MCID: PRM316
MIFTS: 32

Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Immune diseases, Metabolic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

MalaCards integrated aliases for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism:

Name: Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism 58

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
primary congenital hypothyroidism
Prevalence: 1-5/10000 (Europe);

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare endocrine diseases


Summaries for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

MalaCards based summary : Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism is related to hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 2 and congenital hypothyroidism. An important gene associated with Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism is PAX8 (Paired Box 8), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway. Affiliated tissues include thyroid, thymus and testis, and related phenotypes are hypothyroidism and muscular hypotonia

Related Diseases for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Diseases in the Hypothyroidism family:

Congenital Hypothyroidism Central Congenital Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism Due to Iodide Transport Defect Rare Adult Hypothyroidism
Transient Congenital Hypothyroidism Rare Hypothyroidism
Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism Due to Deficient Transcription Factors Involved in Pituitary Development or Function
Congenital Hypothyroidism Due to Maternal Intake of Antithyroid Drugs Transient Congenital Hypothyroidism Due to Maternal Factor
Transient Congenital Hypothyroidism Due to Neonatal Factor Congenital Hypothyroidism Due to Transplacental Passage of Tsh-Binding Inhibitory Antibodies
Congenital Hypothyroidism Due to Developmental Anomaly

Diseases related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 49, show less)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 2 30.7 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
2 congenital hypothyroidism 29.2 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
3 hypothyroidism 29.2 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
4 goiter 29.1 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1
5 athyreosis 28.2 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
6 primary congenital hypothyroidism without thyroid developmental anomaly 12.3
7 congenital hypothyroidism due to developmental anomaly 11.3
8 thyroid dyshormonogenesis 1 11.2
9 thymus basaloid carcinoma 9.9 PAX8 NKX2-1
10 rete testis neoplasm 9.9 PAX8 NKX2-1
11 rete testis adenocarcinoma 9.9 PAX8 NKX2-1
12 macroglossia 9.9
13 constipation 9.9
14 neonatal jaundice 9.9
15 familial thyroid dyshormonogenesis 9.9
16 thyroid carcinoma 9.9 TSHR NKX2-1
17 thymus clear cell carcinoma 9.9 PAX8 NKX2-1
18 thyroid angiosarcoma 9.9 PAX8 NKX2-1
19 struma ovarii 9.9 TSHR NKX2-1
20 nasal cavity olfactory neuroblastoma 9.9 PAX8 NKX2-1
21 thyroid gland anaplastic carcinoma 9.9 PAX8 NKX2-1
22 papillary serous adenocarcinoma 9.8 PAX8 NKX2-1
23 papillary thyroid microcarcinoma 9.8 TSHR NKX2-1
24 thymic carcinoma 9.8 PAX8 NKX2-1
25 pendred syndrome 9.8
26 alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder 9.8
27 umbilical hernia 9.8
28 hyperthyroidism 9.8
29 ileus 9.8
30 hypopituitarism 9.8
31 hypoglycemia 9.8
32 encephalopathy 9.8
33 permanent congenital hypothyroidism 9.8
34 thyroid cancer, nonmedullary, 2 9.7 TSHR PAX8
35 thyroid gland papillary carcinoma 9.7 PAX8 NKX2-1
36 thyroiditis 9.7 TSHR NKX2-1
37 mucoepidermoid carcinoma 9.6 PAX8 NKX2-1
38 postsurgical hypothyroidism 9.6 TSHR FOXE1
39 hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 1 9.5 TSHR FOXE1
40 benign struma ovarii 9.5 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1
41 thyroid gland follicular carcinoma 9.5 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1
42 multinodular goiter 9.5 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1
43 follicular adenoma 9.5 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1
44 papillary carcinoma 9.5 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1
45 graves' disease 9.4 TSHR PAX8
46 thyroid malformation 9.4 PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
47 differentiated thyroid carcinoma 8.9 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
48 thyroid gland disease 8.9 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
49 thyroid gland cancer 8.9 TSHR PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism:



Diseases related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Human phenotypes related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism:

58 31 (showing 16, show less)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 hypothyroidism 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000821
2 muscular hypotonia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001252
3 coarse facial features 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000280
4 umbilical hernia 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001537
5 feeding difficulties 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0011968
6 jaundice 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000952
7 abdominal distention 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0003270
8 intellectual disability 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001249
9 sleep disturbance 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002360
10 hypothermia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002045
11 macroglossia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000158
12 global developmental delay 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001263
13 short stature 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0004322
14 large fontanelles 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000239
15 thyroid dysgenesis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0008188
16 abnormality of the face 58 Very frequent (99-80%)

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26 (showing 1, show less)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 shRNA abundance <= 50% GR00343-S 8.92 FOXE1 NKX2-1 PAX8 TSHR

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism:

45 (showing 1, show less)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 8.92 FOXE1 NKX2-1 PAX8 TSHR

Drugs & Therapeutics for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Genetic Tests for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Anatomical Context for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism:

40
Thyroid, Thymus, Testis, Testes, Pituitary, Bone, Brain

Publications for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Articles related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism:

(showing 116, show less)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Defects in protein folding in congenital hypothyroidism. 61
31751626 2020
2
Genetic analyses in a cohort of Portuguese pediatric patients with congenital hypothyroidism. 61
31430255 2019
3
Gene Variants in NKX2-1 Do Not Represent a Major Etiological Factor of Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism in Mexican Population. 61
31061744 2019
4
Neonatal Thyroid Disease: Testing and Management. 61
30819341 2019
5
Newborn Screening for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism: Estimating Test Performance at Different TSH Thresholds. 61
30113641 2018
6
Mutation screening in the genes PAX-8, NKX2-5, TSH-R, HES-1 in cohort of 63 Brazilian children with thyroid dysgenesis. 61
30304112 2018
7
Thyroid Hypoplasia in Congenital Hypothyroidism Associated with Thyroid Peroxidase Mutations. 61
29790453 2018
8
Identification of Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism Based on Two Newborn Screens - Utah, 2010-2016. 61
30024866 2018
9
Newborn Screening Guidelines for Congenital Hypothyroidism in India: Recommendations of the Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology (ISPAE) - Part I: Screening and Confirmation of Diagnosis. 61
29380252 2018
10
A 7-year study on the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in northern Iran. 61
29881532 2018
11
Genetics of Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism. 61
29493125 2018
12
Prenatal Diagnosis and Management of a Fetal Goiter Hypothyroidism due to Dyshormonogenesis. 61
30662777 2018
13
Mutation analysis of the NKX2.5 gene in Iranian pediatric patients with congenital hypothyroidism. 61
28749785 2017
14
Etiological evaluation of primary congenital hypothyroidism cases. 61
28747839 2017
15
[The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism is increasing]. 61
28648169 2017
16
Congenital hypothyroidism: insights into pathogenesis and treatment. 61
29026407 2017
17
Primary Care Provider Management of Congenital Hypothyroidism Identified Through Newborn Screening. 61
28868522 2017
18
Permanent and Transient Congenital Hypothyroidism in Hamadan West Province of Iran. 61
28144251 2016
19
Regional hypoplasia of somatosensory cortex in growth-retarded mice (grt/grt). 61
26915353 2016
20
Levothyroxine replacement in primary congenital hypothyroidism: the higher the initial dose the higher the rate of overtreatment. 61
26244672 2016
21
Evaluation of the tshr gene reveals polymorphisms associated with typical symptoms in primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
26356361 2016
22
Single newborn screen or routine second screening for primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
26293295 2015
23
Guidelines for Mass Screening of Congenital Hypothyroidism (2014 revision). 61
26594093 2015
24
Genetic analysis of the paired box transcription factor (PAX8) gene in a cohort of Polish patients with primary congenital hypothyroidism and dysgenetic thyroid glands. 61
25720050 2015
25
Sublingual thyroid ectopy: similarities and differences with Kallmann syndrome. 61
25750738 2015
26
Prolonged ileus in an infant presenting with primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
25866693 2015
27
Identification and functional characterization of a novel mutation in the NKX2-1 gene: comparison with the data in the literature. 61
23379327 2013
28
Congenital hypothyroidism: recommendations of the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 61
23681264 2013
29
The Italian screening program for primary congenital hypothyroidism: actions to improve screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and surveillance. 61
23404215 2013
30
[Newborn Screening Program for congenital hypothyroidism of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil: etiological investigation in the first visit]. 61
23329185 2012
31
Birth prevalence of disorders detectable through newborn screening by race/ethnicity. 61
22766612 2012
32
Congenital anomalies in infant with congenital hypothyroidism. 61
23074545 2012
33
Evaluation of congenital hypothyroidism in fars province, iran. 61
23056868 2012
34
Molecular analysis of the PAX8 gene in a sample of Mexican patients with primary congenital hypothyroidism: identification of the recurrent p.Arg31His mutation. 61
21689132 2012
35
Molecular screening of the TSH receptor (TSHR) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) genes in Korean patients with nonsyndromic congenital hypothyroidism. 61
21707688 2011
36
Fatal neonatal respiratory failure in an infant with congenital hypothyroidism due to haploinsufficiency of the NKX2-1 gene: alteration of pulmonary surfactant homeostasis. 61
20584796 2011
37
The role of ultrasonography in primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
22973380 2011
38
[Impact of L-thyroxine replacement therapy on pituitary changes secondary to congenital primary hypothyroidism--three cases report]. 61
21870710 2011
39
[Magnetic resonance imaging and hormonal profile of the pituitary gland in patients with primary congenital hypothyroidism]. 61
21595170 2011
40
High frequency of D727E polymorphisms in exon 10 of the TSHR gene in Brazilian patients with congenital hypothyroidism. 61
21714466 2010
41
The epidemiology of environmental perchlorate exposure and thyroid function: a comprehensive review. 61
20523234 2010
42
Future research directions to identify causes of the increasing incidence rate of congenital hypothyroidism in the United States. 61
20435719 2010
43
Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism--current trends and future directions: workshop summary. 61
20435715 2010
44
Effect of laboratory practices on the incidence rate of congenital hypothyroidism. 61
20435717 2010
45
The impact of transient hypothyroidism on the increasing rate of congenital hypothyroidism in the United States. 61
20435718 2010
46
Trends in incidence rates of congenital hypothyroidism related to select demographic factors: data from the United States, California, Massachusetts, New York, and Texas. 61
20435716 2010
47
[Analysis of changes in peripheral and central nervous system in irregularly treated adult patients with primary congenital hypothyroidism]. 61
20815165 2010
48
Increased incidence of extrathyroidal congenital malformations in Japanese patients with congenital hypothyroidism and their relationship with Down syndrome and other factors. 61
19534617 2009
49
Neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: eight years' experience. 61
18668261 2009
50
Is umbilical cord blood total thyroxin measurement effective in newborn screening for hypothyroidism? 61
19805752 2009
51
Newborn screening. 61
18203033 2008
52
Finding blunders in thyroid testing: experience in newborns. 61
18623119 2008
53
TTF-2/FOXE1 gene polymorphisms in Sicilian patients with permanent primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
17318017 2007
54
A novel hypothyroid dwarfism due to the missense mutation Arg479Cys of the thyroid peroxidase gene in the mouse. 61
16762971 2006
55
Thyroid function and perchlorate in drinking water: an evaluation among California newborns, 1998. 61
16675440 2006
56
Dopamine infusion: a possible cause of undiagnosed congenital hypothyroidism in preterm infants. 61
16575344 2006
57
Clinical presentation of primary congenital hypothyroidism: experience before mass screening. 61
16351594 2005
58
Disturbance of the fetal thyroid hormone state has long-term consequences for treatment of thyroidal and central congenital hypothyroidism. 61
15827096 2005
59
Genetics of congenital hypothyroidism. 61
15863666 2005
60
High prevalence of extrathyroid malformations in a cohort of Brazilian patients with permanent primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
15753677 2005
61
A novel Fryns "Anophthalmia-plus" syndrome associated with primary hypothyroidism. 61
16080293 2005
62
Primary congenital hypothyroidism: clinical characteristics and etiological study. 61
15279337 2004
63
Predictors of intellectual outcome in a cohort of Brazilian children with congenital hypothyroidism. 61
14725688 2004
64
Primary congenital hypothyroidism: defects in iodine pathways. 61
14514339 2003
65
Primary congenital hypothyroidism, newborn thyroid function, and environmental perchlorate exposure among residents of a Southern California community. 61
14534454 2003
66
Accuracy of ultrasonography to establish the diagnosis and aetiology of permanent primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
12919160 2003
67
[The role of hormone analysis in the nosologic diagnosis and in the control of treatment of congenital primary hypothyroidism]. 61
14524121 2003
68
Undetectable levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide and inadequate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in congenital hypothyroidism. 61
12799216 2003
69
Congenital central hypothyroidism due to homozygous thyrotropin beta 313 Delta T mutation is caused by a Founder effect. 61
12364478 2002
70
Very low birth weight newborns do not need repeat screening for congenital hypothyroidism. 61
11953728 2002
71
Thyroid dysfunction in children with Down's syndrome. 61
11853334 2001
72
Scintigraphic evaluation of primary congenital hypothyroidism: results of the Greek screening program. 61
11357505 2001
73
[Longitudinal and retrospective study of aspects of pubertal development in women with primary congenital hypothyroidism]. 61
11181189 2001
74
Risk factors for congenital hypothyroidism: an investigation of infant's birth weight, ethnicity, and gender in California, 1990-1998. 61
10861631 2000
75
Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
10637573 2000
76
Monitoring the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism for 20 years near the Savannah River site. 61
10666993 1999
77
A search for the possible molecular mechanisms of thyroid dysgenesis: sex ratios and associated malformations. 61
10404827 1999
78
Pertechnetate scintigraphy in primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
10319753 1999
79
Effect of primary congenital hypothyroidism upon expression of genes mediating murine brain glucose uptake. 61
10231871 1999
80
Neonatal screening for hypothyroidism at a university hospital in Thailand. 61
11400772 1999
81
Revised guidelines for neonatal screening programmes for primary congenital hypothyroidism. Working Group on Neonatal Screening of the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology. 61
10640901 1999
82
Etiologic study of primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
9737121 1998
83
Congenital hypothyroidism in Wales (1982-1993): demographic features, clinical presentation and effects on early neurodevelopment. 61
9579233 1998
84
Age-related differences in serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels in congenital hypothyroidism. 61
9364363 1997
85
A thyroxine dosage of 8 micrograms/kg per day is appropriate for the initial treatment of the majority of infants with congenital hypothyroidism. 61
9039509 1997
86
Congenital hypothyroidism: increased incidence in Najran province, Saudi Arabia. 61
9009561 1996
87
Prevalence of permanent primary congenital hypothyroidism in Taiwan. 61
7613262 1995
88
Differences in screening and confirmatory thyroid profiles in congenital hypothyroid subtypes: implications for missed cases. 61
7595770 1995
89
Thyroid dysgenesis and the dysplasia hypothesis in tuberous sclerosis. 61
8135291 1993
90
Evolution of height and bone age in primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
8365078 1993
91
Influence of treatment on the maturation of the somesthetic pathway in infants with primary congenital hypothyroidism during the first year of life. 61
8356023 1993
92
Congenital hypothyroidism screening and the cutoff for thyrotropin measurement: recommendations from The Netherlands. 61
8498626 1993
93
Congenital hypothyroidism: the Riyadh Military Hospital experience. 61
8435899 1993
94
Maternal-fetal T4 transfer does not suffice to prevent the effects of in utero hypothyroidism. 61
8406333 1993
95
Congenital anomalies concomitant with persistent primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
1519652 1992
96
Birth prevalence of primary congenital hypothyroidism by sex and ethnicity. 61
1644422 1992
97
A ten-year temporal analysis of primary congenital hypothyroidism in Israel. 61
1773746 1991
98
Radionuclide imaging in primary permanent congenital hypothyroidism. 61
1657485 1991
99
Somatosensory evoked potentials in neonates with primary congenital hypothyroidism during the first week of therapy. 61
1891279 1991
100
Survey of neonatal screening for primary hypothyroidism in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland 1982-4. 61
3134984 1988
101
Congenital hypothyroidism: increased risk of neonatal morbidity results in delayed treatment. 61
2881048 1987
102
Heterogeneity of congenital primary hypothyroidism: the importance of thyroid scintigraphy. 61
3656046 1987
103
Longitudinal assessment of children with congenital hypothyroidism detected by neonatal screening. 61
3818328 1986
104
Congenital hypothyroidism: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. 61
3081294 1986
105
[The activity of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase in primary congenital hypothyroidism]. 61
3832815 1985
106
Persistent TRH-induced growth hormone release after short-term and long-term L-thyroxine replacement therapy in primary congenital hypothyroidism. 61
3928212 1985
107
Sensorineural deafness in congenital hypopituitarism with severe hypothyroidism. 61
3984720 1985
108
Abnormalities of thyroid function in infants with Down syndrome. 61
6231357 1984
109
Concentration of plasma thyroglobulin and urinary excretion of iodinated material in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders in congenital hypothyroidism. 61
6624362 1983
110
Primary congenital hypothyroidism in Spanish-surnamed infants in Southern California. 61
7097435 1982
111
Coordinated system for comprehensive newborn metabolic screening. 61
7079807 1982
112
Neonatal screening for hypothyroidism in Greece. 61
7308230 1981
113
[Enzyme immunoassay of TSH in dried blood, its application to mass-screening of primary hypothyroidism (author's transl)]. 61
7026308 1981
114
[Changes in the response of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system to TRH and TRH and L-dopa in primary congenital hypothyroidism in children treated with desiccated thyroid]. 61
6771126 1980
115
Population screening for congenital hypothyroidism. 61
7363017 1980
116
Value of serum thyroxine measurements for the management of congenital hypothyroidism in children. 61
711496 1978

Variations for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Expression for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism.

Pathways for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Pathways related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 1, show less)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.46 TSHR PAX8

GO Terms for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

Cellular components related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 1, show less)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nuclear chromatin GO:0000790 8.8 PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1

Biological processes related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 5, show less)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell differentiation GO:0030154 9.5 PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
2 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893 9.33 PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
3 anatomical structure morphogenesis GO:0009653 9.26 PAX8 FOXE1
4 thyroid-stimulating hormone signaling pathway GO:0038194 8.96 TSHR PAX8
5 thyroid gland development GO:0030878 8.8 PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1

Molecular functions related to Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(showing 5, show less)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific GO:0000981 9.43 PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
2 DNA-binding transcription factor activity GO:0003700 9.33 PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
3 transcription regulatory region DNA binding GO:0044212 9.32 PAX8 NKX2-1
4 sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0043565 9.13 PAX8 NKX2-1 FOXE1
5 thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor activity GO:0004996 8.62 TSHR PAX8

Sources for Primary Congenital Hypothyroidism

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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