PAM
MCID: PRM004
MIFTS: 32

Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM)

Categories: Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:

Name: Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis 12 53 3 15 72
Meningoencephalitis Caused by Naegleria Fowleri 53
Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis 53
Naegleria Fowleri Infection 12
Pam 53

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050242
UMLS 72 C0300934

Summaries for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

CDC : 3 Naegleria fowleri (commonly referred to as the "brain-eating amoeba" or "brain-eating ameba"), is a free-living microscopic ameba*, (single-celled living organism). It can cause a rare** and devastating infection of the brain called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The ameba is commonly found in warm freshwater (e.g. lakes, rivers, and hot springs) and soil. Naegleria fowleri usually infects people when contaminated water enters the body through the nose. Once the ameba enters the nose, it travels to the brain where it causes PAM, which is usually fatal. Infection typically occurs when people go swimming or diving in warm freshwater places, like lakes and rivers. In very rare instances, Naegleria infections may also occur when contaminated water from other sources (such as inadequately chlorinated swimming pool water or heated and contaminated tap water) enters the nose 1-4. You cannot get infected from swallowing water contaminated with Naegleria.

MalaCards based summary : Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, also known as meningoencephalitis caused by naegleria fowleri, is related to pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis and amoebiasis due to free-living amoebae. An important gene associated with Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis is KCNH6 (Potassium Voltage-Gated Channel Subfamily H Member 6), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Creation of C4 and C2 activators and Complement and coagulation cascades. Affiliated tissues include brain, neutrophil and t cells.

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease that involves infection of the central nervous system caused by Naegleria fowleri. The symptoms include headache, nausea, rigidity of the neck muscles, vomiting, delirium, seizures and coma.

Wikipedia : 75 Naegleriasis (also known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis) is an infection of the brain by the... more...

Related Diseases for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:



Diseases related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Drugs & Therapeutics for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Genetic Tests for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Anatomical Context for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:

41
Brain, Neutrophil, T Cells, Testes, Colon, Lung, Cortex

Publications for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Articles related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:

(show top 50) (show all 443)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Oleic Acid Coated Silver Nanoparticles Showed Better in Vitro Amoebicidal Effects against Naegleria fowleri than Amphotericin B. 38
31347828 2019
2
In Vitro Activity of Statins against Naegleria fowleri. 38
31398829 2019
3
Antiparasitic Activity of Auranofin against Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. 38
30520183 2019
4
trans-Cinnamic Acid Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles as Potent Therapeutics against Brain-Eating Amoeba Naegleria fowleri. 38
30970208 2019
5
Isolation and Molecular Identification of Naegleria australiensis in Irrigation Water of Fuerteventura Island, Spain. 38
30941664 2019
6
Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis: A Case Report. 38
31284352 2019
7
Killer amoebas: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in a changing climate. 38
31136398 2019
8
Nasal saline irrigation: a clinical update. 38
31087631 2019
9
Enzymatic and Structural Characterization of the Naegleria fowleri Glucokinase. 38
30783001 2019
10
Proposals for Amendments in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Encephalitis caused by Free-living Amoebae. 38
30961516 2019
11
A local case of fulminant primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri. 38
30961348 2019
12
Phenotypic Screens Reveal Posaconazole as a Rapidly Acting Amebicidal Combination Partner for Treatment of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis. 38
30358879 2019
13
The Effect of Different Environmental Conditions on the Viability of Naegleria fowleri Amoebae. 38
30758106 2019
14
Mouse neutrophils release extracellular traps in response to Naegleria fowleri. 38
30525201 2019
15
Innovative Methodology in the Discovery of Novel Drug Targets in the Free-Living Amoebae. 38
29697029 2019
16
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in an infant. 38
31424023 2019
17
Application of untargeted metabolomics for the detection of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri in an operational drinking water distribution system. 38
30212806 2018
18
An In Vitro Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier: Naegleria fowleri Affects the Tight Junction Proteins and Activates the Microvascular Endothelial Cells. 38
29655298 2018
19
Lipids Are the Preferred Substrate of the Protist Naegleria gruberi, Relative of a Human Brain Pathogen. 38
30332635 2018
20
Preferential feeding in Naegleria fowleri; intracellular bacteria isolated from amoebae in operational drinking water distribution systems. 38
29783165 2018
21
The genome of Naegleria lovaniensis, the basis for a comparative approach to unravel pathogenicity factors of the human pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri. 38
30185166 2018
22
Enzymatic chokepoints and synergistic drug targets in the sterol biosynthesis pathway of Naegleria fowleri. 38
30212566 2018
23
Iron economy in Naegleria gruberi reflects its metabolic flexibility. 38
29738737 2018
24
A case of Naegleria fowleri related primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in China diagnosed by next-generation sequencing. 38
30055569 2018
25
Identification and molecular typing of Naegleria fowleri from a patient with primary amebic meningoencephalitis in China. 38
29751112 2018
26
Identification of cysteine protease inhibitors as new drug leads against Naegleria fowleri. 38
29551628 2018
27
Fatal case of amoebic encephalitis masquerading as herpes. 38
29744128 2018
28
Quantitative assessment of Naegleria fowleri and fecal indicator bacteria in brackish water of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. 38
29220778 2018
29
The therapeutic strategies against Naegleria fowleri. 38
29501696 2018
30
Nurse's guide to primary amebic meningoencephalitis. 38
29561369 2018
31
Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Associated With Rafting on an Artificial Whitewater River: Case Report and Environmental Investigation. 38
29401275 2018
32
Do natural spring waters in Australia and New Zealand affect health? A systematic review. 38
29424713 2018
33
Morphology and Phylogenetic Analyses of Three Novel Naegleria Isolated from Freshwaters on Jeju Island, Korea, During the Winter Period. 38
28605078 2018
34
Toll-like receptors participate in Naegleria fowleri recognition. 38
29128927 2018
35
Estimation of Undiagnosed Naegleria fowleri Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, United States1. 38
29260676 2018
36
In Vitro Efficacy of Ebselen and BAY 11-7082 Against Naegleria fowleri. 38
29559968 2018
37
Naegleria species population found in pond water of parks in Mashhad city, Can the physicochemical factors affect it? 38
30456177 2018
38
CYP51 is an essential drug target for the treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). 38
29284029 2017
39
Brain-Eating Amoebae: Silver Nanoparticle Conjugation Enhanced Efficacy of Anti-Amoebic Drugs against Naegleria fowleri. 38
29206032 2017
40
Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against cathepsin B and cathepsin B-Like proteins of Naegleria fowleri. 38
28919331 2017
41
Identification and phylogenetic position of Naegleria spp. from geothermal springs in Italy. 38
28811103 2017
42
Case Series of Naegleria fowleri Primary Ameobic Meningoencephalitis from Karachi, Pakistan. 38
29016297 2017
43
Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Naegleria fowleri and their role in invasion of the central nervous system. 38
28954644 2017
44
A case report: primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in a young Zambian adult. 38
28764655 2017
45
Amphotericin B induces apoptosis-like programmed cell death in Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria gruberi. 38
28721850 2017
46
Brain-Eating Amoebae: Predilection Sites in the Brain and Disease Outcome. 38
28404683 2017
47
Isolation and molecular characterization of a Naegleria strain from a recreational water fountain in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. 38
28426408 2017
48
Efficient Liquid Media for Encystation of Pathogenic Free-Living Amoebae. 38
28719947 2017
49
Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis in Children: A Report of Two Fatal Cases and Review of the Literature. 38
28389055 2017
50
Development of Untargeted Metabolomics Methods for the Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. 38
28290675 2017

Variations for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Expression for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis.

Pathways for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

GO Terms for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Biological processes related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of complement activation GO:0030449 9.16 CD59 C9
2 electron transport chain GO:0022900 8.96 XDH AOX1
3 xanthine catabolic process GO:0009115 8.62 XDH AOX1

Molecular functions related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 iron ion binding GO:0005506 9.43 XDH AOX1
2 electron transfer activity GO:0009055 9.4 XDH AOX1
3 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding GO:0050660 9.37 XDH AOX1
4 iron-sulfur cluster binding GO:0051536 9.32 XDH AOX1
5 FAD binding GO:0071949 9.26 XDH AOX1
6 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding GO:0051537 9.16 XDH AOX1
7 molybdopterin cofactor binding GO:0043546 8.96 XDH AOX1
8 xanthine dehydrogenase activity GO:0004854 8.62 XDH AOX1

Sources for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

3 CDC
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18 ExPASy
19 FMA
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30 HGMD
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32 HPO
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34 ICD10 via Orphanet
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62 PubMed
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