PAM
MCID: PRM004
MIFTS: 27

Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM)

Categories: Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:

Name: Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis 12 52 3 15 71
Meningoencephalitis Caused by Naegleria Fowleri 52
Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis 52
Naegleria Fowleri Infection 12
Pam 52

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050242
UMLS 71 C0300934

Summaries for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

CDC : 3 Naegleria fowleri (commonly referred to as the "brain-eating amoeba" or "brain-eating ameba"), is a free-living microscopic ameba*, (single-celled living organism). It can cause a rare** and devastating infection of the brain called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). The ameba is commonly found in warm freshwater (e.g. lakes, rivers, and hot springs) and soil. Naegleria fowleri usually infects people when contaminated water enters the body through the nose. Once the ameba enters the nose, it travels to the brain where it causes PAM, which is usually fatal. Infection typically occurs when people go swimming or diving in warm freshwater places, like lakes and rivers. In very rare instances, Naegleria infections may also occur when contaminated water from other sources (such as inadequately chlorinated swimming pool water or heated and contaminated tap water) enters the nose 1-4. You cannot get infected from swallowing water contaminated with Naegleria.

MalaCards based summary : Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, also known as meningoencephalitis caused by naegleria fowleri, is related to granulomatous amebic encephalitis and pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. An important gene associated with Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis is DCAF8 (DDB1 And CUL4 Associated Factor 8), and among its related pathways/superpathways is ATF-2 transcription factor network. Affiliated tissues include brain, neutrophil and t cells.

Disease Ontology : 12 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease that involves infection of the central nervous system caused by Naegleria fowleri. The symptoms include headache, nausea, rigidity of the neck muscles, vomiting, delirium, seizures and coma.

Wikipedia : 74 Naegleriasis (also known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis; PAM) is an almost invariably fatal... more...

Related Diseases for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Diseases related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 24)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 granulomatous amebic encephalitis 25.5 TNFRSF17 SNORA1 PSAT1 PDE8A JDP2 HM13
2 pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis 11.5
3 amoebiasis due to free-living amoebae 11.5
4 meningoencephalitis 11.0
5 headache 10.4
6 cholera 10.3
7 ocular motor apraxia 10.3
8 bacterial meningitis 10.2
9 encephalitis 10.2
10 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.1
11 hydrocephalus 10.1
12 brain edema 10.1
13 poliomyelitis 10.1
14 lupus erythematosus 10.1
15 pneumococcal meningitis 10.1
16 viral meningitis 10.0
17 status epilepticus 10.0
18 myocarditis 10.0
19 herpes simplex 10.0
20 subacute delirium 10.0
21 diabetes insipidus 10.0
22 meningitis 10.0
23 toxoplasmosis 10.0
24 traumatic brain injury 10.0

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:



Diseases related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Drugs & Therapeutics for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Genetic Tests for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Anatomical Context for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:

40
Brain, Neutrophil, T Cells, Testes, Cortex, Colon, Lung

Publications for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Articles related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis:

(show top 50) (show all 467)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Naegleria fowleri: differential genetic expression following treatment with Hesperidin conjugated with silver nanoparticles using RNA-Seq. 61
32451717 2020
2
Adaptive iron utilization compensates for the lack of an inducible uptake system in Naegleria fowleri and represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. 61
32555641 2020
3
Gold-Conjugated Curcumin as a Novel Therapeutic Agent against Brain-Eating Amoebae. 61
32548431 2020
4
Identification of differential protein recognition pattern between Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis. 61
32191816 2020
5
Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation as a new target to treat Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis. 61
32513800 2020
6
The MPO system participates actively in the formation of an oxidative environment produced by neutrophils and activates the antioxidant mechanism of Naegleria fowleri. 61
32531828 2020
7
Important factors causing high fatal cases of Naegleria fowleri primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in Pakistan. 61
32497800 2020
8
Activity of Auranofin against Multiple Genotypes of Naegleria fowleri and Its Synergistic Effect with Amphotericin B In Vitro. 61
32392039 2020
9
Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Caused by Naegleria fowleri: A Global Review. 61
32369575 2020
10
Evaluation of Indolocarbazoles from Streptomyces sanyensis as a Novel Source of Therapeutic Agents against the Brain-Eating Amoeba Naegleria fowleri. 61
32466301 2020
11
A comparative study of the membrane proteins from Naegleria species: A 23-kDa protein participates in the virulence of Naegleria fowleri. 61
31794894 2020
12
Naegleria fowleri: Sources of infection, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management; a review. 61
31612525 2020
13
"Proposals for Amendments in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Encephalitis caused by Free-living Amoebae". 61
30961516 2020
14
Fowlerstefin, a cysteine protease inhibitor of Naegleria fowleri, induces inflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells in vitro. 61
31996242 2020
15
Isolation of Naegleria spp. from a Brazilian Water Source. 61
32024031 2020
16
Aryl Quinazolinone Derivatives as Novel Therapeutic Agents against Brain-Eating Amoebae. 61
31961126 2020
17
Is Naegleria fowleri an Emerging Parasite? 61
31744676 2020
18
A case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Bangladesh. 61
31734864 2020
19
Molecular detection of free-living amoebae from Namhangang (southern Han River) in Korea. 61
31942007 2020
20
A Fatal Case of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis from Recreational Waters. 61
32550028 2020
21
Identification of Four Amoebicidal Nontoxic Compounds by a Molecular Docking Screen of Naegleria fowleri Sterol Δ8-Δ7-Isomerase and Phenotypic Assays. 61
31583882 2019
22
Repositioning of Guanabenz in Conjugation with Gold and Silver Nanoparticles against Pathogenic Amoebae Acanthamoeba castellanii and Naegleria fowleri. 61
31612700 2019
23
Nanopore sequencing improves the draft genome of the human pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri. 61
31690847 2019
24
Response and remediation actions following the detection of Naegleria fowleri in two treated drinking water distribution systems, Louisiana, 2013-2014. 61
31638028 2019
25
The Effect of Different Environmental Conditions on the Viability of Naegleria fowleri Amoebae. 61
30758106 2019
26
In Vitro Activity of Statins against Naegleria fowleri. 61
31398829 2019
27
Oleic Acid Coated Silver Nanoparticles Showed Better in Vitro Amoebicidal Effects against Naegleria fowleri than Amphotericin B. 61
31347828 2019
28
Eight-Year-Old Male With Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis. 61
31660390 2019
29
Antiparasitic Activity of Auranofin against Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. 61
30520183 2019
30
trans-Cinnamic Acid Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles as Potent Therapeutics against Brain-Eating Amoeba Naegleria fowleri. 61
30970208 2019
31
Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis: A Case Report. 61
31284352 2019
32
Isolation and Molecular Identification of Naegleria australiensis in Irrigation Water of Fuerteventura Island, Spain. 61
30941664 2019
33
Killer amoebas: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in a changing climate. 61
31136398 2019
34
Nasal saline irrigation: a clinical update. 61
31087631 2019
35
Enzymatic and Structural Characterization of the Naegleria fowleri Glucokinase. 61
30783001 2019
36
A local case of fulminant primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri. 61
30961348 2019
37
Phenotypic Screens Reveal Posaconazole as a Rapidly Acting Amebicidal Combination Partner for Treatment of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis. 61
30358879 2019
38
Mouse neutrophils release extracellular traps in response to Naegleria fowleri. 61
30525201 2019
39
Innovative Methodology in the Discovery of Novel Drug Targets in the Free-Living Amoebae. 61
29697029 2019
40
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in an infant. 61
31424023 2019
41
Application of untargeted metabolomics for the detection of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri in an operational drinking water distribution system. 61
30212806 2018
42
An In Vitro Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier: Naegleria fowleri Affects the Tight Junction Proteins and Activates the Microvascular Endothelial Cells. 61
29655298 2018
43
Lipids Are the Preferred Substrate of the Protist Naegleria gruberi, Relative of a Human Brain Pathogen. 61
30332635 2018
44
Preferential feeding in Naegleria fowleri; intracellular bacteria isolated from amoebae in operational drinking water distribution systems. 61
29783165 2018
45
The genome of Naegleria lovaniensis, the basis for a comparative approach to unravel pathogenicity factors of the human pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri. 61
30185166 2018
46
Enzymatic chokepoints and synergistic drug targets in the sterol biosynthesis pathway of Naegleria fowleri. 61
30212566 2018
47
Iron economy in Naegleria gruberi reflects its metabolic flexibility. 61
29738737 2018
48
A case of Naegleria fowleri related primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in China diagnosed by next-generation sequencing. 61
30055569 2018
49
Identification and molecular typing of Naegleria fowleri from a patient with primary amebic meningoencephalitis in China. 61
29751112 2018
50
Identification of cysteine protease inhibitors as new drug leads against Naegleria fowleri. 61
29551628 2018

Variations for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Expression for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis.

Pathways for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Pathways related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.36 POU2F1 JDP2

GO Terms for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

Biological processes related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 autophagy of mitochondrion GO:0000422 8.62 GABARAPL2 ATG3

Molecular functions related to Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 aspartic-type endopeptidase activity GO:0004190 8.62 HM13 ASPRV1

Sources for Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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