PML
MCID: PRG009
MIFTS: 53

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)

Categories: Cancer diseases, Immune diseases, Infectious diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:

Name: Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy 12 74 52 53 58 15 17 32
Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal 52 43 71
Pml 12 52 58
Leukoencephalopathy Progressive Multifocal 54
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalitis 58

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

58
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
Inheritance: Not applicable; Age of onset: All ages;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 58  
Rare neurological diseases
Rare infectious diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:643
ICD9CM 34 046.3
MeSH 43 D007968
NCIt 49 C26815
SNOMED-CT 67 22255007
ICD10 32 A81.2
MESH via Orphanet 44 D007968
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 A81.2
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C0023524
Orphanet 58 ORPHA217260
UMLS 71 C0023524

Summaries for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

NINDS : 53 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a disease of the white matter of the brain, caused by a virus infection that targets cells that make myelin--the material that insulates nerve cells (neurons).  Polyomavirus JC (often called JC virus) is carried by a majority of people and is harmless except among those with lowered immune defenses.  The disease is rare and occurs in patients undergoing chronic corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy for organ transplant, or individuals with cancer (such as Hodgkin’s disease or lymphoma).  Individuals with autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus -- some of whom are treated with biological therapies that allow JC virus reactivation -- are at risk for PML as well.  PML is most common among individuals with HIV-1 infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).  Studies estimate that prior to effective antiretroviral therapy, as many as 5 percent of persons infected with HIV-1 eventually develop PML that is an AIDS-defining illness.  However, current HIV therapy using antiretroviral drugs (ART), which effectively restores immune system function, allows as many as half of all HIV-PML patients to survive, although they may sometimes have an inflammatory reaction in the regions of the brain affected by PML.  The symptoms of PML are diverse, since they are related to the location and amount of damage in the brain, and may evolve over the course of several weeks to months  The most prominent symptoms are clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech, and sometimes personality changes.  The progression of deficits leads to life-threatening disability and (frequently) death.  A diagnosis of PML can be made following brain biopsy or by combining observations of a progressive course of the disease, consistent white matter lesions visible on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, and the detection of the JC virus in spinal fluid.

MalaCards based summary : Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy, also known as leukoencephalopathy, progressive multifocal, is related to toxoplasmosis and agammaglobulinemia. An important gene associated with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy is ITGA4 (Integrin Subunit Alpha 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and Class I MHC mediated antigen processing and presentation. The drugs Cladribine and Natalizumab have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, t cells and b cells, and related phenotypes are cellular and hematopoietic system

Disease Ontology : 12 A viral infectious disease that involves reactivation of JC polyomavirus in immune-compromised individuals which causes the loss of white matter (which is made up of myelin, a substance the surrounds and protects nerve fibers) in multiple areas of the brain. The symptoms include hemiparesis, aphasia, dysarthria, hemianopia, cognitive impairment and coma.

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a neurological disorder that damages the myelin that covers and protects nerves in the white matter of the brain . It is caused by the JC virus (JCV). By age 10, most people have been infected with this virus, but it rarely causes symptoms unless the immune system becomes severely weakened. The disease occurs, rarely, in organ transplant patients; people undergoing chronic corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy; and individuals with cancer , such as Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, and sarcoidosis. PML is most common among individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Wikipedia : 74 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and often fatal viral disease characterized... more...

Related Diseases for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Diseases related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 746)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 toxoplasmosis 31.4 TNF STAT1 CD40LG
2 agammaglobulinemia 30.8 TNF RAG1 ICOSLG CD40LG
3 subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 30.7 TNF PDCD1 MBP IL2
4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 30.7 TNF STAT1 ITGAL IL2 CD4
5 lymphopenia 30.6 RAG1 ITGAL IL2 ICOSLG CCR6
6 paracoccidioidomycosis 30.5 TNF IL2 CD40LG
7 dengue hemorrhagic fever 30.5 TNF STAT1 CD40LG
8 neuroretinitis 30.5 CD40LG CD4
9 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 30.5 TNF MBP MADCAM1 IL2 CD40LG CD4
10 polyneuropathy 30.4 TNF MBP IGHMBP2 CD40LG
11 candidiasis 30.4 TNF STAT1 IL2 CD40LG
12 takayasu arteritis 30.4 TNF IL2 CD40LG
13 crohn's colitis 30.4 TNF IL2 CCR6
14 adult t-cell leukemia 30.4 IL2 CD4 CCR6
15 common variable immunodeficiency 30.3 TNF RAG1 ITGA4 IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG
16 pulmonary sarcoidosis 30.3 TNF ITGAL IL2 CCR6
17 agammaglobulinemia, x-linked 30.3 IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG
18 measles 30.3 TNF STAT1 IL2 IFNB1 CD40LG
19 nervous system disease 30.2 TNF MBP ICOSLG CD4 CCR6
20 acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 30.2 MBP CD40LG CCR6
21 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis 30.2 TNF MBP ITGA4 IL2 IFNB1 CD40LG
22 tetanus 30.2 TNF MBP IL2 CD40LG
23 interstitial nephritis 30.2 PDCD1 LINC01194 ICOSLG CD40LG
24 guillain-barre syndrome 30.2 TNF MBP CD40LG
25 crohn's disease 30.2 TNF ITGA4 IL2 ICOSLG CD4 CCR6
26 neurosarcoidosis 30.2 TNF CD8A CD4
27 stomatitis 30.1 TNF IL2 CD40LG CD4
28 psoriatic arthritis 30.1 TNF IL2 CD40LG CCR6
29 rubella 30.0 TNF IL2 IFNB1 CD40LG
30 spondyloarthropathy 1 30.0 TNF ICOSLG CD40LG CCR6
31 autoimmune vasculitis 30.0 TNF IL2 CD4 CCR6
32 acute cystitis 30.0 TNF CD40LG CD4 CCR6
33 bronchopneumonia 30.0 TNF CD8A CD40LG CD4
34 cholangitis 30.0 TNF MADCAM1 IL2 CD40LG
35 facial paralysis 30.0 CD8A CD40LG CD4
36 rheumatic disease 29.9 TNF ICOSLG CD40LG CCR6
37 sclerosing cholangitis 29.9 TNF MADCAM1 IL2 CD40LG
38 cytomegalovirus retinitis 29.8 TNF CD8A CD4
39 toxic shock syndrome 29.8 TNF IL2 CD40LG
40 vascular disease 29.7 TNF STAT1 IL2 HTR2A CD40LG CD4
41 psoriasis 29.7 TNF ITGAL ITGA4 IL2 CD4 CCR6
42 immune deficiency disease 29.7 TNF STAT1 RAG1 ITGAL IL2 ICOSLG
43 cryptogenic organizing pneumonia 29.6 TNF CD8A CD4
44 hemorrhagic cystitis 29.6 LINC01194 CD8A CD4
45 granulomatosis with polyangiitis 29.6 TNF ICOSLG CD40LG CD4 CCR6
46 herpes simplex 29.5 TNF STAT1 IFNB1 CD8A
47 colitis 29.5 TNF MADCAM1 IL2 ICOSLG CCR6
48 rheumatoid arthritis 29.4 TNF PDCD1 ITGAL IL2 CD40LG CD4
49 severe combined immunodeficiency 29.4 RAG1 IL2 ICOSLG CD4 CCR6
50 central nervous system disease 29.4 TNF MBP IFNB1 ICOSLG HTR2A CD4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:



Diseases related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:

45
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.15 CD4 CD40LG CD8A IGHMBP2 IL2 ITGA4
2 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.07 CCR6 CD4 CD40LG CD8A IFNB1 IL2
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.97 CD4 CD40LG CD8A HTR2A IL2 PDCD1
4 immune system MP:0005387 9.97 CCR6 CD4 CD40LG CD8A IFNB1 IL2
5 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.5 IFNB1 IL2 ITGAL PDCD1 RAG1 STAT1
6 nervous system MP:0003631 9.36 CCR6 CD4 CD40LG CD8A IFNB1 IGHMBP2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Drugs for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 71)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cladribine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 4291-63-8 20279
2
Natalizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 4 189261-10-7
3
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
4
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
5
Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate Approved Phase 4 2921-57-5
6 Prednisolone acetate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 52-21-1
7
Prednisolone phosphate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 302-25-0
8
Interferon beta-1b Approved Phase 4 145155-23-3
9
Prednisolone hemisuccinate Experimental Phase 4 2920-86-7
10 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 4
11 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
12 Immunologic Factors Phase 4
13 Antiviral Agents Phase 4
14 interferons Phase 4
15 Methylprednisolone Acetate Phase 4
16 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
17 Antiemetics Phase 4
18 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
19 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
20 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
21 Protective Agents Phase 4
22 glucocorticoids Phase 4
23 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
24 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
25 Hormones Phase 4
26 Interferon-beta Phase 4
27 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 4
28 rhuMAb Beta7 Phase 3
29
Zidovudine Approved Phase 2 30516-87-1 35370
30
Topotecan Approved, Investigational Phase 2 119413-54-6, 123948-87-8 60700
31
Sargramostim Approved, Investigational Phase 2 123774-72-1, 83869-56-1
32
Lenograstim Approved, Investigational Phase 2 135968-09-1
33
Cytarabine Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 2 147-94-4, 65-46-3 6253
34
Didanosine Approved Phase 2 69655-05-6 50599
35
Zalcitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 7481-89-2 24066
36
Enfuvirtide Approved, Investigational Phase 2 159519-65-0 16130199
37
Emtricitabine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 143491-57-0 60877
38
ofatumumab Approved Phase 2 679818-59-8 6918251
39
Pembrolizumab Approved Phase 2 1374853-91-4
40 Vedolizumab Approved Phase 2 943609-66-3
41
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational Phase 2 50-18-0, 6055-19-2 2907
42
Mefloquine Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 53230-10-7 4046
43
Tenofovir Experimental, Investigational Phase 2 147127-20-6 464205
44 Anti-Retroviral Agents Phase 2
45 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Phase 2
46 Antimetabolites Phase 2
47 Anti-HIV Agents Phase 2
48 topoisomerase I inhibitors Phase 2
49 Topoisomerase Inhibitors Phase 2
50 Antibodies Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 42)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Once a Month High-dose Methylprednisolone During Wash-out Period Between Natalizumab and Fingolimod Treatments in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: a Randomised, Controlled, Double-blind Trial (NTZ2FTY) Unknown status NCT02769689 Phase 4 Methylprednisolone;Placebo;natalizumab (NTZ);fingolimob (FTY)
2 Switching Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated With Natalizumab at Risk for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy to Teriflunomide: Is This Safe and Effective? Active, not recruiting NCT01970410 Phase 4 teriflunomide
3 Cladribine Tablets After Treatment With Natalizumab (CLADRINA) Not yet recruiting NCT04178005 Phase 4 Cladribine
4 The Impact of a Planned 12-week Dosing Interruption of Natalizumab on Immune Cell Trafficking, Pharmacokinetic (PK)/Pharmacodynamic (PD) Parameters, and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Disease Stability. Not yet recruiting NCT04048577 Phase 4 Dosing Interruption of Natalizumab
5 High-Dose Corticosteroids for Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in Patients Who Develop Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy on Natalizumab Terminated NCT01211665 Phase 4 Methylprednisolone;Prednisolone
6 Natalizumab De-escalation to Interferon-beta-1b in Patients With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Swiss Multicenter Study Prospective, Controlled, Single-arm, Open-label, Multi-centre, Phase IV Study Terminated NCT01701856 Phase 4 Interferon beta-1b
7 An Open-Label Extension and Safety Monitoring Study of Patients With Moderately to Severely Active Crohn's Disease Previously Enrolled in the Etrolizumab Phase III Protocol GA29144 Recruiting NCT02403323 Phase 3 Etrolizumab
8 Phase III Randomized Study to Investigate the Use of Acalabrutinib in the Treatment of Patients With Early Stage CLL With High Risk of Early Disease Progression Recruiting NCT04178798 Phase 3 Acalabrutinib 100 MG Oral Capsule
9 An Open, Comparative Phase II Study of Immediate Versus Delayed Treatment With Topotecan HCl Given as a Continuous 21-Day Infusion Every 28 Days to Patients With AIDS-Related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Completed NCT00002395 Phase 2 Topotecan
10 A Phase II Multicenter Study Comparing Antiretroviral Therapy Alone to Antiretroviral Therapy Plus Cytosine Arabinoside (Cytarabine; Ara-C) for the Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Subjects Completed NCT00001048 Phase 2 Filgrastim;Cytarabine;Zidovudine;Zalcitabine;Didanosine
11 Early Intensification of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Including FUZEON® in the Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy During HIV-1 Infection ANRS 125 Trial Completed NCT00120367 Phase 2 Enfuvirtide;Tenofovir-Emtricitabine
12 A Phase 2, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study to Determine the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of MLN0002 Following Multiple Intravenous Doses in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis Completed NCT01177228 Phase 2 Vedolizumab;Placebo
13 A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Multicenter, Dose-finding Trial of Ofatumumab in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) Patients Completed NCT00640328 Phase 2 Ofatumumab 100;Ofatumumab 300;Ofatumumab 700;Placebo
14 The Effect and Safety of Programmed Cell Death Protein 1 (PD-1) Inhibitor on AIDS Patients With Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML): A One-center, Single-arm and Prospective Study Recruiting NCT04091932 Phase 2 Pembrolizumab
15 Maintenance in Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for Crohn's Disease (MASCT - CD) Recruiting NCT03219359 Phase 2 Cyclophosphamide;Cyclophosphamide;Thymoglobulin;Methylprednisolone;Vedolizumab
16 Treatment of Refractory Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Injection of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived From the Umbilical Cord Not yet recruiting NCT03562065 Phase 1, Phase 2
17 A Randomized, Rater-Blinded Study to Explore the Effect of Mefloquine in Subjects With Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Terminated NCT00746941 Phase 1, Phase 2 mefloquine
18 A Phase 1, Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel Group Study to Compare the Pharmacokinetics of Single Subcutaneous Injections of Vedolizumab Administered in Prefilled Syringe Versus Prefilled Syringe in Autoinjector in Healthy Subjects Completed NCT03961308 Phase 1 Vedolizumab SC
19 A Phase 1, Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel Group Pilot Study to Compare the Pharmacokinetics of Single Subcutaneous Injections of Vedolizumab Administered in Prefilled Syringe Versus Prefilled Syringe in Autoinjector in Healthy Subjects Completed NCT03961295 Phase 1 Vedolizumab SC
20 A Phase 1, Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel Group Study to Compare the Pharmacokinetics of Single Subcutaneous Injections of Vedolizumab Administered in Prefilled Syringe Versus Prefilled Syringe in Needle Safety Device in Healthy Subjects Completed NCT03949621 Phase 1 Vedolizumab SC
21 A Phase 1, Open-Label, Randomized, Parallel Group Pilot Study to Compare the Pharmacokinetics of Single Subcutaneous Injections of Vedolizumab Administered in Prefilled Syringe Versus Prefilled Syringe in Needle Safety Device in Healthy Subjects Completed NCT03948581 Phase 1 Vedolizumab SC
22 Evaluating Nulojix Long-Term Safety in Transplant Unknown status NCT01386359 No Intervention
23 Retrospective Study of the Survival of Patients Suffering From Hiv-related Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Completed NCT02895581
24 A Pilot Study of the Efficacy of Recombinant Alpha Interferon (IFN-A2b) and Zidovudine (AZT) in the Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Complicating HIV-1 Infection Completed NCT00002270 Interferon alfa-2b;Zidovudine
25 Role of Inflammation in PML Completed NCT01132053
26 A Pilot Study of the Effect of Cidofovir for the Treatment of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) in Subjects With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Completed NCT00000945 Cidofovir;Probenecid
27 JC Virus Reactivation in Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT02004444
28 An Open Label Study Regimen of Videx (2',3'-Dideoxyinosine, ddI) in Patients With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Exhibiting Significant Deterioration While Taking Zidovudine (Retrovir) Completed NCT00002274 Didanosine
29 Do CCR5 Antagonists Improve the Overall Survival of Patients With AIDS-related Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy? Completed NCT03969550
30 Pharmacokinetic, Immunological and Biochemical Sample Collection and Analysis of a Tysabri Patient Cohort Completed NCT01070719
31 Influence of Host Genetic Factors in Development of PML in an AIDS Cohort Completed NCT00342602
32 Longitudinal Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, Immunological, and Biochemical Sample Collection With MRI and Relapse Analysis of a Tysabri Patient Cohort Completed NCT01330498
33 JCV Antibody Program in Patients With Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Receiving or Considering Treatment With Tysabri: STRATIFY-2 Completed NCT01070836 natalizumab
34 Analysis of Lymphocyte Cell Surface Adhesion Marker Expression in a Natalizumab Treated Population With Active Control Assessment Completed NCT01626248
35 An Observational Study to Evaluate Disease Control, Safety and Immunological Changes in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) Transferred From Previous Treatment With Natalizumab to Fingolimod. Completed NCT02277964
36 WEUSKOP5522: Observational Drug Exposure Registry for Long-Term Follow-Up of Subjects Exposed to GSK2248761 Completed NCT01458132
37 Natural History Study of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Recruiting NCT01730131
38 The Natural History of Severe Viral Infections and Characterization of Immune Defects Recruiting NCT01011712
39 An Observational Study Utilising Data From the US Tysabri TOUCH Programme and Select EU MS Registries to Estimate the Risk of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) and Other Serious Opportunistic Infections Among Patients Who Were Exposed to an MS Disease Modifying Treatment Prior to Treatment With Tysabri Active, not recruiting NCT03399981
40 A Pilot Study of Adoptive Cellular Immunotherapy for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy With Ex Vivo Generated Polyomavirus-Specific T-cells Active, not recruiting NCT02694783 Early Phase 1
41 Longitudinal Meta-Analysis and Further Sample Collection To Evaluate Potential Host Markers for PML Risk Active, not recruiting NCT02440126
42 Genetic Evaluation of Natalizumab-Treated Patients With Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Terminated NCT01211639

Search NIH Clinical Center for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Cochrane evidence based reviews: leukoencephalopathy, progressive multifocal

Genetic Tests for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Anatomical Context for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:

40
Brain, T Cells, B Cells, Lung, Kidney, Bone, Liver

Publications for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Articles related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy:

(show top 50) (show all 2996)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Demyelination as a complication of new immunomodulatory treatments. 54 61
20442571 2010
2
Multiple roles for Puralpha in cellular and viral regulation. 54 61
19182532 2009
3
5-HT2a inhibitors for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: old drugs for an old disease. 54 61
18194091 2008
4
Antisense therapy of MAdCAM-1 for trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced murine colitis. 54 61
16917232 2006
5
Novel treatment options for inflammatory bowel disease: targeting alpha 4 integrin. 54 61
16827596 2006
6
Drug insight: using monoclonal antibodies to treat multiple sclerosis. 54 61
16932490 2005
7
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after natalizumab therapy for Crohn's disease. 54 61
15947080 2005
8
Evidence for involvement of transforming growth factor beta1 signaling pathway in activation of JC virus in human immunodeficiency virus 1-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. 54 61
14987161 2004
9
Myelin degrading activity in the CSF of HIV-1-infected patients with neurological diseases. 54 61
7535576 1994
10
Human BK and JC polyomaviruses: Molecular insights and prevalence in Asia. 61
31911182 2020
11
Rituximab utilization for approved and off-label nononcology indications and patients' experiences with the Patient Alert Card. 61
31911839 2020
12
Extensive subpial cortical demyelination is specific to multiple sclerosis. 61
31916298 2020
13
Alexia Without Agraphia as the Initial Manifestation of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. 61
31839871 2020
14
Pembrolizumab treatment for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. 61
32005559 2020
15
Cortical hypointensity in T2-weighted gradient-echo sequences in patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. 61
31375267 2020
16
CD8 T cells and STAT1 signaling are essential co-determinants in protection from polyomavirus encephalopathy. 61
31996425 2020
17
Extending the Interval of Natalizumab Dosing: Is Efficacy Preserved? 61
31452081 2020
18
Complete recovery of late onset progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy related to treatment with chemoimmunotherapy: A case report. 61
32004701 2020
19
Complete Genome Sequences, Derived by Next-Generation Sequencing, of JC Polyomavirus Strains Isolated from Vietnamese Renal Transplant Recipients. 61
31919176 2020
20
New OFSEP recommendations for MRI assessment of multiple sclerosis patients: special consideration for gadolinium deposition and frequent acquisitions. 61
32014494 2020
21
Epilepsia partialis continua revealing idelalisib-associated PML-IRIS: clinical and pathological features. 61
31807988 2019
22
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: Could CD4+ lymphopenia be the main risk factor? 61
31892429 2019
23
Cerebellar progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with a history of Crohn's disease and acute myeloid leukemia. 61
31863281 2019
24
Prolonged Immunosuppression in Relapsed, Refractory Multiple Myeloma Leading to Cerebral Toxoplasmosis and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. 61
31676197 2019
25
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia: A case report and review of literature. 61
31584217 2019
26
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma secondary to JC virus in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. 61
31140130 2019
27
JC polyomavirus infection reveals delayed progression of the infectious cycle in normal human astrocytes. 61
31826993 2019
28
Prevalence of DNA of fourteen human polyomaviruses determined in blood donors. 61
31633816 2019
29
Checkpoint inhibitors and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: friends of foes? 61
32016017 2019
30
Postallogeneic transplantation progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy successfully treated by nivolumab. 61
31797364 2019
31
Fatal encephalopathy with wild-type JC virus and ruxolitinib therapy. 61
31600832 2019
32
PD-1 inhibition: a novel approach to the treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. 61
32016000 2019
33
Use of check-point inhibitors in the treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. 61
32016016 2019
34
Host-Immune Interactions in JC Virus Reactivation and Development of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). 61
31452013 2019
35
The "milky way" galaxy of HIV-related central nervous system immune reaction syndromes. 61
31214917 2019
36
Long-term real-world evidence for sustained clinical benefits of fingolimod following switch from natalizumab. 61
31865273 2019
37
Efficacy of mefloquine and mirtazapine on progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with peripheral T-cell lymphoma. 61
30803799 2019
38
Pembrolizumab for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy due to primary immunodeficiency. 61
31597693 2019
39
Skin warts during fingolimod treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis. 61
31606603 2019
40
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies: What do we know after 20 years of rituximab. 61
31369199 2019
41
Atypical Pediatric Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System. 61
31773416 2019
42
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a 27-year-old lady with systemic lupus erythematosus - rheumatoid arthritis overlap syndrome. 61
31202498 2019
43
JC virus antibodies in Portuguese multiple sclerosis patients: JUSTIFY study results. 61
31629287 2019
44
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: A 25-year retrospective cohort study. 61
31554669 2019
45
Successful treatment of non-HIV progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: case report and literature review. 61
31728711 2019
46
Effects of natalizumab therapy on intrathecal antiviral antibody responses in MS. 61
31554671 2019
47
The 5-year Tysabri global observational program in safety (TYGRIS) study confirms the long-term safety profile of natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis. 61
31901758 2019
48
Effectiveness of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Transplant Recipients with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy. 61
31625858 2019
49
Predictive value of JC virus PCR in cerebrospinal fluid in the diagnosis of PML. 61
31320237 2019
50
A case of recurrent progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after human stem cell transplant, with detection of John Cunningham virus and human herpesvirus 6 on cerebrospinal fluid, treated with Mirtazapine, Olanzapine and Foscarnet. 61
31890456 2019

Variations for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Expression for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy.

Pathways for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Pathways related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 31)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.92 TNF STAT1 RAG1 PDCD1 MADCAM1 ITGAL
2
Show member pathways
13.37 PDCD1 MADCAM1 ITGAL ITGA4 ICOSLG CD8A
3
Show member pathways
13.32 TNF STAT1 ITGAL ITGA4 IL2 CD40LG
4
Show member pathways
13.3 TNF STAT1 RAG1 IL2 IFNB1 CD40LG
5
Show member pathways
12.76 TNF STAT1 ITGAL IL2 IFNB1
6
Show member pathways
12.56 TNF IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4
7
Show member pathways
12.45 TNF STAT1 PDCD1 IL2 CD8A CD40LG
8
Show member pathways
12.4 TNF STAT1 MADCAM1 ITGAL ITGA4 IL2
9 12.38 TNF STAT1 RAG1 PDCD1 IL2 CD8A
10
Show member pathways
12.32 IL2 ICOSLG CD40LG CD4
11 12.27 TNF ITGAL IL2 CD4
12
Show member pathways
12.19 TNF STAT1 ITGA4 CD40LG
13 12.02 MADCAM1 ITGAL ITGA4 CD8A CD40LG
14
Show member pathways
11.97 TNF STAT1 IL2 CD4
15 11.93 TNF ITGA4 IL2 IFNB1
16 11.92 TNF ITGAL IL2 CD8A CD4
17
Show member pathways
11.88 STAT1 IL2 CD8A CD4
18 11.81 TNF ITGA4 CD8A CD4
19
Show member pathways
11.69 TNF IL2 CD40LG
20
Show member pathways
11.6 TNF IL2 CD40LG
21
Show member pathways
11.58 TNF IL2 CD8A
22 11.55 PDCD1 ICOSLG CD40LG
23 11.54 TNF ITGA4 IL2 CD8A CD4 CCR6
24 11.52 TNF IL2 IFNB1 CD8A CD4
25 11.5 PDCD1 CD40LG CD4
26 11.46 TNF ITGAL CD40LG
27
Show member pathways
11.4 MADCAM1 ITGAL ITGA4
28 11.39 PDCD1 MADCAM1 ITGAL ITGA4 ICOSLG CD8A
29 11.31 RAG1 CD8A CD40LG CD4
30 11.2 PDCD1 IL2 CD8A
31 11.17 TNF IL2 IFNB1 CD4

GO Terms for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

Cellular components related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell surface GO:0009986 9.5 TNF MBP ITGAL ITGA4 CD40LG CD4
2 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 9.17 TNF PDCD1 ICOSLG CD8A CD40LG CD4

Biological processes related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.89 TNF STAT1 IL2 IFNB1 CD4
2 extracellular matrix organization GO:0030198 9.88 TNF MADCAM1 ITGAL ITGA4
3 defense response GO:0006952 9.81 TNF STAT1 IFNB1 ICOSLG
4 positive regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042102 9.74 IL2 CD40LG CD4
5 integrin-mediated signaling pathway GO:0007229 9.73 MADCAM1 ITGAL ITGA4 CD40LG
6 adaptive immune response GO:0002250 9.73 RAG1 PDCD1 IL2 IFNB1 ICOSLG CD4
7 T cell costimulation GO:0031295 9.72 PDCD1 ICOSLG CD40LG
8 T cell activation GO:0042110 9.71 ICOSLG CD8A CD4
9 receptor clustering GO:0043113 9.65 MADCAM1 ITGAL ITGA4
10 leukocyte cell-cell adhesion GO:0007159 9.63 ITGAL ITGA4 CD40LG
11 B cell differentiation GO:0030183 9.62 RAG1 ITGA4 IFNB1 CD40LG
12 leukocyte tethering or rolling GO:0050901 9.58 TNF MADCAM1 ITGA4
13 axon ensheathment GO:0008366 9.56 POU3F1 MBP
14 positive regulation of kinase activity GO:0033674 9.54 IL2 HTR2A CD4
15 regulation of immunoglobulin secretion GO:0051023 9.52 TNF CD40LG
16 humoral immune response GO:0006959 9.46 TNF PDCD1 IFNB1 CCR6
17 regulation of immune response GO:0050776 9.43 MADCAM1 ITGAL ITGA4 ICOSLG CD8A CD40LG
18 immune response GO:0006955 9.28 TNF RAG1 MBP MADCAM1 IL2 CD8A

Molecular functions related to Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.46 TNF IL2 IFNB1 CD40LG
2 coreceptor activity GO:0015026 9.13 ITGA4 CD8A CD4
3 tumor necrosis factor receptor binding GO:0005164 8.8 TNF STAT1 CD40LG

Sources for Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
43 MeSH
44 MESH via Orphanet
45 MGI
48 NCI
49 NCIt
50 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM
57 OMIM via Orphanet
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 TGDB
70 Tocris
71 UMLS
72 UMLS via Orphanet
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