MCID: PRL048
MIFTS: 29

Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Categories: Cancer diseases, Oral diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

Name: Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia 20
Proliferative Verrucous Oral Leukoplakia 70

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 70 C3697776

Summaries for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

GARD : 20 Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare type of oral leukoplakia, where white patches that have a high risk of becoming cancerous develop inside the mouth. It mainly involves the lining inside of the cheeks (buccal mucosa) and tongue. It starts as a white plaque of thickened skin (hyperkeratosis) that eventually spreads and forms rough, wart-like (verrucous) lesions that may look like cauliflower. The lesions are slow-growing and progressive, and more and more difficult to control over time. The risk of becoming cancerous is high, especially, of transforming to squamous cell cancer or verrucous carcinoma. It also has a high chance of coming back after treatment (high recurrence risk). The cause is unknown. In some cases, an association with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has been noted. PVL is more common in elderly women who have had lesions of leukoplakia for many years. People with PVL should avoid certain factors currently known to be related to the development of oral cancer such as tobacco and alcohol. Treatment is not well established but may include surgery, laser ablation treatments, photodynamic therapy, and medication such as Methisoprinol. Because of the long-term course and high chance of becoming cancerous, people with this disease need to have regular follow-up.

MalaCards based summary : Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia, also known as proliferative verrucous oral leukoplakia, is related to leukoplakia and oral leukoplakia. An important gene associated with Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia is CDKN2A (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Mitotic G1-G1/S phases and DNA Damage. The drugs nivolumab and Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue and bone marrow, and related phenotypes are digestive/alimentary and integument

Related Diseases for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Diseases related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 28)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 leukoplakia 11.1
2 oral leukoplakia 10.9
3 oral squamous cell carcinoma 10.7
4 keratosis 10.7
5 verrucous carcinoma 10.7
6 squamous cell carcinoma 10.6
7 oral cancer 10.5
8 lichen planus 10.4
9 oral lichen planus 10.4
10 in situ carcinoma 10.3
11 human papillomavirus infectious disease 10.1
12 squamous cell papilloma 10.1
13 candidiasis 10.1
14 papilloma 10.1
15 papillary squamous carcinoma 10.1
16 stomatitis 10.1
17 oral mucosa leukoplakia 10.1
18 47,xyy 10.1
19 48,xyyy 10.1
20 erythroplakia 10.1
21 coronary restenosis 9.9 TLR2 CDKN2A
22 anus disease 9.8 TLR2 CDKN2A
23 rectal disease 9.8 TLR2 CDKN2A
24 integumentary system disease 9.7 TLR2 CDKN2A
25 adenocarcinoma in situ 9.7 MCM2 CDKN2A
26 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma 9.6 MCM2 CDKN2A
27 barrett esophagus 9.6 MCM2 CDKN2A
28 oral cavity cancer 9.6 TLR2 CDKN2A

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.5 CDKN2A MCM2 TLR2
2 integument MP:0010771 9.43 CDKN2A MCM2 TLR2
3 muscle MP:0005369 9.33 CDKN2A MCM2 TLR2
4 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.13 CDKN2A MCM2 TLR2
5 respiratory system MP:0005388 8.8 CDKN2A MCM2 TLR2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Drugs for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
nivolumab Approved Phase 2 946414-94-4
2 Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab in Treating Oral Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia Recruiting NCT03692325 Phase 2 Nivolumab

Search NIH Clinical Center for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Anatomical Context for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

40
Tongue, Bone Marrow

Publications for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Articles related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

(show top 50) (show all 149)
# Title Authors PMID Year
1
Management of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Justification for a conservative approach. 20 61
28640498 2017
2
Human papillomavirus prevalence in oral potentially malignant disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
32144837 2021
3
Recurrences following treatment of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
33765364 2021
4
Lichenoid proliferative leukoplakia, lichenoid lesions with evolution to proliferative leukoplakia or a continuum of the same precancerous condition? A revised hypothesis. 61
33225541 2021
5
Differentially methylated genes in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia reveal potential malignant biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma. 61
33657465 2021
6
Lichenoid morphology could be an early feature of oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. 61
33185900 2021
7
Marginal linear gingival leukoplakia progressing to "ring around the collar"-An ominous sign of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. 61
32725623 2021
8
Malignant transformation of oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a series of 48 patients with suggestions for management. 61
32586723 2021
9
Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: An Expert Consensus Guideline for Standardized Assessment and Reporting. 61
33415517 2021
10
Oral verrucous carcinoma manifesting as proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. 61
33451921 2021
11
Oral potentially malignant disorders: A consensus report from an international seminar on nomenclature and classification, convened by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer. 61
33128420 2020
12
Immune expression profile identification in a group of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia patients: a pre-cancer niche for oral squamous cell carcinoma development. 61
32918120 2020
13
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and erythroplakia are probably the disorders with the highest rate of malignant transformation. 61
32471555 2020
14
Molecular, genomic and mutational landscape of oral leukoplakia. 61
33448555 2020
15
Second primary tumors in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a series of 33 cases. 61
31440840 2020
16
Clinical manifestations of oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A systematic review. 61
31990082 2020
17
World Workshop on Oral Medicine VII: Prognostic biomarkers in oral leukoplakia and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia-A systematic review of retrospective studies. 61
32306449 2020
18
Inter-observer Variability in the Diagnosis of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: Clinical Implications for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon Understanding: A Collaborative Pilot Study. 61
30972634 2020
19
Potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity and oral dysplasia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of malignant transformation rate by subtype. 61
31803979 2020
20
[To the question of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia malignant potential]. 61
32593261 2020
21
Expanded Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia. 61
30888638 2019
22
Clinicopathologic analysis of verrucous hyperplasia, verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as part of the clinicopathologic spectrum of oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A literature review and analysis. 61
31630872 2019
23
Lichenoid Characteristics in Premalignant Verrucous Lesions and Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity. 61
30671763 2019
24
Oral leukoplakia; a proposal for simplification and consistency of the clinical classification and terminology. 61
31655843 2019
25
Oral cancer on the gingiva in patients with proliferative leukoplakia: A study of 30 cases. 61
31074011 2019
26
"SKILL TO KILL" - Oral cancer and potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions (PPOELs): A survey approach. Emerging of a new system and professionals. 61
31516232 2019
27
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and its tumor markers: Systematic review and meta-analysis. 61
30536498 2019
28
Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia of the Gingiva: An Early Lesion Refractory to Surgical Excision. 61
31772784 2019
29
A Retrospective 20-Year Analysis of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia and Its Progression to Malignancy and Association with High-risk Human Papillomavirus. 61
29427033 2018
30
Diode laser surgery in the treatment of oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia associated with HPV-16 infection. 61
30105220 2018
31
Molecular pathogenesis of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a systematic review. 61
30190088 2018
32
Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A challenge for clinical management. 61
29756248 2018
33
Proliferative leukoplakia: Proposed new clinical diagnostic criteria. 61
29337414 2018
34
Potentially malignant disorders revisited-The lichenoid lesion/proliferative verrucous leukoplakia conundrum. 61
29663518 2018
35
Oral epithelial dysplasia, atypical verrucous lesions and oral potentially malignant disorders: focus on histopathology. 61
29606637 2018
36
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia of the tongue. 61
28416237 2018
37
Oral leukoplakia and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a review for dental practitioners. 61
29097794 2017
38
Treatment resistance in potentially malignant disorders-'Nature' or 'Nurture'…? 61
28891106 2017
39
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia misdiagnosed as oral leukoplakia. 61
29551871 2017
40
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: diagnosis, management and current advances. 61
28209441 2017
41
Cancer-associated fibroblasts are an infrequent finding in the microenvironment of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia-associated squamous cell carcinoma. 61
27681951 2017
42
Interventional laser surgery for oral potentially malignant disorders: a longitudinal patient cohort study. 61
27866683 2017
43
Letter to the Editor: Development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) in oral lichen planus: Is it not a clinical spectrum of PVL? 61
28160592 2017
44
Successful treatment of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia with 5% topical imiquimod. 61
27647537 2017
45
A proteomic approach to compare saliva from individuals with and without oral leukoplakia. 61
27478070 2017
46
An unusual case report of an early proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. 61
31966481 2017
47
Oral lichenoid lesions: distinguishing the benign from the deadly. 61
28060366 2017
48
CpG location and methylation level are crucial factors for the early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma in brushing samples using bisulfite sequencing of a 13-gene panel. 61
28814981 2017
49
Gingival fibroma versus verrucous leukoplakia - A clinical dilemma!!! 61
29238146 2016
50
Low expression of angiotensinogen and dipeptidyl peptidase 1 in saliva of patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. 61
27900324 2016

Variations for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Cosmic variations for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

9 (show all 39)
# Cosmic Mut ID Gene Symbol COSMIC Disease Classification
(Primary site, Site subtype, Primary histology, Histology subtype)
Mutation CDS Mutation AA GRCh38 Location Conf
1 COSM123114039 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.598-75A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
2 COSM144260727 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.517-75A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
3 COSM112623822 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.994-75A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
4 COSM106006089 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.782+840A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
5 COSM142909700 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.876+194A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
6 COSM143486142 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.517-2A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
7 COSM143724253 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.877-75A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
8 COSM144652981 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.876+194A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
9 COSM144388390 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.516+194A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
10 COSM143183135 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.994-2A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
11 COSM112127478 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.993+194A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
12 COSM93539918 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.993+194A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
13 COSM88340905 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.993+194A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
14 COSM145045522 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.877-2A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
15 COSM145376465 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.876+194A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
16 COSM144329110 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.960+194A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
17 COSM122264484 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.598-2A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
18 COSM122674579 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.597+194A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
19 COSM106425363 TP53 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.994-2A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
20 COSM110713466 PTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.526C>T p.Q176* 9:95481971-95481971 3
21 COSM108458436 PTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.271C>T p.Q91* 9:95481971-95481971 3
22 COSM103446578 PTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.271C>T p.Q91* 9:95481971-95481971 3
23 COSM98532205 PTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.721C>T p.Q241* 9:95481971-95481971 3
24 COSM90828486 PTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.724C>T p.Q242* 9:95481971-95481971 3
25 COSM115987293 PTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.526C>T p.Q176* 9:95481971-95481971 3
26 COSM108510458 PTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.526C>T p.Q176* 9:95481971-95481971 3
27 COSM106827332 PTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.271C>T p.Q91* 9:95481971-95481971 3
28 COSM87132308 PIK3CA skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.1633G>A p.E545K 3:179218303-179218303 3
29 COSM148932727 PIK3CA skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.1633G>A p.E545K 3:179218303-179218303 3
30 COSM87652671 NOTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.5428C>T p.Q1810* 9:136502045-136502045 3
31 COSM87652690 NOTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.4625A>G p.D1542G 9:136505066-136505066 3
32 COSM87652738 NOTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.3700C>G p.R1234G 9:136506917-136506917 3
33 COSM87652712 NOTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.4447T>C p.F1483L 9:136505449-136505449 3
34 COSM87652727 NOTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.4162A>G p.S1388G 9:136505734-136505734 3
35 COSM105721732 HRAS skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.38G>T p.G13V 11:534285-534285 3
36 COSM112989160 HRAS skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.38G>T p.G13V 11:534285-534285 3
37 COSM101951953 HRAS skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.38G>T p.G13V 11:534285-534285 3
38 COSM91331469 HRAS skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.38G>T p.G13V 11:534285-534285 3
39 COSM101967557 HRAS skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.38G>T p.G13V 11:534285-534285 3

Expression for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia.

Pathways for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Pathways related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.67 MCM2 CDKN2A
2 11.43 MCM2 CDKN2A
3 10.98 MCM2 CDKN2A

GO Terms for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Biological processes related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle GO:0000082 8.96 MCM2 CDKN2A
2 apoptotic process GO:0006915 8.8 TLR2 MCM2 CDKN2A

Sources for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 EFO
18 ExPASy
19 FMA
20 GARD
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 LOVD
41 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
53 NINDS
54 Novoseek
56 OMIM via Orphanet
57 OMIM® (Updated 05-Apr-2021)
61 PubMed
63 QIAGEN
68 SNOMED-CT via HPO
69 Tocris
70 UMLS
71 UMLS via Orphanet
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