PAM
MCID: PRM004
MIFTS: 28

Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM)

Categories: Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:

Name: Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis 12 54 15 74 3
Meningoencephalitis Caused by Naegleria Fowleri 54
Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis 54
Naegleria Fowleri Infection 12
Pam 54

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050242
UMLS 74 C0300934

Summaries for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

CDC : 3 Naegleria fowleri (commonly referred to as the “brain-eating amoeba” or “brain-eating ameba”), is a free-living microscopic ameba*, (single-celled living organism). It can cause a rare** and devastating infection of the brain called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The ameba is commonly found in warm freshwater (e.g. lakes, rivers, and hot springs) and soil. Naegleria fowleri usually infects people when contaminated water enters the body through the nose. Once the ameba enters the nose, it travels to the brain where it causes PAM, which is usually fatal. Infection typically occurs when people go swimming or diving in warm freshwater places, like lakes and rivers. In very rare instances, Naegleria infections may also occur when contaminated water from other sources (such as inadequately chlorinated swimming pool water or heated and contaminated tap water) enters the nose 1-4. You cannot get infected from swallowing water contaminated with Naegleria.

MalaCards based summary : Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, also known as meningoencephalitis caused by naegleria fowleri, is related to pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis and amoebiasis due to free-living amoebae. An important gene associated with Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis is KCNH6 (Potassium Voltage-Gated Channel Subfamily H Member 6), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Thiopurine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics and Effects of Nitric Oxide. Affiliated tissues include brain.

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease that involves infection of the central nervous system caused by Naegleria fowleri. The symptoms include headache, nausea, rigidity of the neck muscles, vomiting, delirium, seizures and coma.

Wikipedia : 77 Naegleriasis (also known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis) is an infection of the brain by the... more...

Related Diseases for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Diseases related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis 11.4
2 amoebiasis due to free-living amoebae 11.4
3 meningoencephalitis 11.0
4 headache 10.2
5 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.0
6 lupus erythematosus 10.0
7 meningitis 10.0
8 pneumococcal meningitis 10.0
9 hereditary xanthinuria 9.7 AOX1 XDH
10 xanthinuria 9.7 AOX1 XDH
11 xanthinuria, type i 9.7 AOX1 XDH
12 xanthinuria, type ii 9.6 AOX1 XDH
13 purine-pyrimidine metabolic disorder 9.6 AOX1 XDH
14 molybdenum cofactor deficiency 9.4 AOX1 XDH

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:



Diseases related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Drugs & Therapeutics for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Genetic Tests for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Anatomical Context for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:

42
Brain

Publications for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Articles related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:

(show top 50) (show all 82)
# Title Authors Year
1
Estimation of Undiagnosed Naegleria fowleri Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, United States<sup>1</sup>. ( 29260676 )
2018
2
Nurse's guide to primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 29561369 )
2018
3
Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Associated With Rafting on an Artificial Whitewater River: Case Report and Environmental Investigation. ( 29401275 )
2018
4
Identification and molecular typing of Naegleria fowleri from a patient with primary amebic meningoencephalitis in China. ( 29751112 )
2018
5
Identification of Naegleria fowleri Proteins Linked to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis. ( 28086072 )
2017
6
Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis in Children: A Report ofA Two Fatal Cases and Review of the Literature. ( 28389055 )
2017
7
Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis: What Have We Learned in the Last 5A Years? ( 27614893 )
2016
8
Notes from the Field: Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Associated with Exposure to Swimming Pool Water Supplied by an Overland Pipe - Inyo County, California, 2015. ( 27123690 )
2016
9
Use of the Novel Therapeutic Agent Miltefosine for the Treatment of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis: Report of 1 Fatal and 1 Surviving Case. ( 26679626 )
2016
10
Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis as Cause of Headache and Fever. ( 27175836 )
2016
11
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis: Summarization on cases with early diagnosis by identification of amebae trophozoite in the cerebrospinal fluid. ( 27195047 )
2016
12
Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Associated with Hot Spring Exposure During International Travel - Seminole County, Florida, July 2014. ( 26540579 )
2015
13
Successful treatment of an adolescent with Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 25667249 )
2015
14
The First Association of a Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Death With Culturable Naegleria fowleri in Tap Water From a US Treated Public Drinking Water System. ( 25595746 )
2015
15
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis associated with ritual nasal rinsinga89St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2012. ( 24571008 )
2014
16
Fatal primary meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri. ( 25052979 )
2014
17
Notes from the field: primary amebic meningoencephalitis associated with ritual nasal rinsing--St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin islands, 2012. ( 24226628 )
2013
18
Identification and significance of Naegleria fowleri isolated from the hot spring which related to the first primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) patient in Taiwan. ( 23665128 )
2013
19
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Florida: a case report and epidemiological review of Florida cases. ( 23621053 )
2013
20
Seasonal primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in the south: summertime is PAM time. ( 22866356 )
2012
21
A rare case of survival from primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 22557831 )
2012
22
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis deaths associated with sinus irrigation using contaminated tap water. ( 22919000 )
2012
23
Photo Quiz. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 23166205 )
2012
24
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis: a case report and literature review. ( 22391923 )
2012
25
Meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in cattle of northeast Brazil. ( 22285703 )
2012
26
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan. ( 21291600 )
2011
27
Update on emerging infections: News from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis-Arizona, Florida, and Texas, 2007. ( 19708086 )
2009
28
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis--Arizona, Florida, and Texas, 2007. ( 18509301 )
2008
29
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 19129572 )
2008
30
Synergistic activities of azithromycin and amphotericin B against Naegleria fowleri in vitro and in a mouse model of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 17060522 )
2007
31
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis: a silent killer. ( 17338852 )
2006
32
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 16944619 )
2006
33
Isolation and molecular typing of Naegleria fowleri from the brain of a cow that died of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 16081978 )
2005
34
Pathologic quiz case: headache in an 8-year-old child. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri. ( 14736265 )
2004
35
Activities of therapeutic agents against Naegleria fowleri in vitro and in a mouse model of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 14533700 )
2003
36
Activities of azithromycin and amphotericin B against Naegleria fowleri in vitro and in a mouse model of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 12543653 )
2003
37
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis--Georgia, 2002. ( 14534512 )
2003
38
A light microscopy study of the migration of Naegleria fowleri from the nasal submucosa to the central nervous system during the early stage of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in mice. ( 10701563 )
2000
39
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri: an autopsy case in Japan. ( 10417693 )
1999
40
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis in a patient with AIDS: unusual protozoological findings. ( 9356829 )
1997
41
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri in a South American tapir. ( 9163883 )
1997
42
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis: a review of the clinical literature. ( 11990164 )
1997
43
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis in a patient with AIDS: unusual protozoological findings. ( 8953080 )
1996
44
In vivo study of artemisinin and its derivatives against primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri. ( 8544041 )
1995
45
Eosinophilic cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 8266252 )
1993
46
Five cases of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Mexicali, Mexico: study of the isolates. ( 8458963 )
1993
47
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba: successfully treated with cotrimoxazole. ( 8077014 )
1993
48
From the Centers for Disease Control. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis--North Carolina, 1991. ( 1640602 )
1992
49
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis--North Carolina, 1991. ( 1608390 )
1992
50
Successful treatment of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. ( 2043022 )
1991

Variations for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Expression for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis.

Pathways for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Pathways related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.39 AOX1 XDH
2 9.53 AOX1 XDH

GO Terms for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Biological processes related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 electron transport chain GO:0022900 8.96 AOX1 XDH
2 xanthine catabolic process GO:0009115 8.62 AOX1 XDH

Molecular functions related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 iron ion binding GO:0005506 9.43 AOX1 XDH
2 electron transfer activity GO:0009055 9.4 AOX1 XDH
3 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding GO:0050660 9.37 AOX1 XDH
4 iron-sulfur cluster binding GO:0051536 9.32 AOX1 XDH
5 FAD binding GO:0071949 9.26 AOX1 XDH
6 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding GO:0051537 9.16 AOX1 XDH
7 molybdopterin cofactor binding GO:0043546 8.96 AOX1 XDH
8 xanthine dehydrogenase activity GO:0004854 8.62 AOX1 XDH

Sources for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
20 FMA
29 GO
30 GTR
31 HGMD
32 HMDB
33 HPO
34 ICD10
35 ICD10 via Orphanet
36 ICD9CM
37 IUPHAR
38 KEGG
39 LifeMap
41 LOVD
43 MedGen
45 MeSH
46 MESH via Orphanet
47 MGI
50 NCI
51 NCIt
52 NDF-RT
55 NINDS
56 Novoseek
58 OMIM
59 OMIM via Orphanet
63 PubMed
65 QIAGEN
70 SNOMED-CT via HPO
71 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
72 TGDB
73 Tocris
74 UMLS
75 UMLS via Orphanet
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