MCID: PRL048
MIFTS: 25

Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Categories: Rare diseases, Oral diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

Name: Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia 53
Proliferative Verrucous Oral Leukoplakia 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 73 C3697776

Summaries for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare type of oral leukoplakia, where white patches that have a high risk of becoming cancerous develop inside the mouth. It mainly involves the lining inside of the cheeks (buccal mucosa) and tongue. It starts as a white plaque of thickened skin (hyperkeratosis) that eventually spreads and forms rough, wart-like (verrucous) lesions that may look like cauliflower. The lesions are slow-growing and progressive, and more and more difficult to control over time. The risk of becoming cancerous is high, especially, of transforming to squamous cell cancer or verrucous carcinoma. It also has a high chance of coming back after treatment (high recurrence risk). The cause is unknown. In some cases, an association with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has been noted. PVL is more common in elderly women who have had lesions of leukoplakia for many years.  People with PVL should avoid certain factors currently known to be related to the development of oral cancer such as tobacco and alcohol. Treatment is not well established but may include surgery, laser ablation treatments, photodynamic therapy, and medication such as Methisoprinol.  Because of the long-term course and high chance of becoming cancerous, people with this disease need to have regular follow-up. 

MalaCards based summary : Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia, also known as proliferative verrucous oral leukoplakia, is related to leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. An important gene associated with Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia is CDKN2A (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Mitotic G1-G1/S phases and DNA Damage. Affiliated tissues include tongue, skin and bone, and related phenotype is pigmentation.

Related Diseases for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Diseases related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 leukoplakia 10.9
2 squamous cell carcinoma 10.5
3 oral squamous cell carcinoma 10.3
4 oral leukoplakia 10.3
5 lichen planus 10.1
6 oral lichen planus 10.1
7 gingivitis 10.0
8 periodontitis 10.0
9 adenocarcinoma in situ 9.3 CDKN2A MCM2
10 actinic keratosis 9.2 CDKN2A MCM2
11 barrett esophagus 9.0 CDKN2A MCM2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pigmentation MP:0001186 8.62 CDKN2A MCM2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Anatomical Context for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

41
Tongue, Skin, Bone, Bone Marrow

Publications for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Articles related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

(show top 50) (show all 79)
# Title Authors Year
1
Potentially malignant disorders revisited-The lichenoid lesion/proliferative verrucous leukoplakia conundrum. ( 29663518 )
2018
2
A Retrospective 20-Year Analysis of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia and Its Progression to Malignancy and Association with High-risk Human Papillomavirus. ( 29427033 )
2018
3
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia of the tongue. ( 28416237 )
2018
4
Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A challenge for clinical management. ( 29756248 )
2018
5
Letter to the Editor: Development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) in oral lichen planus: Is it not a clinical spectrum of PVL? ( 28160592 )
2017
6
Oral leukoplakia and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a review for dental practitioners. ( 29097794 )
2017
7
Management of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Justification for a conservative approach. ( 28640498 )
2017
8
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia misdiagnosed as oral leukoplakia. ( 29551871 )
2017
9
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: diagnosis, management and current advances. ( 28209441 )
2017
10
Successful treatment of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia with 5% topical imiquimod. ( 27647537 )
2016
11
Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia - A Perpetuating Ambiguity. ( 27891495 )
2016
12
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: An update. ( 27461595 )
2016
13
Pseudoadenoid dysplasia in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 26589076 )
2016
14
Cancer-associated fibroblasts are an infrequent finding in the microenvironment of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia-associated squamous cell carcinoma. ( 27681951 )
2016
15
Low expression of angiotensinogen and dipeptidyl peptidase 1 in saliva of patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 27900324 )
2016
16
The development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia in oral lichen planus. A preliminary study. ( 27031060 )
2016
17
Oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia compared with conventional squamous cell carcinoma--a clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical study. ( 25547823 )
2015
18
Oral Pathology Quiz #86. Case Number 2. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 26215020 )
2015
19
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia may initially mimic lichenoid reactions. ( 26488020 )
2015
20
Optimal Management of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: A Systematic Review of the Literature. ( 26044786 )
2015
21
7 Cases of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: The Need for a High Clinical Suspicion Among Dental Practitioners. . ( 26299096 )
2015
22
The role of Ki-67, p16, CD34, Bcl-2, cyclooxygenase-2 in the pathogenesis of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 26960457 )
2015
23
Seven Cases of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: The Need for a High Clinical Suspicion Among Dental Practitioners. ( 26285537 )
2015
24
Salivary and serum interleukin-6 levels in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 26254143 )
2015
25
Retrospective case-control study of viral pathogen screening in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia lesions. ( 25099922 )
2014
26
High incidence of DNA ploidy abnormalities and increased Mcm2 expression may predict malignant change in oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 23347057 )
2013
27
Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A case report with an update. ( 24015023 )
2013
28
A case report of conservative management of extensive proliferative verrucous leukoplakia using a carbon dioxide laser. ( 23473346 )
2013
29
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia; a critical appraisal of the diagnostic criteria. ( 23524439 )
2013
30
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): Recognition and differentiation from conventional leukoplakia and mimics! ( 24115154 )
2013
31
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity! ( 24113312 )
2013
32
Rapid progression of an idiopathic leukoplakia to a proliferative verrucous leukoplakia lesion and then squamous cell carcinoma. ( 22670253 )
2012
33
Oral medicine case book 37. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 23189896 )
2012
34
Current evidence in diagnosis and treatment of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 22705614 )
2012
35
Idiopathic proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: report of a clinical rarity. ( 22865802 )
2012
36
Inherited proliferative oral disorder: a reductionist approach to proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 22048571 )
2011
37
Proliferative multifocal leukoplakia better name that proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 21985464 )
2011
38
Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. ( 21683646 )
2011
39
Case report of rapidly progressive proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and a proposal for aetiology in mainland China. ( 21352571 )
2011
40
Case of the month: proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 21473251 )
2011
41
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a proposal for diagnostic criteria. ( 20173704 )
2010
42
Clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical expression of p53, Ki-67, Mcm-2 and Mcm-5 in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 20412398 )
2010
43
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a concise update. ( 20233330 )
2010
44
Retinoids and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL). A preliminary study. ( 19680182 )
2010
45
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia, squamous cell carcinoma and axillary metastasis. ( 20173705 )
2010
46
Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Underdiagnosed oral precursor lesion that requires retrospective clinicopathological correlation. ( 20492823 )
2010
47
Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia--diagnostic pitfalls and suggestions. ( 19300373 )
2009
48
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a potentially malignant disorder involving periodontal sites. ( 19186968 )
2009
49
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and malignant transformation. ( 18194235 )
2008
50
Epstein-Barr virus in oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma: A preliminary study. ( 18223526 )
2008

Variations for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Expression for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia.

Pathways for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Pathways related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.67 CDKN2A MCM2
2 11.43 CDKN2A MCM2
3 10.98 CDKN2A MCM2

GO Terms for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Cellular components related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nucleolus GO:0005730 8.62 CDKN2A MCM2

Biological processes related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 apoptotic process GO:0006915 9.16 CDKN2A MCM2
2 cell cycle GO:0007049 8.96 CDKN2A MCM2
3 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle GO:0000082 8.62 CDKN2A MCM2

Sources for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
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30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
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44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
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49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
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58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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