PML
MCID: PRG009
MIFTS: 58

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)

Categories: Cancer diseases, Immune diseases, Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:

Name: Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy 12 74 20 53 58 15 17 32
Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal 20 44 71
Pml 12 20 58
Leukoencephalopathy Progressive Multifocal 54
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalitis 58

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:643
ICD9CM 34 046.3
MeSH 44 D007968
NCIt 50 C26815
SNOMED-CT 67 22255007
ICD10 32 A81.2
MESH via Orphanet 45 D007968
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 A81.2
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0023524
Orphanet 58 ORPHA217260
UMLS 71 C0023524

Summaries for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

NINDS : 53 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the white matter of the brain, caused by a virus infection that targets cells that make myelin--the material that insulates nerve cells (neurons).  Polyomavirus JC (often called JC virus) is carried by a majority of people and is harmless except among those with lowered immune defenses.  The disease is rare and occurs in patients undergoing chronic corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy for organ transplant, or individuals with cancer (such as Hodgkin’s disease or lymphoma).  Individuals with autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus -- some of whom are treated with biological therapies that allow JC virus reactivation -- are at risk for PML as well.  PML is most common among individuals with HIV-1 infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).  Studies estimate that prior to effective antiretroviral therapy, as many as 5 percent of persons infected with HIV-1 eventually develop PML that is an AIDS-defining illness.  However, current HIV therapy using antiretroviral drugs (ART), which effectively restores immune system function, allows as many as half of all HIV-PML patients to survive, although they may sometimes have an inflammatory reaction in the regions of the brain affected by PML.  The symptoms of PML are diverse, since they are related to the location and amount of damage in the brain, and may evolve over the course of several weeks to months  The most prominent symptoms are clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech, and sometimes personality changes.  The progression of deficits leads to life-threatening disability and (frequently) death.  A diagnosis of PML can be made following brain biopsy or by combining observations of a progressive course of the disease, consistent white matter lesions visible on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and the detection of the JC virus in spinal fluid.

MalaCards based summary : Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy, also known as leukoencephalopathy, progressive multifocal, is related to toxoplasmosis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. An important gene associated with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy is ITGA4 (Integrin Subunit Alpha 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Cytokine Signaling in Immune system. The drugs Natalizumab and Prednisolone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, t cells and bone marrow, and related phenotypes are immunodeficiency and functional motor deficit

Disease Ontology : 12 A viral infectious disease that involves reactivation of JC polyomavirus in immune-compromised individuals which causes the loss of white matter (which is made up of myelin, a substance the surrounds and protects nerve fibers) in multiple areas of the brain. The symptoms include hemiparesis, aphasia, dysarthria, hemianopia, cognitive impairment and coma.

GARD : 20 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a neurological disorder that damages the myelin that covers and protects nerves in the white matter of the brain. It is caused by the JC virus (JCV). By age 10, most people have been infected with this virus, but it rarely causes symptoms unless the immune system becomes severely weakened. The disease occurs, rarely, in organ transplant patients; people undergoing chronic corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy; and individuals with cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, and sarcoidosis. PML is most common among individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Wikipedia : 74 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and often fatal viral disease characterized... more...

Related Diseases for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Diseases related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 710)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 toxoplasmosis 31.0 TNF STAT1 CD40LG
2 subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 30.8 TNF MBP IL2
3 agammaglobulinemia 30.7 TNF RAG1 IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG
4 pulmonary sarcoidosis 30.7 TNF IL2 CCR6
5 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 30.6 TNF MBP MADCAM1 IL2 CD40LG CD4
6 sarcoidosis 1 30.6 TNF STAT1 IL2 ICOSLG CD4 CCR6
7 central nervous system disease 30.5 TNF MBP ICOSLG HTR2A CCR6
8 common variable immunodeficiency 30.5 TNF RAG1 ITGA4 IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG
9 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis 30.5 TNF MBP ITGA4 IL2 IFNB1 CD40LG
10 measles 30.5 TNF STAT1 IL2 IFNB1
11 adult t-cell leukemia 30.4 IL2 CD4 CCR6
12 demyelinating disease 30.4 TNF MBP ITGA4 IL2 IFNB1 ICOSLG
13 polyneuropathy 30.4 TNF MBP IGHMBP2 CD40LG
14 cd40 ligand deficiency 30.4 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4
15 t-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma 30.4 RAG1 IL2 CD4 CCR6
16 leukemia, chronic lymphocytic 30.4 TNF STAT1 ITGA4 IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG
17 meningoencephalitis 30.3 TNF MBP CD40LG CD4 CCR6
18 crohn's colitis 30.3 TNF IL2 CCR6
19 myeloma, multiple 30.2 TNF ITGA4 IL2 ICOSLG HIF1A CD4
20 lymphoma, non-hodgkin, familial 30.2 RAG1 LINC01194 ITGA4 IL2 ICOSLG CD4
21 hemorrhagic cystitis 30.2 TNF LINC01194 IL2 CD4
22 immunodeficiency with hyper-igm, type 1 30.1 RAG1 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4 CCR6
23 thrombocytopenia due to platelet alloimmunization 30.1 ICOSLG CD4 CCR6
24 cryptococcosis 30.1 TNF CD4 CCR6
25 rubella 30.1 TNF IL2 IFNB1 CD40LG
26 spondylitis 30.1 TNF ICOSLG CCR6
27 severe acute respiratory syndrome 30.0 TNF STAT1 IFNB1
28 spondyloarthropathy 1 30.0 TNF ICOSLG CD40LG CCR6
29 autoimmune vasculitis 30.0 TNF IL2 CD4 CCR6
30 histoplasmosis 30.0 TNF STAT1 CD4 CCR6
31 leprosy 3 30.0 TNF IL2 CD4 CCR6
32 dengue hemorrhagic fever 29.9 TNF STAT1 IFNB1
33 diarrhea 29.9 TNF IL2 IFNB1 CD40LG
34 t cell deficiency 29.9 RAG1 IL2 ICOSLG CD4 CCR6
35 disease by infectious agent 29.9 TNF IL2 IFNB1 ICOSLG CD4 CCR6
36 viral encephalitis 29.9 TNF MBP IFNB1 CD4 CCR6
37 acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 29.9 MBP IFNB1 CCR6
38 transverse myelitis 29.9 TNF MBP ICOSLG CCR6
39 rheumatoid arthritis 29.9 TNF PDCD1 IL2 IFNB1 CD40LG CD4
40 immune deficiency disease 29.9 TNF STAT1 RAG1 MBP IL2 IFNB1
41 pneumocystosis 29.8 TNF IL2 CD40LG CD4 CCR6
42 leukemia, acute myeloid 29.8 TNF STAT1 IL2 ICOSLG HIF1A CD4
43 stomatitis 29.8 TNF IL2 IFNB1 CD4
44 chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis 29.8 TNF STAT1 IL2 CD4 CCR6
45 connective tissue disease 29.8 TNF IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4 CCR6
46 multiple sclerosis 29.8 TNF STAT1 PDCD1 NEFL MBP ITGA4
47 vascular disease 29.8 TNF STAT1 IL2 HTR2A CD40LG CD4
48 toxic shock syndrome 29.8 TNF IL2 CD40LG
49 anemia, autoimmune hemolytic 29.8 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4 CCR6
50 dermatitis 29.8 TNF STAT1 IL2 CD4 CCR6

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:



Diseases related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Human phenotypes related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:

58 31 (show all 39)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 immunodeficiency 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002721
2 functional motor deficit 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0004302
3 cns demyelination 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0007305
4 abnormality of the cerebrospinal fluid 58 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002921
5 abnormal proportion of cd4-positive t cells 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0031392
6 abnormal oligodendroglia morphology 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0100706
7 abnormal astrocyte morphology 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0100707
8 dysarthria 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001260
9 hemiplegia/hemiparesis 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0004374
10 mental deterioration 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001268
11 headache 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002315
12 gait ataxia 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002066
13 limb muscle weakness 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003690
14 sensory impairment 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003474
15 decreased proportion of cd8-positive t cells 58 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0005415
16 nystagmus 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000639
17 vertigo 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002321
18 hematological neoplasm 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0004377
19 aphasia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002381
20 oculomotor nerve palsy 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0012246
21 personality changes 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000751
22 parkinsonism 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001300
23 self-neglect 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0025479
24 homonymous hemianopia 58 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030516
25 seizure 31 occasional (7.5%) HP:0001250
26 diplopia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000651
27 paresthesia 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0003401
28 dysmetria 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001310
29 meningitis 58 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001287
30 seizures 58 Occasional (29-5%)
31 neurological speech impairment 58 Frequent (79-30%)
32 visual impairment 58 Frequent (79-30%)
33 cognitive impairment 58 Frequent (79-30%)
34 abnormality of the nervous system 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
35 visual field defect 58 Occasional (29-5%)
36 weakness due to upper motor neuron dysfunction 58 Frequent (79-30%)
37 abnormality of the astrocytes 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
38 abnormal proportion of cd4 t cells 58 Very frequent (99-80%)
39 abnormality of the oligodendroglia 58 Very frequent (99-80%)

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.1 CCR6 CD4 CD40LG HIF1A IFNB1 IGBP1
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.02 CD4 CD40LG HIF1A HTR2A IGBP1 IL2
3 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.97 CD4 HIF1A HTR2A IGHMBP2 IL2 RAG1
4 immune system MP:0005387 9.97 CCR6 CD4 CD40LG HIF1A IFNB1 IGBP1
5 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.5 HIF1A IFNB1 IL2 PDCD1 RAG1 STAT1
6 nervous system MP:0003631 9.44 CCR6 CD4 CD40LG HIF1A IFNB1 IGBP1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Drugs for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 56)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Natalizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 189261-10-7
2
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
3 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
4
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
5
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
6
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
7
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
8 Immunoglobulins Phase 4
9 Antibodies Phase 4
10 Protective Agents Phase 4
11 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
12 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4
13 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
14 Hormones Phase 4
15 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
16 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
17 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
18 glucocorticoids Phase 4
19 Antiemetics Phase 4
20
Didanosine Approved Phase 2 69655-05-6 50599
21
Lenograstim Approved, Investigational Phase 2 135968-09-1
22
Sargramostim Approved, Investigational Phase 2 123774-72-1, 83869-56-1
23
Cytarabine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 147-94-4 6253
24
Zidovudine Approved Phase 2 30516-87-1 35370
25
Zalcitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 7481-89-2 24066
26
Topotecan Approved, Investigational Phase 2 119413-54-6, 123948-87-8 60700
27
Enfuvirtide Approved, Investigational Phase 2 159519-65-0 16130199
28
Emtricitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 143491-57-0 60877
29
Pembrolizumab Approved Phase 2 1374853-91-4
30
Mefloquine Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 53230-10-7 4046
31
Tenofovir Experimental, Investigational Phase 2 147127-20-6 464205
32 Immunologic Factors Phase 2
33 Antiviral Agents Phase 2
34 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 2
35 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 2
36 Antimetabolites Phase 2
37 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 2
38 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Phase 2
39 topoisomerase I inhibitors Phase 2
40 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 2
41 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
42 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
43 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
44 Antimalarials Phase 1, Phase 2
45
Cidofovir Approved 113852-37-2 60613
46
Probenecid Approved, Investigational 57-66-9 4911
47
Maraviroc Approved, Investigational 376348-65-1 3002977
48
Dimethyl fumarate Approved, Investigational 624-49-7 637568 5271565
49 Antirheumatic Agents
50 Interferon-alpha

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 19)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Switching Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated With Natalizumab at Risk for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy to Teriflunomide: Is This Safe and Effective? (Sub-study: SWITCH-JCV) Recruiting NCT01970410 Phase 4 teriflunomide
2 High-Dose Corticosteroids for Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in Patients Who Develop Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy on Natalizumab Terminated NCT01211665 Phase 4 Methylprednisolone;Prednisolone
3 A Phase II Multicenter Study Comparing Antiretroviral Therapy Alone to Antiretroviral Therapy Plus Cytosine Arabinoside (Cytarabine; Ara-C) for the Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Subjects Completed NCT00001048 Phase 2 Filgrastim;Cytarabine;Zidovudine;Zalcitabine;Didanosine
4 An Open, Comparative Phase II Study of Immediate Versus Delayed Treatment With Topotecan HCl Given as a Continuous 21-Day Infusion Every 28 Days to Patients With AIDS-Related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Completed NCT00002395 Phase 2 Topotecan
5 Early Intensification of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Including FUZEON® in the Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy During HIV-1 Infection ANRS 125 Trial Completed NCT00120367 Phase 2 Enfuvirtide;Tenofovir-Emtricitabine
6 The Effect and Safety of Programmed Cell Death Protein 1 (PD-1) Inhibitor on AIDS Patients With Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML): A One-center, Single-arm and Prospective Study Recruiting NCT04091932 Phase 2 Pembrolizumab
7 A Randomized, Rater-Blinded Study to Explore the Effect of Mefloquine in Subjects With Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Terminated NCT00746941 Phase 1, Phase 2 mefloquine
8 A Pilot Study of Adoptive Cellular Immunotherapy for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy With Ex Vivo Generated Polyomavirus-Specific T-cells Completed NCT02694783 Early Phase 1
9 Role of Inflammation in PML Completed NCT01132053
10 JC Virus Reactivation in Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT02004444
11 Retrospective Study of the Survival of Patients Suffering From Hiv-related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Completed NCT02895581
12 A Pilot Study of the Effect of Cidofovir for the Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) in Subjects With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Completed NCT00000945 Cidofovir;Probenecid
13 A Pilot Study of the Efficacy of Recombinant Alpha Interferon (IFN-A2b) and Zidovudine (AZT) in the Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Complicating HIV-1 Infection Completed NCT00002270 Interferon alfa-2b;Zidovudine
14 An Open Label Study Regimen of Videx (2',3'-Dideoxyinosine, ddI) in Patients With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Exhibiting Significant Deterioration While Taking Zidovudine (Retrovir) Completed NCT00002274 Didanosine
15 Do CCR5 Antagonists Improve the Overall Survival of Patients With AIDS-related Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy? Completed NCT03969550
16 Natural History Study of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Recruiting NCT01730131
17 An Observational Study Utilising Data From the US Tysabri TOUCH Programme and Select EU MS Registries to Estimate the Risk of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) and Other Serious Opportunistic Infections Among Patients Who Were Exposed to an MS Disease Modifying Treatment Prior to Treatment With Tysabri Active, not recruiting NCT03399981
18 Dynamics of T Cell Expression of Immune Checkpoint Molecules in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Not yet recruiting NCT04453917
19 Genetic Evaluation of Natalizumab-Treated Patients With Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Terminated NCT01211639

Search NIH Clinical Center for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Cochrane evidence based reviews: leukoencephalopathy, progressive multifocal

Genetic Tests for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Anatomical Context for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:

40
Brain, T Cells, Bone Marrow, Myeloid, Cerebellum, Spinal Cord, Colon

Publications for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Articles related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:

(show top 50) (show all 3126)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Demyelination as a complication of new immunomodulatory treatments. 54 61
20442571 2010
2
Multiple roles for Puralpha in cellular and viral regulation. 61 54
19182532 2009
3
5-HT2a inhibitors for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: old drugs for an old disease. 54 61
18194091 2008
4
Antisense therapy of MAdCAM-1 for trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced murine colitis. 54 61
16917232 2006
5
Novel treatment options for inflammatory bowel disease: targeting alpha 4 integrin. 54 61
16827596 2006
6
Drug insight: using monoclonal antibodies to treat multiple sclerosis. 61 54
16932490 2005
7
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after natalizumab therapy for Crohn's disease. 54 61
15947080 2005
8
Evidence for involvement of transforming growth factor beta1 signaling pathway in activation of JC virus in human immunodeficiency virus 1-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. 54 61
14987161 2004
9
Myelin degrading activity in the CSF of HIV-1-infected patients with neurological diseases. 61 54
7535576 1994
10
Course of neuropsychological impairment during natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. 61
33085811 2021
11
Brainstem progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. 61
33128290 2021
12
Biological Significance of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies: Lessons Learned From Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. 61
33361386 2021
13
Modeling the Efficacy of Natalizumab in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Who Switch From Every-4-Week Dosing to Extended-Interval Dosing. 61
32949472 2021
14
The risk of infection in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with disease-modifying therapies: A Delphi consensus statement. 61
32940121 2021
15
Dimethyl fumarate induced lymphopenia in multiple sclerosis: A review of the literature. 61
33091427 2021
16
Natalizumab: safety and risk in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. 61
33608441 2021
17
Treatment of Viral Encephalitis. 61
33223083 2021
18
Central nervous system disease with JC virus infection in adults with congenital HIV. 61
33394671 2021
19
Is Easier Better Than Harder? An Experiment on Choice Experiments for Benefit-Risk Tradeoff Preferences. 61
33463397 2021
20
Improving risk-stratification of natalizumab-associated PML. 61
33539683 2021
21
A case series of persistent lymphopaenia following treatment with fumaric acid esters for psoriasis. 61
33432649 2021
22
Mild progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after switching from natalizumab to ocrelizumab. 61
33051344 2021
23
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with occult hypogammaglobulinemia experiencing bilateral visual impairment. 61
33499658 2021
24
Unusual Case of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in a Patient With Sjögren Syndrome. 61
33464755 2021
25
Induction of Brain Tumors by the Archetype Strain of Human Neurotropic JCPyV in a Transgenic Mouse Model. 61
33499370 2021
26
GRK2 mediates β-arrestin interactions with 5-HT2 receptors for JC polyomavirus endocytosis. 61
33441347 2021
27
Characterization of JC Polyomavirus Derived from COS-IMRb Cells. 61
32741932 2021
28
Head-to-Head Comparison of the Two MAO-B Radioligands, 18F-THK5351 and 11C-L-Deprenyl, to Visualize Astrogliosis in Patients With Neurological Disorders. 61
32657879 2021
29
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and the spectrum of JC virus-related disease. 61
33219338 2021
30
Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging monitoring in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy treated with pembrolizumab: a case report. 61
32700225 2021
31
Late occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy. 61
33459429 2021
32
Adoptive Transfer of JC Virus-Specific T Lymphocytes for the Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. 61
33459417 2021
33
Lower lymphocyte counts and older age are associated with reduced multiple sclerosis disease activity during dimethyl fumarate treatment. 61
33524927 2021
34
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the era of new disease-modifying treatments for multiple sclerosis. 61
33431183 2021
35
Natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in multiple sclerosis (MS): "a case report from Ireland with review of literature, clinical pitfalls and future direction". 61
33437143 2021
36
MRI signs of CNS demyelinating diseases. 61
33310421 2021
37
Immune checkpoint inhibitors for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a new gold standard? 61
33515299 2021
38
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in multiple myeloma. A literature review and lessons to learn. 61
33009935 2021
39
[Genetic analysis of a child with co-commitment progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and X-linked hyper IgM syndrome]. 61
33423265 2021
40
Human iPS cell-derived astrocytes support efficient replication of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-type JC polyomavirus. 61
33008586 2020
41
Inhibition of JC polyomavirus infectivity by the retrograde transport inhibitor Retro-2.1. 61
32965709 2020
42
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an HIV patient was diagnosed by 3 times lumbar punctures and 2 times brain biopsies. 61
32839952 2020
43
Rituximab in people living with HIV affected by immune-mediated renal diseases: a case-series. 61
33104497 2020
44
Practical approach to monitoring and prevention of infectious complications associated with systemic corticosteroids, antimetabolites, cyclosporine, and cyclophosphamide in nonmalignant hematologic diseases. 61
33275674 2020
45
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with a lymphoproliferative disorder treated with pembrolizumab. 61
32910430 2020
46
"Borderline" idiopathic CD4+ T-cell lymphocytopenia presenting with atypical progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. 61
33032014 2020
47
Inadequate Immune Humoral Response against JC Virus in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Non-Survivors. 61
33276614 2020
48
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the course of combined therapy with bendamustine and rituximab. 61
31492452 2020
49
Genetic Diversity of the Noncoding Control Region of the Novel Human Polyomaviruses. 61
33297530 2020
50
Expanding spectrum of opportunistic infections associated with dimethyl fumarate. 61
33300850 2020

Variations for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Expression for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy.

Pathways for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Pathways related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.84 TNF STAT1 RAG1 PDCD1 NEFL MADCAM1
2
Show member pathways
13.24 TNF STAT1 RAG1 NEFL IL2 IFNB1
3
Show member pathways
12.5 TNF IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4
4
Show member pathways
12.5 TNF STAT1 MADCAM1 ITGA4 IL2 ICOSLG
5
Show member pathways
12.47 TNF STAT1 IL2 HIF1A CD4
6 12.45 TNF STAT1 RAG1 PDCD1 IL2 CD40LG
7
Show member pathways
12.41 TNF STAT1 PDCD1 IL2 HIF1A CD40LG
8
Show member pathways
12.27 IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4
9
Show member pathways
12.14 TNF STAT1 ITGA4 CD40LG
10 11.97 TNF ITGA4 IL2 IFNB1 CD4
11
Show member pathways
11.69 TNF STAT1 IL2 CD4
12 11.66 TNF IL2 IFNB1 CD4
13
Show member pathways
11.63 TNF IL2 CD40LG
14 11.61 PDCD1 MADCAM1 ITGA4 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4
15 11.56 TNF ITGA4 IL2 CD4 CCR6
16
Show member pathways
11.54 TNF IL2 CD40LG
17 11.28 RAG1 CD40LG CD4
18 11.13 TNF IL2 IFNB1 CD4
19 10.99 TNF PDCD1 MADCAM1 ITGA4 ICOSLG CD40LG

GO Terms for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Cellular components related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell surface GO:0009986 9.43 TNF MBP ITGA4 CD40LG CD4 CCR6
2 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.1 TNF PDCD1 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4 CCR6

Biological processes related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 19)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 signal transduction GO:0007165 10.11 STAT1 MADCAM1 IGBP1 ICOSLG HTR2A HIF1A
2 adaptive immune response GO:0002250 9.85 RAG1 PDCD1 IL2 IFNB1 ICOSLG CD4
3 regulation of immune response GO:0050776 9.84 PDCD1 MADCAM1 ITGA4 CD40LG
4 positive regulation of kinase activity GO:0033674 9.74 IL2 HTR2A CD4
5 negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0043154 9.72 TNF RAG1 IGBP1
6 defense response GO:0006952 9.71 TNF STAT1 IFNB1 ICOSLG
7 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.69 IL2 CD40LG CD4
8 T cell costimulation GO:0031295 9.61 PDCD1 ICOSLG CD40LG
9 positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production GO:2000343 9.58 TNF MBP
10 axonal transport of mitochondrion GO:0019896 9.58 NEFL HIF1A
11 regulation of immunoglobulin production GO:0002637 9.56 TNF CD40LG
12 B cell differentiation GO:0030183 9.56 RAG1 ITGA4 IFNB1 CD40LG
13 negative regulation of thymocyte apoptotic process GO:0070244 9.52 RAG1 HIF1A
14 leukocyte tethering or rolling GO:0050901 9.5 TNF MADCAM1 ITGA4
15 vascular endothelial growth factor production GO:0010573 9.49 TNF HIF1A
16 axon ensheathment GO:0008366 9.48 POU3F1 MBP
17 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.46 TNF PDCD1 IFNB1 CCR6
18 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.43 TNF STAT1 IL2 IFNB1 HIF1A CD4
19 immune response GO:0006955 9.23 TNF RAG1 MBP MADCAM1 IL2 CD40LG

Molecular functions related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 identical protein binding GO:0042802 9.56 TNF STAT1 RAG1 NEFL IGHMBP2 ICOSLG
2 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.46 TNF IL2 IFNB1 CD40LG
3 tumor necrosis factor receptor binding GO:0005164 8.8 TNF STAT1 CD40LG

Sources for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Mar-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....