: A prospective, cohort, multicenter study. 61
33636061 2021
29
Pregnancy latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes: oral versus intravenous antibiotics. 61
33607320 2021
30
Daily monitoring of vaginal interleukin 6 as a predictor of intraamniotic inflammation after preterm premature rupture of membranes - a new method of sampling studied in a prospective multicenter trial. 61
33629573 2021
31
Comparison of sonographic fetal weight estimation formulas in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. 61
33607956 2021
32
Ascertaining the Prevalence of Group B Streptococcal Infection in Patients with Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from Pakistan. 61
33758696 2021
33
Obstetric outcomes for twins from different conception methods - A multicenter cross-sectional study from China. 61
33556189 2021
34
Mid-trimester miscarriage and subsequent pregnancy outcomes: the role of cervical insufficiency in a cohort of 175 cases. 61
33588670 2021
35
Unfolding the pathophysiology of congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in pregnancy: lessons from a cluster of familial cases. 61
33621545 2021
36
Vertical Transmission of Extended-Spectrum, Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae during Preterm Delivery: A Prospective Study. 61
33673648 2021
37
The Importance of Clinical Presentation in Risk and Management of Recurrent Preterm Birth. 61
32819021 2021
38
Long term alterations of growth after antenatal steroids in preterm twin pregnancies. 61
33010142 2021
39
Clinical and biochemical markers of spontaneous preterm birth in singleton and multiple pregnancies. 61
33627033 2021
40
Association between gestational age at delivery and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio in the routine second trimester complete blood cell count. 61
32549119 2021
41
Association between IVF/ICSI treatment and preterm birth and major perinatal outcomes among dichorionic-diamnionic twin pregnancies: A seven-year retrospective cohort study. 61
32865233 2021
42
Placental microbial-metabolite profiles and inflammatory mechanisms associated with preterm birth. 61
32796048 2021
43
The Rule of Ultrasonography in the Management of Retained Placenta. 61
33614304 2021
44
Letrozole-induced frozen embryo transfer cycles are associated with a lower risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. 61
33529574 2021
45
Risk factors for adverse outcomes in vaginal preterm breech labor. 61
32767041 2021
46
Pregnancy outcomes of Chinese women undergoing IVF with embryonic cryopreservation as compared to natural conception. 61
33422044 2021
47
Obstetric outcomes after uterus-sparing surgery for uterine prolapse: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33271407 2021
48
Perinatal Outcomes Associated with Latency in Late Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes. 61
33466859 2021
49
Are maternal metabolic syndrome and lipid profile associated with preterm delivery and preterm premature rupture of membranes? 61
32803396 2021
50
Predictors of Short Latency Period Exceeding 48 h after Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes. 61
33406795 2021

Variations for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes:

6
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID Position
1 SERPINH1 SERPINH1, -656C-T SNV Pathogenic 8664 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
2 MMP8 MMP8, HAPLOTYPE, TGG SNV Pathogenic 17113 GRCh37:
GRCh38:
3 MMP1 NM_002421.3(MMP1):c.-1673G= SNV Pathogenic 17114 rs1591085064 GRCh37: 11:102670496-102670496
GRCh38: 11:102799765-102799765
4 SERPINH1 NM_001235.4(SERPINH1):c.580C>A (p.Arg194Ser) SNV Uncertain significance 195143 rs141721173 GRCh37: 11:75277974-75277974
GRCh38: 11:75566929-75566929
5 MMP1 NM_002421.4(MMP1):c.105+115del Deletion Benign 802715 rs5794198 GRCh37: 11:102668604-102668604
GRCh38: 11:102797873-102797873

Expression for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes.

Pathways for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

Pathways related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 67)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
14.06 TNF TIMP2 PGRMC1 MMP9 MMP8 MMP1
2
Show member pathways
13.72 TNF INHBA INHA IL6ST IL6R IL6
3
Show member pathways
13.38 TNF MMP9 MMP1 IL6ST IL6R IL6
4
Show member pathways
13.34 TNF TIMP2 IL6R IL6 IL1B IL10
5
Show member pathways
13.25 TNF MMP9 MMP1 IL6 IL1B IL10
6
Show member pathways
12.99 TNF IL6ST IL6R IL6 IL1B CXCL8
7 12.91 MMP9 MMP1 IL6ST IL6R IL6 FN1
8
Show member pathways
12.88 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
9
Show member pathways
12.81 TIMP2 SERPINH1 MMP9 MMP8 MMP1 FN1
10
Show member pathways
12.68 TNF IL6ST IL6R IL6 IL1B IL10
11
Show member pathways
12.64 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 FN1
12
Show member pathways
12.59 RLN1 OXT IL6 IL1B IGFBP1
13
Show member pathways
12.39 TNF IL6ST IL6R IL6 IL10 CXCL8
14
Show member pathways
12.37 TNF IL6 IL1B CRP
15
Show member pathways
12.35 TNF TIMP2 IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
16 12.28 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8
17 12.28 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
18 12.27 TNF MMP9 MMP1 IL6R IL6
19
Show member pathways
12.27 TNF IL6 IL1B FN1 CXCL8
20
Show member pathways
12.26 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
21 12.2 TNF IL6R IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
22 12.09 TNF MMP9 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
23
Show member pathways
12.09 TNF MMP9 MMP1 IL6ST IL6R IL6
24 12.07 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 FN1 CXCL8
25 12.04 TNF MMP9 IL6 IL1B
26 11.99 TNF IL6 IL1B FN1 CXCL8
27 11.98 TNF IL6R IL6 IL1B
28
Show member pathways
11.98 TNF TIMP2 MMP9 MMP8 MMP1
29
Show member pathways
11.95 IL6ST IL6R IL6 CXCL8
30
Show member pathways
11.93 IL6ST IL6R IL6 IL1B
31 11.92 TNF MMP1 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
32
Show member pathways
11.9 IL6ST IL6R IL6 CRP
33 11.85 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 FN1 CXCL8
34 11.84 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
35 11.83 MMP1 IL6 CXCL8
36
Show member pathways
11.82 TNF IL6ST IL6 IL1B IL10
37 11.81 TNF IL1B IL10
38 11.8 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
39 11.77 MMP9 MMP1 CXCL8
40 11.73 TNF IL6 IL10
41 11.72 MMP9 IL6 CXCL8
42 11.7 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8
43 11.69 TNF MMP9 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
44
Show member pathways
11.66 IL6ST IL6R IL6
45 11.66 TIMP2 MMP9 MMP1 FN1 CXCL8
46 11.64 MMP1 IL6R IL6 CXCL8
47 11.61 TNF MMP9 IL6 FN1
48
Show member pathways
11.6 TNF MMP9 MMP1 IL6 IL1B CXCL8
49 11.57 INHBA IL6R IL6
50 11.57 TNF IL1B IGFBP1

GO Terms for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

Cellular components related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.91 TNF TIMP2 RLN1 OXT MMP9 MMP8
2 collagen-containing extracellular matrix GO:0062023 9.8 TIMP2 SERPINH1 MMP9 MMP8 FN1
3 extracellular matrix GO:0031012 9.72 TIMP2 MMP9 MMP8 MMP1 FN1
4 tertiary granule lumen GO:1904724 9.61 TIMP2 MMP9 MMP8
5 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.55 TNF TIMP2 SERPINH1 OXT MMP9 MMP8
6 ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor complex GO:0070110 9.37 IL6ST IL6R
7 interleukin-6 receptor complex GO:0005896 9.33 IL6ST IL6R IL6
8 inhibin A complex GO:0043512 9.26 INHBA INHA

Biological processes related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 65)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.27 RLN1 OXT INHBA INHA IL6ST IL6
2 immune response GO:0006955 10.13 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
3 inflammatory response GO:0006954 10.1 TNF IL6 IL1B CXCL8 CRP
4 negative regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008285 10.04 TIMP2 INHBA IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
5 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 10.03 MMP1 IL6 IGFBP1 FN1
6 leukocyte migration GO:0050900 10.01 TNF MMP9 MMP1 FN1
7 extracellular matrix organization GO:0030198 10 TNF MMP9 MMP8 MMP1 FN1
8 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.92 TIMP2 MMP8 IL6R IL6
9 positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0051091 9.92 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10
10 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.9 TNF IL6 IL1B
11 positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation GO:0045669 9.9 IL6ST IL6R IL6
12 positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling GO:1901224 9.9 TNF MMP8 IL1B
13 defense response to Gram-positive bacterium GO:0050830 9.9 TNF IL6R IL6 CRP
14 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.89 IL6ST IL6 IL1B
15 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:0048661 9.89 TNF IL6R IL6
16 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.88 TNF IL6 IL1B
17 response to cytokine GO:0034097 9.88 TIMP2 IL6ST IL6R
18 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.88 TNF IL6 IL1B IL10 CXCL8
19 positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:1904707 9.87 TNF MMP9 IL10
20 response to activity GO:0014823 9.86 OXT IL6 IL10
21 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.86 TNF MMP8 INHBA IL6 IL1B FN1
22 extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway GO:0097191 9.85 TNF INHBA IL6R
23 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.85 TNF MMP8 IL1B
24 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032689 9.85 INHBA INHA IL10
25 collagen catabolic process GO:0030574 9.84 MMP9 MMP8 MMP1
26 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.84 TNF IL6ST IL6R IL6
27 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 9.83 TNF IL6R IL6
28 negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle GO:0045930 9.82 TNF TIMP2 IL10
29 response to glucocorticoid GO:0051384 9.81 TNF OXT IL6 IL10
30 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.8 TNF IL6 IL10
31 extracellular matrix disassembly GO:0022617 9.8 TIMP2 MMP9 MMP8 MMP1
32 positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010575 9.79 IL6ST IL6 IL1B
33 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.77 TNF MMP8 IL6R IL6 IL1B
34 negative regulation of neurogenesis GO:0050768 9.76 TNF IL6 IL1B
35 cellular response to UV-A GO:0071492 9.74 MMP9 MMP1
36 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.73 IL10 CXCL8
37 regulation of establishment of endothelial barrier GO:1903140 9.73 TNF IL1B
38 neutrophil mediated immunity GO:0002446 9.73 IL6R IL6
39 interleukin-6-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070102 9.73 IL6ST IL6R IL6
40 positive regulation of prostaglandin secretion GO:0032308 9.72 OXT IL1B
41 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.72 TNF IL10
42 negative regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis GO:0051045 9.72 TIMP2 IL10
43 positive regulation of glial cell proliferation GO:0060252 9.72 TNF IL6 IL1B
44 T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment GO:0072540 9.71 IL6R IL6
45 negative regulation of macrophage differentiation GO:0045650 9.71 INHBA INHA
46 acute-phase response GO:0006953 9.71 IL6R IL6 FN1 CRP
47 hemoglobin biosynthetic process GO:0042541 9.7 INHBA INHA
48 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 9.7 TNF IL1B IL10
49 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 9.69 TNF IL10
50 ciliary neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling pathway GO:0070120 9.68 IL6ST IL6R

Molecular functions related to Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.76 INHBA INHA IL6 IL10
2 collagen binding GO:0005518 9.67 SERPINH1 MMP9 FN1
3 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.62 RLN1 OXT INHBA INHA
4 inhibin binding GO:0034711 9.48 INHBA INHA
5 ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor activity GO:0004897 9.43 IL6ST IL6R
6 interleukin-11 binding GO:0019970 9.4 IL6ST IL6R
7 interleukin-11 receptor activity GO:0004921 9.37 IL6ST IL6R
8 interleukin-6 binding GO:0019981 9.26 IL6ST IL6R
9 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.17 TNF INHBA INHA IL6 IL1B IL10
10 interleukin-6 receptor activity GO:0004915 9.16 IL6ST IL6R
11 interleukin-6 receptor binding GO:0005138 9.13 IL6ST IL6R IL6

Sources for Preterm Premature Rupture of the Membranes

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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