MCID: PRL048
MIFTS: 27

Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Categories: Cancer diseases, Oral diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

Name: Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia 53
Proliferative Verrucous Oral Leukoplakia 73

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 73 C3697776

Summaries for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

NIH Rare Diseases : 53 Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is a rare type of oral leukoplakia, where white patches that have a high risk of becoming cancerous develop inside the mouth. It mainly involves the lining inside of the cheeks (buccal mucosa) and tongue. It starts as a white plaque of thickened skin (hyperkeratosis) that eventually spreads and forms rough, wart-like (verrucous) lesions that may look like cauliflower. The lesions are slow-growing and progressive, and more and more difficult to control over time. The risk of becoming cancerous is high, especially, of transforming to squamous cell cancer or verrucous carcinoma. It also has a high chance of coming back after treatment (high recurrence risk). The cause is unknown. In some cases, an association with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has been noted. PVL is more common in elderly women who have had lesions of leukoplakia for many years.  People with PVL should avoid certain factors currently known to be related to the development of oral cancer such as tobacco and alcohol. Treatment is not well established but may include surgery, laser ablation treatments, photodynamic therapy, and medication such as Methisoprinol.  Because of the long-term course and high chance of becoming cancerous, people with this disease need to have regular follow-up. 

MalaCards based summary : Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia, also known as proliferative verrucous oral leukoplakia, is related to leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. An important gene associated with Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia is CDKN2A (Cyclin Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2A), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Mitotic G1-G1/S phases and DNA Damage. The drugs Nivolumab and Antibodies have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, skin and bone, and related phenotype is pigmentation.

Related Diseases for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Diseases related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 leukoplakia 11.1
2 squamous cell carcinoma 10.6
3 oral squamous cell carcinoma 10.4
4 oral leukoplakia 10.4
5 lichen planus 10.3
6 oral lichen planus 10.3
7 actinic keratosis 9.8 CDKN2A MCM2
8 barrett esophagus 9.7 CDKN2A MCM2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

46
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pigmentation MP:0001186 8.62 CDKN2A MCM2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Drugs for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):


# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Nivolumab Approved Phase 2 946414-94-4
2 Antibodies Phase 2
3 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
4 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2
5 Immunologic Factors Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab in Treating Oral Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia Recruiting NCT03692325 Phase 2 Nivolumab

Search NIH Clinical Center for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Anatomical Context for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

41
Tongue, Skin, Bone, Bone Marrow

Publications for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Articles related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

(show top 50) (show all 90)
# Title Authors Year
1
Potentially malignant disorders revisited-The lichenoid lesion/proliferative verrucous leukoplakia conundrum. ( 29663518 )
2018
2
A Retrospective 20-Year Analysis of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia and Its Progression to Malignancy and Association with High-risk Human Papillomavirus. ( 29427033 )
2018
3
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia of the tongue. ( 28416237 )
2018
4
Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A challenge for clinical management. ( 29756248 )
2018
5
Diode laser surgery in the treatment of oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia associated with HPV-16 infection. ( 30105220 )
2018
6
Molecular pathogenesis of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a systematic review. ( 30190088 )
2018
7
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and its tumor markers: Systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 30536498 )
2018
8
Letter to the Editor: Development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) in oral lichen planus: Is it not a clinical spectrum of PVL? ( 28160592 )
2017
9
Oral leukoplakia and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a review for dental practitioners. ( 29097794 )
2017
10
Management of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Justification for a conservative approach. ( 28640498 )
2017
11
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia misdiagnosed as oral leukoplakia. ( 29551871 )
2017
12
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: diagnosis, management and current advances. ( 28209441 )
2017
13
Successful treatment of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia with 5% topical imiquimod. ( 27647537 )
2016
14
Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia - A Perpetuating Ambiguity. ( 27891495 )
2016
15
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: An update. ( 27461595 )
2016
16
Pseudoadenoid dysplasia in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 26589076 )
2016
17
Cancer-associated fibroblasts are an infrequent finding in the microenvironment of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia-associated squamous cell carcinoma. ( 27681951 )
2016
18
Low expression of angiotensinogen and dipeptidyl peptidase 1 in saliva of patients with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 27900324 )
2016
19
The development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia in oral lichen planus. A preliminary study. ( 27031060 )
2016
20
Oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia compared with conventional squamous cell carcinoma--a clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical study. ( 25547823 )
2015
21
Oral Pathology Quiz #86. Case Number 2. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 26215020 )
2015
22
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia may initially mimic lichenoid reactions. ( 26488020 )
2015
23
Optimal Management of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: A Systematic Review of the Literature. ( 26044786 )
2015
24
7 Cases of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: The Need for a High Clinical Suspicion Among Dental Practitioners. . ( 26299096 )
2015
25
The role of Ki-67, p16, CD34, Bcl-2, cyclooxygenase-2 in the pathogenesis of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 26960457 )
2015
26
Seven Cases of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia: The Need for a High Clinical Suspicion Among Dental Practitioners. ( 26285537 )
2015
27
Salivary and serum interleukin-6 levels in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 26254143 )
2015
28
Retrospective case-control study of viral pathogen screening in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia lesions. ( 25099922 )
2014
29
Diagnostic criteria in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: evaluation. ( 24608210 )
2014
30
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: an elusive disorder. ( 24929599 )
2014
31
Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia treated with the photodynamic therapy: a case report. ( 25002922 )
2014
32
High incidence of DNA ploidy abnormalities and increased Mcm2 expression may predict malignant change in oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 23347057 )
2013
33
Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: A case report with an update. ( 24015023 )
2013
34
A case report of conservative management of extensive proliferative verrucous leukoplakia using a carbon dioxide laser. ( 23473346 )
2013
35
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia; a critical appraisal of the diagnostic criteria. ( 23524439 )
2013
36
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): Recognition and differentiation from conventional leukoplakia and mimics! ( 24115154 )
2013
37
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL): a review of an elusive pathologic entity! ( 24113312 )
2013
38
Rapid progression of an idiopathic leukoplakia to a proliferative verrucous leukoplakia lesion and then squamous cell carcinoma. ( 22670253 )
2012
39
Oral medicine case book 37. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 23189896 )
2012
40
Current evidence in diagnosis and treatment of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 22705614 )
2012
41
Idiopathic proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: report of a clinical rarity. ( 22865802 )
2012
42
Inherited proliferative oral disorder: a reductionist approach to proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 22048571 )
2011
43
Proliferative multifocal leukoplakia better name that proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 21985464 )
2011
44
Malignant transformation of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a series of 55 cases. ( 21683646 )
2011
45
Case report of rapidly progressive proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and a proposal for aetiology in mainland China. ( 21352571 )
2011
46
Case of the month: proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 21473251 )
2011
47
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a proposal for diagnostic criteria. ( 20173704 )
2010
48
Clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical expression of p53, Ki-67, Mcm-2 and Mcm-5 in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. ( 20412398 )
2010
49
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a concise update. ( 20233330 )
2010
50
Retinoids and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL). A preliminary study. ( 19680182 )
2010

Variations for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Cosmic variations for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia:

9 (show all 17)
# Cosmic Mut ID Gene Symbol COSMIC Disease Classification
(Primary site, Site subtype, Primary histology, Histology subtype)
Mutation CDS Mutation AA GRCh38 Location Conf
1 COSM28538 CDKN2A upper aerodigestive tract,mouth,other,verrucous c.213C>T p.N71N 9:21971146-21971146 6
2 COSM12476 CDKN2A upper aerodigestive tract,mouth,other,verrucous c.341C>T p.P114L 9:21971018-21971018 6
3 COSM29052 PTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.724C>T p.Q242* 9:95481971-95481971 3
4 COSM763 PIK3CA skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.1633G>A p.E545K 3:179218303-179218303 3
5 COSM6903711 NOTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.4447T>C p.F1483L 9:136505449-136505449 3
6 COSM6903671 NOTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.4162A>G p.S1388G 9:136505734-136505734 3
7 COSM5967154 NOTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.5428C>T p.Q1810* 9:136502045-136502045 3
8 COSM6903643 NOTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.3700C>G p.R1234G 9:136506917-136506917 3
9 COSM6903727 NOTCH1 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.4625A>G p.D1542G 9:136505066-136505066 3
10 COSM489 HRAS skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.38G>T p.G13V 11:534285-534285 3
11 COSM6903748 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.5428C>T p.Q1810* 9:136502045-136502045 3
12 COSM6903642 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.3700C>G p.R1234G 9:136506917-136506917 3
13 COSM6903670 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.4162A>G p.S1388G 9:136505734-136505734 3
14 COSM6904019 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.994-2A>G p.? 17:7673341-7673341 3
15 COSM6903710 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.4447T>C p.F1483L 9:136505449-136505449 3
16 COSM120918 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.38G>T p.G13V 11:534285-534285 3
17 COSM6903726 skin,back,carcinoma,NS c.4625A>G p.D1542G 9:136505066-136505066 3

Expression for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia.

Pathways for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Pathways related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.67 CDKN2A MCM2
2 11.43 CDKN2A MCM2
3 10.98 CDKN2A MCM2

GO Terms for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

Biological processes related to Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 apoptotic process GO:0006915 9.16 CDKN2A MCM2
2 cell cycle GO:0007049 8.96 CDKN2A MCM2
3 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle GO:0000082 8.62 CDKN2A MCM2

Sources for Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
17 ExPASy
19 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 LOVD
42 MedGen
44 MeSH
45 MESH via Orphanet
46 MGI
49 NCI
50 NCIt
51 NDF-RT
54 NINDS
55 Novoseek
57 OMIM
58 OMIM via Orphanet
62 PubMed
64 QIAGEN
69 SNOMED-CT via HPO
70 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
71 TGDB
72 Tocris
73 UMLS
74 UMLS via Orphanet
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