PPMS
MCID: PRM108
MIFTS: 51

Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS)

Categories: Genetic diseases, Immune diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

MalaCards integrated aliases for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis:

Name: Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis 12 54 6 15 17
Multiple Sclerosis, Primary Progressive 71
Primary-Progressive Ms 12
Ppms 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0050784
MeSH 44 D020528
SNOMED-CT 67 428700003
UMLS 71 C0751964

Summaries for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Disease Ontology : 12 A multiple sclerosis that is characterized by steady worsening of neurologic functioning, without any distinct relapses or periods of remission. The rate of progression may vary over time, with occasional plateaus or temporary improvements, but the progression is continuous.

MalaCards based summary : Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis, also known as multiple sclerosis, primary progressive, is related to allergic encephalomyelitis and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. An important gene associated with Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis is IFNB1 (Interferon Beta 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and TGF-Beta Pathway. The drugs Triclosan and Adenosine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, spinal cord and liver, and related phenotypes are cellular and homeostasis/metabolism

Related Diseases for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Diseases in the Multiple Sclerosis family:

Multiple Sclerosis 2 Multiple Sclerosis 3
Multiple Sclerosis 4 Multiple Sclerosis 5
Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Diseases related to Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 433)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 allergic encephalomyelitis 30.8 PLP1 MOG MBP
2 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis 30.7 S100B MMP9 MBP IL4 IL10 IFNB1
3 exanthem 30.5 TNF IL10 CTLA4
4 chlamydia pneumonia 30.5 TNF IL4 IL10
5 chlamydia 30.5 TNF IL4 IL10
6 chickenpox 30.5 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNB1 CTLA4
7 mixed connective tissue disease 30.4 TNF IL10 HLA-DRB1
8 poliomyelitis 30.4 TNF IL4 IL10 ICAM1
9 lymphopenia 30.4 IL7R IL4 IL10 CTLA4
10 progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 30.3 TNF MBP ITGA4 IFNB1
11 rubella 30.3 TNF MOG IL4 IL10 IFNB1 HLA-DRB1
12 acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 30.2 MOG MBP IL10 IFNB1 HLA-DRB1
13 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis 30.2 TNF PLP1 MOG MMP9 MBP ITGA4
14 leukoencephalopathy, hereditary diffuse, with spheroids 30.1 S100B MBP CSF1R
15 multiple sclerosis 30.1 VCAM1 TNF PLP1 MOG MMP9 MBP
16 aplastic anemia 30.1 VCAM1 TNF IL4 IL10 HLA-DRB1 CTLA4
17 myasthenia gravis 30.0 TNF PLP1 MBP IL4 IL10 CTLA4
18 demyelinating disease 30.0 TNF PLP1 MOG MMP9 MBP ITGA4
19 neuromyelitis optica 30.0 S100B MOG MBP IL4 HLA-DRB1
20 central nervous system disease 29.9 TNF PLP1 MOG MMP9 MBP BDNF
21 optic neuritis 29.8 TNF PLP1 MOG MBP IL10 HLA-DRB1
22 nervous system disease 29.6 TNF MOG MMP9 MBP IL4 IL10
23 neuritis 29.3 VCAM1 TNF PLP1 MOG MMP9 MBP
24 punctate inner choroidopathy 10.5 TNF IL10
25 juvenile myasthenia gravis 10.5 IL10 HLA-DRB1
26 autoimmune inner ear disease 10.5 TNF MMP9
27 multifocal choroiditis 10.5 TNF IL10
28 acute transverse myelitis 10.5 MMP9 IL10
29 spotted fever 10.5 TNF IL10 CTLA4
30 spotted fever rickettsiosis 10.5 TNF IL10 CTLA4
31 periapical periodontitis 10.5 TNF MMP9 IL10
32 beryllium disease 10.5 TNF HLA-DRB1
33 latent autoimmune diabetes in adults 10.5 HLA-DRB1 CTLA4
34 idiopathic neutropenia 10.5 TNF IL10 HLA-DRB1
35 palladium allergic contact dermatitis 10.4 TNF IL10
36 cytomegalovirus retinitis 10.4 TNF IL10 HLA-DRB1
37 intermediate uveitis 10.4 TNF IL10 HLA-DRB1
38 panuveitis 10.4 TNF IL10 HLA-DRB1
39 echinococcosis 10.4 TNF IL10 HLA-DRB1
40 churg-strauss syndrome 10.4 TNF IL10 HLA-DRB1
41 toxicodendron dermatitis 10.4 TNF ICAM1
42 appendicitis 10.4 TNF MMP9 IL10
43 tropical endomyocardial fibrosis 10.4 TNF IL4 IL10
44 endomyocardial fibrosis 10.4 TNF IL4 IL10
45 chronic beryllium disease 10.4 TNF HLA-DRB1
46 viral pneumonia 10.4 TNF IL10 IFNB1
47 herpes zoster 10.4 TNF IL10 HLA-DRB1
48 pyelonephritis 10.4 TNF MMP9 IL10
49 graft-versus-host disease 10.4 TNF IL10 HLA-DRB1
50 preterm premature rupture of the membranes 10.4 TNF MMP9 IL10

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis:



Diseases related to Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis:

46 (show all 11)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.34 BDNF CLEC16A CSF1R ICAM1 IL10 IL4
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.34 BDNF CLEC16A CSF1R CTLA4 ICAM1 IFNB1
3 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.33 CSF1R CTLA4 ICAM1 IFNB1 IL10 IL4
4 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.29 BDNF CLEC16A CSF1R ICAM1 IL10 IL4
5 immune system MP:0005387 10.25 CSF1R CTLA4 ICAM1 IFNB1 IL10 IL4
6 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.17 BDNF CLEC16A CSF1R CTLA4 ICAM1 IL10
7 integument MP:0010771 10.07 BDNF CSF1R CTLA4 ICAM1 IL10 IL4
8 nervous system MP:0003631 10.07 BDNF CLEC16A CSF1R ICAM1 IFNB1 IL10
9 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.76 BDNF CSF1R IFNB1 IL10 IL4 OMG
10 normal MP:0002873 9.7 BDNF CLEC16A CSF1R CTLA4 IFNB1 IL10
11 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.32 BDNF CLEC16A ICAM1 IL10 IL4 MBP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Drugs for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 198)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Triclosan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 3380-34-5 5564
2
Adenosine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 58-61-7 60961
3
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
4
Racepinephrine Approved Phase 4 329-65-7 838
5
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
6
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 51-43-4 5816
7
Morphine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 57-27-2 5288826
8
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 51-45-6, 75614-87-8 774
9 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 4
10 Fluorophosphate Phase 4
11 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 4
12 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 4
13 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
14 Anesthetics, General Phase 4
15 Anesthetics Phase 4
16 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 4
17 Adrenergic beta-Agonists Phase 4
18 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
19 Sympathomimetics Phase 4
20 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
21 Epinephryl borate Phase 4
22 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
23 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4
24 Mydriatics Phase 4
25 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4
26 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4
27 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4
28 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4
29 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
30 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4
31 Tin Fluorides Phase 4
32 Histamine Antagonists Phase 4
33
Histamine Phosphate Phase 4 51-74-1 65513
34 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 4
35
rituximab Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 174722-31-7 10201696
36
Coal tar Approved Phase 3 8007-45-2
37
Ocrelizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 3 637334-45-3
38
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 50-24-8 5755
39 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 52-21-1
40
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 83-43-2 6741
41
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 302-25-0
42
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 3 2921-57-5
43
Hydroxyurea Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 127-07-1 3657
44
Vitamin C Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 50-81-7 5785 54670067
45
Tyrosine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 3 60-18-4 6057
46
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 3 2920-86-7
47 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
48 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 2, Phase 3
49 Fluorides, Topical Phase 3
50 Nutrients Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 216)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Clinical Efficacy of Giomer Versus Sodium Fluoride Varnish for Management of Hypersensitivity: Randomized Control Trail Unknown status NCT03818945 Phase 4 shofu PRG barrier coat;Sodium fluoride varnish
2 The Clinical Investigation of Colgate Total Toothpaste as Compared to Parodontax Toothpaste and Colgate Cavity Protection Toothpaste in Controlling Established Plaque and Gingivitis. (A Six Month Study) Completed NCT02080273 Phase 4 Colgate Cavity Protection toothpaste;Colgate Total toothpaste;Parodontax toothpaste
3 A Study to Measure the Effect of Dentifrice Usage Regime on Delivery and Efficacy of Fluoride Using an In Situ Caries Model Completed NCT01563172 Phase 4 Sodium fluoride / silica and carbopol, 0.5g;Sodium fluoride / silica and carbopol, 1.5g;Sodium fluoride / silica and carbopol, 1.5g
4 Clinical Investigation of the Effects of Colgate Total Toothpaste as Compared to a Matching Placebo on Periodontal Disease and Systemic Inflammatory Markers Completed NCT02670135 Phase 4 Triclosan Containing Toothpaste;Triclosan Free Toothpaste
5 Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Neonates With Elevated A-aDO2 Gradients Not Requiring Mechanical Ventilation Completed NCT00732537 Phase 4 inhaled Nitric Oxide;Oxygen (>90% by hood) - standard therapy
6 A Multi-center, Open-Label, Randomized, Active-controlled, Parallel, Phase 4 Clinical Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Sevofran in Patients Scheduled for Elective Surgery Under General Anesthesia Completed NCT01096212 Phase 4 original sevoflurane;generic sevoflurane
7 Clinical Investigation of a Toothpaste Containing Stannous Fluoride as Compared to Colgate Fluoride Toothpaste in Reducing Plaque and Gingivitis - a Three Month Study Completed NCT04033575 Phase 4 Colgate Total SF;Colgate Cavity Protection toothpaste
8 A Clinical Study Investigating the Efficacy of an Occluding Dentifrice in Providing Relief From Dentinal Hypersensitivity Completed NCT02923895 Phase 4
9 Caries-preventive Effectiveness of a Dentifrice Containing 5.000 Ppm Fluoride - a Randomized Controlled Trial in Adolescents With Fixed Orthodontic Appliances Completed NCT01768390 Phase 4
10 Comparison of Enamel Remineralization Potential of Dentifrices Incorporating Different Fluoride Salts Using an in Situ Caries Model Completed NCT01128946 Phase 4 NaF;SnF;NaMFP
11 Comparison of Pain of Conventional to Buffered Local Anesthesia During Injection in Pediatric Dental Patients. A Prospective, Double-blind, Randomized, Crossover Study Completed NCT01622296 Phase 4 Sodium bicarbonate;Lidocaine
12 A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Range of Dental/Denture Products for Improved Oral Health, Compared to Existing Oral Hygiene, in a Population of Partial Denture Wearers With Generalized Mild-moderate Plaque-induced Gingivitis Recruiting NCT04290624 Phase 4
13 An Open-Label, Multicenter, Biomarker Study to Explore the Mechanism of Action of Ocrelizumab and B-Cell Biology in Patients With Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis or Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Active, not recruiting NCT02688985 Phase 4 Ocrelizumab;Methyloprednisolone;Antihistamine
14 Comparison of the Clinical Effectiveness of 8% Arginine/1450 Ppm Sodium Monofluorophosphate Versus 5% Potassium Nitrate/2500 Ppm Sodium Fluoride in Dentin Hypersensitivity Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Unknown status NCT02829879 Phase 3 8% arginine/1450ppm sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice;5% potassium nitrate/2500ppm sodium fluoride dentifrice
15 A Phase II/III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Rituximab in Adults With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT00087529 Phase 2, Phase 3 placebo;rituximab
16 Comparison of the Clinical Efficacy From the Retention Phase of Fluoride Delivery of Fluoride Toothpastes Using an in Situ Caries Model Completed NCT00708123 Phase 3 Sodium fluoride toothpaste;Placebo toothpaste
17 A Randomized, Examiner Blind, Crossover, in Situ Erosion Study to Investigate the Efficacy of an Experimental Dentifrice in Remineralization of Previously Softened Enamel Compared to a Placebo Dentifrice Completed NCT03296072 Phase 3 0.254% w/w sodium fluoride and 5% KNO3;0.454% w/w stannous fluoride;5% KNO3
18 Low-fluoride Acidic Liquid Dentifrice in Non-fluoridated Communities: a Randomized Clinical Trial Completed NCT01623362 Phase 3
19 Clinical Study of an Ascorbic Acid Derivative Dentifrice in Patients With Gingivitis Completed NCT02102295 Phase 3 Experimental toothpaste;Control toothpaste
20 Follow up at School-age of Children Participating in the Nitric Oxide Ventilatory Approach (NOVA) Study Completed NCT00152542 Phase 3 Inhaled nitric oxide;Placebo
21 Inhaled Nitric Oxide to Prevent and Treat Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants Completed NCT01503801 Phase 2, Phase 3 Nitric Oxide
22 Effects of a Toothpaste Containing 0.3% Triclosan in the Maintenance Phase of Peri-implantitis Treatment. Completed NCT03191721 Phase 3 Triclosan toothpaste;Fluoride toothpaste
23 Nitric Oxide Administration for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Completed NCT00240487 Phase 3 Nitric Oxide
24 A Clinical Study Investigating the Efficacy of a Dentifrice in Providing Long Term Relief From Dentinal Hypersensitivity Completed NCT01827670 Phase 3 Stannous fluoride;Sodium monofluorophosphate
25 The Effects of Nitric Oxide for Inhalation on the Development of Chronic Lung Disease in Pre-term Infants Completed NCT00551642 Phase 3 Nitric oxide;Placebo
26 Nitric Oxide Administration During Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass Surgery to Prevent Platelet activation-a Single Center Pilot Study Completed NCT03455218 Phase 2, Phase 3 Nitric Oxide;Placebo
27 Effect of Therapeutic Measures in Dental Caries Reduction in Children With Primary Dentition From Metropolitan Area Sorrounded Medellín City. A Clinical Trial Completed NCT00475618 Phase 3
28 A Clinical Study Investigating the Gingivitis Efficacy of a Test Dentifrice Completed NCT04123665 Phase 3 Stannous fluoride;Sodium monofluorophosphate
29 A Phase III Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Parallel-Group Study To Evaluate The Efficacy And Safety Of Fenebrutinib Compared With Ocrelizumab In Adult Patients With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis. Recruiting NCT04544449 Phase 3 fenebrutinib;ocrelizumab;placebo
30 A Phase IIIb Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Ocrelizumab in Adults With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Recruiting NCT04035005 Phase 3 Ocrelizumab;Placebo
31 A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-blind, Efficacy and Safety Study Comparing SAR442168 to Placebo in Participants With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PERSEUS) Recruiting NCT04458051 Phase 3 Tolebrutinib;Placebo
32 A Phase IIIB Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety and Pharmacokinetics of a Higher Dose of Ocrelizumab in Adults With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Recruiting NCT04548999 Phase 3 Ocrelizumab;Ocrelizumab;Antihistamine;Methylprednisolone
33 Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury by Nitric Oxide in Prolonged Cardiopulmonary Bypass. A Double Blind Controlled Randomized Trial in Cardiac Surgical Patients With Endothelial Dysfunction. Recruiting NCT02836899 Phase 3 Nitric Oxide
34 Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Administration During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Neonates at Reducing the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury Recruiting NCT04216927 Phase 3 Nitric Oxide;Oxygen
35 A Phase III, Multicentre, Randomized, Parallel-group, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Ocrelizumab in Adults With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Active, not recruiting NCT01194570 Phase 3 Ocrelizumab
36 Randomized Controlled Clinical Study (RCT) Phase 3 of the Safety and Efficacy of Hypochlorous Acid in the Prophylaxis of Healthcare Personnel at High Risk of Infection by SARS-CoV2 (COVID19) Versus Placebo Not yet recruiting NCT04684550 Phase 2, Phase 3 Stabilized hypochlorous acid;Placebo
37 A Double-blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of 0.5mg Fingolimod Administered Orally Once Daily Versus Placebo in Patients With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis and An Open-label, Single-arm Extension Study to the Double-blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of0.5 mg FTY720 Administered Orally Once Daily Versus Placebo in Patients With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Terminated NCT00731692 Phase 3 FTY720;Placebo
38 Hydroxyurea in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Terminated NCT01103583 Phase 2, Phase 3 Hydroxyurea
39 Inhaled Nitric Oxide for Preterm Infants With Severe Respiratory Failure Terminated NCT00016523 Phase 3 Inhaled nitric oxide;Placebo
40 Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Prevention/Treatment of Ischemia-Reperfusion Lung Injury Related to Lung Transplantation Terminated NCT00060450 Phase 3 nitric oxide for inhalation;Placebo
41 Early Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy in Term and Near Term Infants With Respiratory Failure Terminated NCT00005773 Phase 3 Inhaled Nitric Oxide;Standard iNO therapy
42 The Effects of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in the Treatment of Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure (AHRF) In Pediatrics Terminated NCT00041561 Phase 3 Nitrogen gas;inhaled nitric oxide
43 The Randomized Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study (NINOS) in Full-Term and Nearly Full-Term Infants With Hypoxic Respiratory Failure Terminated NCT00005776 Phase 3 Inhaled nitric oxide;Placebo
44 A Phase 3 Open-label Multi-Center, Two-Part Single-arm Study to Evaluate the Acute Vasodilation Response of Inhaled Nitric Oxide as a Predictor of Successful Wean From Parental Prostacyclins in Subjects With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Withdrawn NCT02436512 Phase 3 Inhaled Nitric Oxide
45 Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Administration During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Neonates at Reducing the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury: a Preliminary Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial Withdrawn NCT04259684 Phase 2, Phase 3 gases Nitric Oxide (gNO)
46 The Effect of Selective Pulmonary Vasodilation on Ventricular Afterload and Ventricular-arterial Coupling in Patients With Fontan Physiology and Validation of Echocardiographic Measures of Systolic and Diastolic Function. Withdrawn NCT01607983 Phase 3 inhaled nitric oxide
47 Controlled, Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial, 24 Months Duration, to Compare the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Andrographolide Versus Placebo in Patients With Progressive Forms of Multiple Sclerosis Unknown status NCT02273635 Phase 1, Phase 2 Andrographolides;placebo
48 Open Label Extension Trial of Idebenone for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Unknown status NCT01854359 Phase 1, Phase 2 Idebenone
49 Bioavailability and Bioactivity of Olive Oils Enriched With Their Own Phenolic Compounds in a Dose-response Study (VOHF1) Unknown status NCT01347515 Phase 1, Phase 2
50 Assessment of 1450 Ppm Fluoride/Arginine Toothpaste Using an Intra-oral Remineralization-demineralization Model. Unknown status NCT02388178 Phase 2 Control toothpaste containing no anti-cavity ingredients;Experimental toothpaste containing fluoride and amino acid (arginine);Fluoride toothpaste containing fluoride as the anti-cavity ingredient

Search NIH Clinical Center for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Genetic Tests for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Anatomical Context for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis:

40
Brain, Spinal Cord, Liver, Endothelial, Lung, T Cells, B Cells

Publications for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Articles related to Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis:

(show top 50) (show all 1098)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Interferon-beta1b treatment modulates cytokines in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. 54 61
17083335 2006
2
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis as a phenotype of a PLP1 gene mutation. 54 61
16130097 2005
3
Autoantibody synthesis in primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon beta-1b. 61 54
15645350 2004
4
CSF SERPINA3 Levels Are Elevated in Patients With Progressive MS. 61
33436375 2021
5
Absence of B Cells in Brainstem and White Matter Lesions Associates With Less Severe Disease and Absence of Oligoclonal Bands in MS. 61
33504635 2021
6
Effect of Ocrelizumab in Blood Leukocytes of Patients With Primary Progressive MS. 61
33408167 2021
7
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Plasma Agonist Activity Correlates With Disease Activity in Progressive MS. 61
33361385 2021
8
Risk factors for infusion-related reactions following Ocrelizumab infusion in a community setting: Development of an electronic medical record-based explanatory model. 61
33352355 2021
9
Gray Matter Atrophy in the Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Network and Sensorimotor Network in Relapsing-Remitting and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis. 61
33582965 2021
10
Influence of delaying ocrelizumab dosing in multiple sclerosis due to COVID-19 pandemics on clinical and laboratory effectiveness. 61
33370649 2021
11
Patients and neurologists have different perceptions of multiple sclerosis symptoms, care and challenges. 61
33588316 2021
12
Babesia microti infection in a patient with multiple sclerosis treated with ocrelizumab. 61
33450528 2021
13
Definitions of primary-progressive multiple sclerosis trajectories by rate of clinical disability progression. 61
33578205 2021
14
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dysphagia in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. 61
33580368 2021
15
Widespread Glial Activation in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Revealed by 18F-PBR06 PET: A Clinically Feasible, Individualized Approach. 61
33208611 2021
16
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis presenting under the age of 18 years: Fact or fiction? 61
32124676 2021
17
Physiotherapy use and access-barriers in persons with multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional analysis. 61
33370648 2021
18
Real-world experience of ocrelizumab in multiple sclerosis in a Spanish population. 61
33369288 2021
19
Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Its Association with Clinical Phenotypes. 61
33547621 2021
20
Varicella zoster immunity loss in multiple sclerosis patient treated with ocrelizumab. 61
32777270 2021
21
Validation of the French version of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS). 61
33352358 2021
22
A comparison of clinical outcomes in PPMS in the INFORMS original trial data set. 61
33464149 2021
23
Combination of Hydroxychloroquine and Indapamide Attenuates Neurodegeneration in Models Relevant to Multiple Sclerosis. 61
33410109 2021
24
Ongoing microstructural changes in the cervical cord underpin disability progression in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. 61
31961242 2021
25
Long-term evolution of multiple sclerosis iron rim lesions in 7 T MRI. 61
33484118 2021
26
Role of B Cells in Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 61
33091175 2021
27
Comparison of Pharmaceutical Effect of Alemtuzumab and Natalizumab and Their Side Effects in Treatment of Various Stages of Multiple Sclerosis Patients. 61
33511931 2021
28
Societal costs of primary progressive multiple sclerosis in Australia and the economic impact of a hypothetical disease-modifying treatment that could delay disease progression. 61
33461357 2021
29
Brain region volumes and their relationship with disability progression and cognitive function in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. 61
33486890 2021
30
French validation of the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis. 61
32713736 2021
31
Variations in consecutive serum neurofilament light levels in healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients. 61
33291033 2021
32
Effect of applying inclusion and exclusion criteria of phase III clinical trials to multiple sclerosis patients in routine clinical care. 61
33467978 2021
33
Multicentric clinical and epidemiological comparison of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with multiple sclerosis from India. 61
33166808 2021
34
Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in times of MOG and AQP4 autoantibody testing - A monocentric study. 61
33360733 2020
35
Ocrelizumab not recommended in France for patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis while recommended in England: a review comparing the assessment by HAS and NICE. 61
33356643 2020
36
Blood-flow Restriction Training for a Person With Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report. 61
33351952 2020
37
Long-term follow-up from the ORATORIO trial of ocrelizumab for primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a post-hoc analysis from the ongoing open-label extension of the randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. 61
33129442 2020
38
Occurrence of primary progressive multiple sclerosis in a patient with argyria: Causality or coincidence? 61
32890815 2020
39
Correction to: Clinical and demographic characteristics of primary progressive multiple sclerosis in Argentina: Argentinean registry cohort study (RelevarEM). 61
32918634 2020
40
Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with multiple sclerosis. 61
33031634 2020
41
Increased socioeconomic burden in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis: A Danish nationwide population-based study. 61
33296969 2020
42
How oral probiotics affect the severity of an experimental model of progressive multiple sclerosis? Bringing commensal bacteria into the neurodegenerative process. 61
32900255 2020
43
Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Relation to MRZ Reaction Status in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis. 61
33255854 2020
44
Ocrelizumab in relapsing and primary progressive multiple sclerosis: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of OPERA I, OPERA II and ORATORIO. 61
33202059 2020
45
Clinical and demographic characteristics of primary progressive multiple sclerosis in Argentina: Argentinean registry cohort study (RelevarEM). 61
32840711 2020
46
Assessment of delayed diagnosis and treatment in multiple sclerosis patients during 1990-2016. 61
33180313 2020
47
Idebenone does not inhibit disability progression in primary progressive MS. 61
32784117 2020
48
Anti-CD20 Agents for Multiple Sclerosis: Spotlight on Ocrelizumab and Ofatumumab. 61
33092190 2020
49
Effect of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: a PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis. 61
32020080 2020
50
Acute pancreatitis after ocrelizumab treatment for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. 61
32653735 2020

Variations for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis:

6
# Gene Name Type Significance ClinVarId dbSNP ID GRCh37 Pos GRCh38 Pos
1 POLG NM_002693.2(POLG):c.641C>T (p.Ala214Val) SNV Uncertain significance 405572 rs948866053 15:89876345-89876345 15:89333114-89333114
2 POLG NM_002693.2(POLG):c.391T>C (p.Tyr131His) SNV Uncertain significance 206492 rs562847013 15:89876595-89876595 15:89333364-89333364

Expression for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

Pathways for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Pathways related to Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 37)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.98 VCAM1 TNF S100B MMP9 ITGA4 IL7R
2
Show member pathways
13.5 TNF ITGA4 IL7R IL4 IL10 IFNB1
3
Show member pathways
13.24 VCAM1 TNF MMP9 IL7R IL4 IL10
4
Show member pathways
12.96 TNF ITGA4 IL7R IL4 IFNB1 CSF1R
5
Show member pathways
12.81 TNF ITGA4 IL4 IL10 ICAM1 HLA-DRB1
6 12.55 VCAM1 TNF IL4 IL10 CTLA4
7
Show member pathways
12.37 IL7R IL4 IL10 IFNB1
8
Show member pathways
12.25 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNB1 BDNF
9
Show member pathways
12.24 TNF ITGA4 IL4 IL10 HLA-DRB1
10 12.21 TNF IL10 IFNB1 HLA-DRB1
11 12.16 TNF PLP1 IL10 BDNF
12 12.11 VCAM1 ITGA4 ICAM1 HLA-DRB1 CTLA4
13 12.07 VCAM1 TNF MMP9 ICAM1
14 12.06 TNF ITGA4 IL10 IFNB1
15 12 VCAM1 MMP9 ITGA4 ICAM1
16 11.96 TNF IL7R IL4 IL10
17 11.92 VCAM1 TNF MMP9 IFNB1 ICAM1
18 11.86 TNF ICAM1 HLA-DRB1 CTLA4
19 11.86 VCAM1 TNF MMP9 IL4 IL10 ICAM1
20 11.74 S100B MOG BDNF
21 11.73 TNF ITGA4 IL7R IL4 HLA-DRB1 CSF1R
22
Show member pathways
11.72 TNF IL4 CTLA4
23 11.71 TNF ITGA4 IL7R IL4 IL10
24
Show member pathways
11.65 VCAM1 TNF MMP9 ICAM1
25 11.64 TNF IL7R IL10 IFNB1 CSF1R
26 11.63 TNF MMP9 IL4
27 11.58 TNF OMG MMP9 MBP IL4 ICAM1
28 11.51 TNF MMP9 ICAM1
29 11.51 VCAM1 TNF IL10 ICAM1
30 11.49 TNF IL4 IL10 ICAM1
31 11.46 VCAM1 ITGA4 ICAM1
32 11.33 VCAM1 TNF IL10 ICAM1
33 11.02 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNB1 HLA-DRB1
34 11 TNF ITGA4 IL4 IL10 CSF1R BDNF
35 10.99 VCAM1 TNF ITGA4 IL4 IL10 ICAM1
36 10.94 VCAM1 TNF ICAM1
37 10.57 PLP1 MBP

GO Terms for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Cellular components related to Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.85 VCAM1 TNF S100B MMP9 IL4 IL10
2 cell surface GO:0009986 9.5 VCAM1 TNF MBP ITGA4 ICAM1 HLA-DRB1
3 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.17 VCAM1 TNF MOG IL7R ICAM1 HLA-DRB1

Biological processes related to Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 32)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 10.04 TNF PLP1 KIF1B IL7R IL4
2 positive regulation of cell migration GO:0030335 9.96 PLP1 MMP9 IL4 CSF1R
3 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0070374 9.92 TNF ICAM1 HLA-DRB1 CSF1R
4 regulation of immune response GO:0050776 9.92 VCAM1 ITGA4 IL4 ICAM1
5 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.91 TNF MMP9 HLA-DRB1 CSF1R
6 leukocyte migration GO:0050900 9.9 TNF MMP9 ITGA4 ICAM1
7 interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway GO:0060333 9.81 VCAM1 ICAM1 HLA-DRB1
8 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.8 TNF IL4 CSF1R
9 extracellular matrix organization GO:0030198 9.8 VCAM1 TNF MMP9 ITGA4 ICAM1
10 positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:1904707 9.73 TNF MMP9 IL10
11 cellular response to amyloid-beta GO:1904646 9.7 VCAM1 ITGA4 ICAM1
12 immune response GO:0006955 9.7 TNF MBP IL7R IL4 IL10 HLA-DRB1
13 negative regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042130 9.69 IL10 HLA-DRB1 CTLA4
14 negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:2000352 9.67 IL4 IL10 ICAM1
15 positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic process GO:0045348 9.65 IL4 IL10
16 negative regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034115 9.65 MBP IL10
17 B cell proliferation GO:0042100 9.65 IL7R IL10 IFNB1
18 positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production GO:2000343 9.64 TNF MBP
19 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.61 TNF IL10
20 leukocyte cell-cell adhesion GO:0007159 9.61 VCAM1 ITGA4 ICAM1
21 positive regulation of receptor binding GO:1900122 9.59 MMP9 BDNF
22 axon ensheathment GO:0008366 9.58 PLP1 MBP
23 positive regulation of mononuclear cell migration GO:0071677 9.58 TNF IL4
24 negative regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response GO:0002719 9.57 TNF IL10
25 type 2 immune response GO:0042092 9.55 IL4 IL10
26 membrane to membrane docking GO:0022614 9.54 VCAM1 ICAM1
27 macrophage differentiation GO:0030225 9.5 MMP9 HLA-DRB1 CSF1R
28 regulation of isotype switching GO:0045191 9.46 IL4 IL10
29 leukocyte tethering or rolling GO:0050901 9.43 VCAM1 TNF ITGA4
30 cell-cell adhesion in response to extracellular stimulus GO:0140039 9.37 VCAM1 ITGA4
31 B cell differentiation GO:0030183 9.35 VCAM1 ITGA4 IL4 IL10 IFNB1
32 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.23 VCAM1 TNF MMP9 IL4 IL10 IFNB1

Molecular functions related to Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.26 TNF IL4 IL10 IFNB1
2 structural constituent of myelin sheath GO:0019911 8.62 PLP1 MBP

Sources for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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