Prostate Cancer (PC)

Categories: Cancer diseases, Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Prostate Cancer

MalaCards integrated aliases for Prostate Cancer:

Name: Prostate Cancer 56 12 25 73 36 13 54 6 42 3 15 37 62
Prostate Carcinoma 12 25 54 15 17 71
Prostate Cancer, Familial 56 12 74 52 71
Prostate Neoplasm 12 25 29 6
Familial Prostate Cancer 52 58 29
Prostatic Neoplasms 54 43 71
Prostatic Cancer 12 25 15
Prostate Cancer, Susceptibility to 56 6
Malignant Neoplasm of Prostate 71 32
Malignant Tumor of Prostate 29 6
Hereditary Prostate Cancer 12 52
Prostate Cancer, Somatic 56 6
Prostatic Neoplasm 12 25
Prostate Cancer, Familial, Susceptibility to 56
Malignant Neoplasm of the Prostate 25
Malignant Tumor of the Prostate 12
Ngp - New Growth of Prostate 12
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary 52
Cancer of the Prostate 25
Tumor of the Prostate 12
Carcinoma of Prostate 12
Prostatic Carcinoma 25
Cancer of Prostate 12
Cancer, Prostate 39
Prca 73
Pc 73


Orphanet epidemiological data:

familial prostate cancer
Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (United States); Age of onset: Adult;


somatic mutation
autosomal dominant


prostate cancer:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance somatic mutation


Orphanet: 58  
Rare urogenital diseases

External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10283 DOID:10286
OMIM 56 176807
KEGG 36 H00024
ICD9CM 34 185
MeSH 43 D011471
ICD10 32 C61
MESH via Orphanet 44 C537243
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 C61
UMLS via Orphanet 72 C2931456
Orphanet 58 ORPHA1331
MedGen 41 C0376358
SNOMED-CT via HPO 68 124975008 263681008
UMLS 71 C0033578 C0376358 C0600139 more

Summaries for Prostate Cancer

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually in middle age or later. In this disorder, certain cells in the prostate become abnormal and multiply without control or order to form a tumor. The prostate is a gland that surrounds the male urethra and helps produce semen, the fluid that carries sperm. Early prostate cancer usually does not cause pain, and most affected men exhibit no noticeable symptoms. Men are often diagnosed as the result of health screenings, such as a blood test for a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA) or a medical procedure called a digital rectal exam. As the tumor grows larger, signs and symptoms can include difficulty starting or stopping the flow of urine, a feeling of not being able to empty the bladder completely, blood in the urine or semen, or pain with ejaculation. However, these changes can also occur with many other genitourinary conditions. Having one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily mean that a man has prostate cancer. The severity and outcome of prostate cancer varies widely. Early-stage prostate cancer can usually be treated successfully, and some older men have prostate tumors that grow so slowly that they may never cause health problems during their lifetime, even without treatment. In other men, however, the cancer is much more aggressive; in these cases, prostate cancer can be life-threatening. Some cancerous tumors can invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Tumors that begin at one site and then spread to other areas of the body are called metastatic cancers. The signs and symptoms of metastatic cancer depend on where the disease has spread. If prostate cancer spreads, cancerous cells most often appear in the lymph nodes, bones, lungs, liver, or brain. Bone metastases of prostate cancer most often cause pain in the lower back, pelvis, or hips. A small percentage of all prostate cancers cluster in families. These hereditary cancers are associated with inherited gene mutations. Hereditary prostate cancers tend to develop earlier in life than non-inherited (sporadic) cases.

MalaCards based summary : Prostate Cancer, also known as prostate carcinoma, is related to prostate disease and breast cancer, and has symptoms including tremor, angina pectoris and equilibration disorder. An important gene associated with Prostate Cancer is CHEK2 (Checkpoint Kinase 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Prostate cancer and Transcriptional misregulation in cancer. The drugs Levofloxacin and Ofloxacin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include prostate, bone and breast, and related phenotypes are prostate cancer and cellular

Disease Ontology : 12 A male reproductive organ cancer that is located in the prostate.

NIH Rare Diseases : 52 Familial prostate cancer is a cluster of prostate cancer within a family. Most cases of prostate cancer occur sporadically in people with no family history of the condition. However, approximately 5% to 10% of prostate cancer cases are believed to be primarily caused by a genetic predisposition to the condition. In many families, the underlying genetic cause is unknown; however, some of these cases are caused by changes (mutations ) in the BRCA1 , BRCA2 , HOXB13 , or several other genes . Other cases are likely due to a combination of gene(s) and other shared factors such as environment and lifestyle. High-risk cancer screening at an earlier age is typically recommended in men who have an increased risk for prostate cancer based on personal and/or family histories.

MedlinePlus : 42 The prostate is the gland below a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare in men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family history, and being African American. Symptoms of prostate cancer may include Problems passing urine, such as pain, difficulty starting or stopping the stream, or dribbling Low back pain Pain with ejaculation To diagnose prostate cancer, you doctor may do a digital rectal exam to feel the prostate for lumps or anything unusual. You may also get a blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). These tests are also used in prostate cancer screening, which looks for cancer before you have symptoms. If your results are abnormal, you may need more tests, such as an ultrasound, MRI, or biopsy. Treatment often depends on the stage of the cancer. How fast the cancer grows and how different it is from surrounding tissue helps determine the stage. Men with prostate cancer have many treatment options. The treatment that's best for one man may not be best for another. The options include watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. You may have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

CDC : 3 Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the prostate, it is called prostate cancer. Not including skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men.

KEGG : 36 Prostate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of key molecular alterations in prostate-cancer cells implicates carcinogen defenses (GSTP1), growth-factor-signaling pathways (NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27), and androgens (AR) as critical determinants of the phenotype of prostate-cancer cells. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTP1) are detoxifying enzymes. Cells of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, devoid of GSTP1, undergo genomic damage mediated by carcinogens. NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27 regulate the growth and survival of prostate cells in the normal prostate. Inadequate levels of PTEN and NKX3.1 lead to a reduction in p27 levels and to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is normally activated by its androgen ligand. During androgen withdrawal therapy, the AR signal transduction pathway also could be activated by amplification of the AR gene, by AR gene mutations, or by altered activity of AR coactivators. Through these mechanisms, tumor cells lead to the emergence of androgen-independent prostate cancer.

Novus Biologicals : 55 Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer and second most deadly cancer for men in the United States. Prostate cancer occurs when cells within the prostate grow uncontrollably and create small tumors. If untreated, cells from these tumors can spread via metastasis. Metastasis transports prostate cancer cells through the lymphatic system and bloodstream to other parts of the body where they can grow into secondary tumors. PSA, a protein produced by the prostate, is released into the bloodstream in small amounts under normal conditions. However, PSA is released in increasing amounts when the prostate is malfunctioning, as is the case with prostate cancer.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 73 Prostate cancer: A malignancy originating in tissues of the prostate. Most prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas that develop in the acini of the prostatic ducts. Other rare histopathologic types of prostate cancer that occur in approximately 5% of patients include small cell carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, prostatic ductal carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma (basaloid), signet-ring cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma.

PubMed Health : 62 About prostate cancer: Prostate cancer develops when cells in the prostate start multiplying uncontrollably. This can happen if the genetic information (DNA) in the cells has changed (mutated). The body’s immune system usually keeps these cells in check. Cancer develops if too many mutated cells multiply and a tumor grows. The diagnosis “prostate cancer” usually comes as a shock to men and those close to them. The good news is that prostate cancer is one of the types of cancer with the best chances of recovery. This is because it often grows very slowly so it is generally possible to treat it effectively.

Wikipedia : 74 Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.... more...

More information from OMIM: 176807

Related Diseases for Prostate Cancer

Diseases in the Prostate Cancer family:

Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 1 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 8
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 3 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 4
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 5 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 6
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 7 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 9
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 10 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 12
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 13 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 11
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 14 Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 15
Prostate Cancer, Hereditary, 2 Prostate Carcinoma in Situ

Diseases related to Prostate Cancer via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 1439)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 prostate disease 34.8 MIR23B MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR146A
2 breast cancer 34.6 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR222 MIR221 MIR21
3 suppression of tumorigenicity 12 34.6 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR145 KLF6 CHEK2
4 bladder cancer 34.3 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR222 MIR221
5 hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome 34.3 TP53 PTEN CHEK2 BRCA2
6 colorectal cancer 34.2 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR222 MIR221
7 ovarian cancer 34.0 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR222 MIR221 MIR21
8 lung cancer 33.9 TP53 PTEN POLK PIK3CA MIR222 MIR221
9 hepatocellular carcinoma 33.8 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR222 MIR221
10 adenocarcinoma 33.7 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA CDH1 BRCA2
11 gastric cancer 33.7 ZFHX3 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR222 MIR221
12 leukemia, acute myeloid 33.6 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR222 MIR221
13 pancreatic cancer 33.4 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR222 MIR221
14 colorectal adenoma 33.4 TP53 MIR21 MIR17 CDH1
15 renal cell carcinoma, nonpapillary 33.3 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR221 MIR21
16 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 33.3 TP53 MIR23B MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17
17 esophageal cancer 33.3 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR21 MIR205 MIR146A
18 melanoma 33.2 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR222 MIR221
19 lung cancer susceptibility 3 33.1 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR21 MIR205
20 glioblastoma multiforme 33.0 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR221 MIR21 CHEK2
21 lynch syndrome 33.0 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR17 CHEK2 CDH1
22 neuroblastoma 33.0 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR221 MIR21
23 cervical cancer 32.9 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR21 MIR205
24 endometrial cancer 32.8 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR145 CDH1 BRCA2
25 leukemia, chronic lymphocytic 32.8 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR221 MIR21
26 myeloma, multiple 32.8 TP53 PTEN MIR21 MIR17 MIR145 CDH1
27 small cell carcinoma 32.8 TP53 PTEN CHEK2 AR
28 in situ carcinoma 32.8 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR17 CDH1 BRCA2
29 brain cancer 32.8 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MXI1 MIR222 MIR21
30 kidney cancer 32.7 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR21 MIR17
31 pancreatic adenocarcinoma 32.6 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR221 MIR21 MIR145
32 transitional cell carcinoma 32.5 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA CDH1
33 squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck 32.5 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR221 MIR21 MIR205
34 rectum cancer 32.5 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17 MIR145
35 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma 32.5 TP53 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR205
36 bladder urothelial carcinoma 32.5 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA CDH1 AR
37 glioma 32.4 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR222 MIR221 MIR21
38 squamous cell carcinoma 32.4 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR205 CHEK2 CDH1
39 vascular disease 32.4 TP53 MIR221 MIR21 MIR146A MIR145
40 lymphoma, non-hodgkin, familial 32.3 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR222 MIR21
41 sporadic breast cancer 32.3 TP53 PTEN MIR146A CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA2
42 wilms tumor 1 32.3 TP53 CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA2 AR
43 nasopharyngeal carcinoma 32.3 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR21 MIR205 MIR17
44 papilloma 32.3 TP53 PTEN CHEK2 CDH1
45 ductal carcinoma in situ 32.3 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR17 CDH1 BRCA2
46 diffuse large b-cell lymphoma 32.2 TP53 PTEN MIR222 MIR221 MIR21 MIR17
47 bilateral breast cancer 32.2 PTEN PIK3CA CHEK2 CDH1 BRCA2
48 meningioma, familial 32.2 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA CDH1
49 clear cell renal cell carcinoma 32.2 TP53 PTEN MIR23B MIR221 MIR21 MIR145
50 glioma susceptibility 1 32.2 TP53 PTEN PIK3CA MIR23B MIR222 MIR221

Comorbidity relations with Prostate Cancer via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 34)

Acute Kidney Failure Anthracosis
Asbestosis Azoospermia
Balanoposthitis Bladder Cancer
Bladder Neck Obstruction Cystitis Cystica
Deficiency Anemia Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Epididymo-Orchitis Gout
Hydronephrosis Kidney Disease
Lipoma of Spermatic Cord Lymphadenitis
Nephrolithiasis, X-Linked Recessive, with Renal Failure Oligospermia
Paralytic Ileus Paraplegia
Prostate Calculus Prostate Carcinoma in Situ
Prostate Disease Prostatic Hypertrophy
Prostatitis Radiation Cystitis
Spermatocele Spinal Cord Disease
Ureterolithiasis Urethral Benign Neoplasm
Urethral Calculus Urethral Stricture
Urethritis Urinary Tract Obstruction

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Prostate Cancer:

Diseases related to Prostate Cancer

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Prostate Cancer

Human phenotypes related to Prostate Cancer:

# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 prostate cancer 31 HP:0012125

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

early onset prostate cancer

Clinical features from OMIM:


UMLS symptoms related to Prostate Cancer:

tremor, angina pectoris, equilibration disorder

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Prostate Cancer:

# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 KLF6 MAD1L1
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.9 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 KLF6 MAD1L1
3 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.65 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 MAD1L1 MXI1
4 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.36 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 KLF6 MAD1L1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Prostate Cancer

PubMed Health treatment related to Prostate Cancer: 62

The possible treatment options for prostate cancer will depend on various factors. These include: how much the cells have changed (how aggressive the tumor is) how much the tumor has grown or spread (the stage of prostate cancer ) the man’s PSA levels individual factors such as the man’s age, how healthy he is otherwise, and how important the pros and cons are to him. Men who have high-risk prostate cancer will usually have their prostate surgically removed or treatment with radiotherapy. Radiotherapy can be done in two ways: from outside of the body (external radiotherapy) or from inside the body (internal radiotherapy , or brachytherapy ). The most common side effects of radiotherapy or removing the prostate gland are accidental leakage of urine (urinary incontinence ) and erection problems (impotence). External radiotherapy is especially likely to cause diarrhea , and in some cases inflammations in the bowel which may result in blood in the stool and cramps . If the tumor is small, only inside the prostate , and not aggressive (low-risk prostate cancer ), the following treatments are also possible: Active surveillance : Here the prostate cancer is simply monitored, and not treated, at first. This strategy is based on the fact that low-risk prostate cancer usually grows very slowly or doesn't grow at all. It is often found that the cancer has still not advanced even years after it was diagnosed. Instead of having treatment , the prostate is checked regularly. Treatment attempting to get rid of the cancer (curative treatment) is only started if the tumor starts growing. The advantage of this approach is that the side effects of surgery or radiotherapy can be avoided as long as the cancer does not grow. One possible disadvantage: If the cancer does progress, that is sometimes discovered too late. It may have already spread to other parts of the body by then (metastasis ). Knowing that you have cancer in your body can be distressing too. Watchful waiting : This strategy also starts by only monitoring the prostate cancer at first. But if the tumor starts growing, only the symptoms are treated, not the tumor itself (this is known as “palliative care ). This approach is mainly considered in older men, who may also have other medical problems. The risks and stress of surgery or radiotherapy could outweigh the possible benefits of this treatment . There is no “right” or “wrong” treatment decision for men who have low-risk prostate cancer . The strategy that one man chooses will mainly depend on his personal preferences and values. Some will feel it is more important to avoid side effects like impotence or incontinence as much as possible. Others will want to be very sure that the cancer has been removed, so they are willing to accept the risks associated with treatment. For more advanced stages of prostate cancer , there are several kinds of hormonal treatments and chemotherapies that aim to slow the growth.

Drugs for Prostate Cancer (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 875)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Levofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 100986-85-4 149096
Ofloxacin Approved Phase 4 82419-36-1 4583
Udenafil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 268203-93-6 6918523
Zoledronic Acid Approved Phase 4 118072-93-8 68740
Etidronic acid Approved Phase 4 2809-21-4, 7414-83-7 3305
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 4 169590-42-5 2662
Hyaluronic acid Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 9004-61-9 53477741
Tadalafil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 171596-29-5 110635
Sodium citrate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68-04-2
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
Polyestradiol phosphate Approved Phase 4 28014-46-2
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 4 103-90-2 1983
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 4 10102-43-9 145068
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
Mepivacaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 96-88-8 4062
Desflurane Approved Phase 4 57041-67-5 42113
Metoclopramide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 364-62-5 4168
Ondansetron Approved Phase 4 99614-02-5 4595
Granisetron Approved, Investigational Phase 4 109889-09-0 3510
Oxycodone Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 76-42-6 5284603
Lidocaine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 137-58-6 3676
Tacrolimus Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104987-11-3 445643 439492 6473866
Ciprofloxacin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85721-33-1 2764
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 4 723-46-6 5329
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 738-70-5 5578
Fosfomycin Approved Phase 4 23155-02-4 446987
Clavulanate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 58001-44-8 5280980
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26787-78-0 33613
Denosumab Approved Phase 4 615258-40-7
Midazolam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 59467-70-8 4192
Fentanyl Approved, Illicit, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 437-38-7 3345
Remifentanil Approved Phase 4 132875-61-7 60815
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 28523-86-6 5206
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Sufentanil Approved, Investigational Phase 4 56030-54-7 41693
Pasireotide Approved Phase 4 396091-73-9 9941444
Rocuronium Approved Phase 4 119302-91-9, 143558-00-3 441290
Lactitol Approved, Investigational Phase 4 585-88-6, 585-86-4 493591
Pamidronate Approved Phase 4 40391-99-9 4674
Cabergoline Approved Phase 4 81409-90-7 54746
Nitrous oxide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 10024-97-2 948
Carboplatin Approved Phase 4 41575-94-4 10339178 38904 498142
4-Aminopyridine Approved Phase 4 504-24-5 1727
Pancrelipase Approved, Investigational Phase 4 53608-75-6
Testosterone Approved, Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 58-22-0, 481-30-1 10204 6013
Testosterone enanthate Approved Phase 4 315-37-7 9416
Testosterone undecanoate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 5949-44-0
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 4 58-18-4 6010
Heparin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 9005-49-6 46507594 772

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 5104)
# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Comparison of Health Related Quality of Life and Other Clinical Parameters Between ThinSeed™ and OncoSeed™ for Permanent Low Dose Rate Implantation in Localized Prostate Cancer Unknown status NCT01379742 Phase 4
2 A Pilot Phase IV Study to Evaluate Variation in Bone Mineral Density, Lean and Fat Body Mass Index Measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry in Patients With Prostate Cancer Without Bone Metastasis Treated With Degarelix Unknown status NCT03202381 Phase 4 Degarelix
3 Intermittent Vs Continuous Androgen Deprivation in Patients With Advanced Prostate Cancer Unknown status NCT00293670 Phase 4 Goserelin (Zoladex)
4 Phase IV Trial Evaluating the Use of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer Unknown status NCT01352598 Phase 4
5 Efficiency Study of Aspirin to Prevent the Occurrence of Prostate Cancer Unknown status NCT02757365 Phase 4 aspirin;Levofloxacin
6 METformin And Longevity (METAL): A Window of Opportunity Study Investigating Biological Effects of Metformin in Localised Prostate Cancer Unknown status NCT02511665 Phase 4 Metformin;Placebo
7 MRI With a Lymph Node Specific Contrast Agent: an Alternative for CT-Scanning and Lymph Node Dissection in Patients With Prostate Cancer? Unknown status NCT00185029 Phase 4
8 Tacrolimus Treatment for Refractory Pure Red Cell Aplasia, a Prospective Study Unknown status NCT03540472 Phase 4 tacrolimus
9 Sirolimus Treatment for Refractory Pure Red Cell Aplasia, a Prospective Study Unknown status NCT03364764 Phase 4 Sirolimus
10 A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Investigator Initiated Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Udenafil Dosed Once a Day in Patients With Erectile Dysfunction After Bilateral Nerve-sparing Radical Prostatectomy Unknown status NCT03142542 Phase 4 ZYDENA TAB.75mg(Udenafil 75mg);Placebo Oral Tablet
11 A Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Combined Intravenous Propofol and Fentanyl Versus Intravenous Propofol Alone for Sedation in Patients Undergoing Transrectal Ultrasound-guided (TRUS) Prostate Biopsy Unknown status NCT02733705 Phase 4 Fentanyl;propofol
12 Use of Proton MR Spectroscopy and 18F-Fluorocholine PET for Breast Cancer Diagnosis, Prediction of Clinical Outcome and Monitoring of Treatment Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Unknown status NCT01956409 Phase 4 18F-FCH;Magnevist
13 To Investigate Post-procedure Hemorrhage and Cardiovascular Events in Taiwanese Patients Who Continue or Discontinue Low-Dose Aspirin Before Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: a Prospective Randomized Trial Unknown status NCT02744937 Phase 4 Aspirin
14 Effect of Enteral Genistein Supplementation on Inflammatory Cytokines, Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With Sepsis Unknown status NCT02796794 Phase 4
15 A Randomised Pilot Study to Evaluate the Effect(s) of Casodex 150 mg and Zoladex 3.6 mg on Pathological and Genomic Tumour Markers in Subjects Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy for Localised Prostate Carcinoma Completed NCT00293696 Phase 4 bicalutamide (Casodex), goserelin (Zoladex)
16 A Multicenter, Open-label Study to Determine the Effect of iv. Zoledronic Acid on Pain and Quality of Life in Patients With Bone Metastases With or Without Skeletal Related Events (SRE) Resulting From Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00434317 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
17 A Six-Month, Open-Label, Crossover Study Of the Maintenance Of Serum Testosterone And PSA Suppression After Switching Between Lupron 22.5 Mg And Eligard 22.5 Mg Or Zoladex 10.8 Mg And Eligard 22.5 Mg In Patients With Advanced Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00220194 Phase 4 leuprolide acetate
18 Improving Prostate Biopsy Efficiency: The Finasteride Challenge Test Completed NCT01296672 Phase 4 Finasteride;Placebo
19 An Open-label Trial on the Effect of I.V. Zoledronic Acid 4 mg on Bone Mineral Density in Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer Patients With Bone Metastasis Completed NCT00035997 Phase 4 Zometa
20 A Randomized, Open-label, Parallel-group Study, to Assess the Pharmocodynamic Effect on Dihydrotestosterone Regulated Gene Expression, Longitudinally and in a Dose Dependent Manner, of 0.5mg and 3.5mg Dutasteride Administered Orally Once Daily, for One Year in Men With Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and During a Two Month Period Between Baseline and Radical Prostatectomy in Men With Biopsy-proven, Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00375765 Phase 4 Dutasteride
21 Effect Of Zoledronic Acid On Circulating And Bone Marrow-Residing Prostate Cancer Cells In Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00219271 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
22 A Phase IV Interventional Safety Study of ELIGARD® in Prostate Cancer Patients in Asia (ELIGANT) Completed NCT03035032 Phase 4 Leuprolide
23 Phase IV Study of Safety and Efficacy of Docetaxel in Combination With Prednisone in Advanced Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Treatment Completed NCT00280098 Phase 4 docetaxel
24 Open-label Phase IV Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Zoledronic Acid in Patients With Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastases Completed NCT00242554 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
25 Assessment of the Efficacy, Tolerability and Pharmaco-economic Impact of Zoledronic Acid Treatment in Prostate Cancer With Bone Metastasis Completed NCT00241111 Phase 4 zoledronic acid
26 Effect of Zoledronic Acid in Patients With Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis Completed NCT00237159 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
27 Non-comparative, Opened Multicenter Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of ELIGARD 22.5mg in the Treatment of Subjects With Prostate Cancer Completed NCT01511874 Phase 4 ELIGARD 22.5mg
28 Evaluation of Bone Markers as Diagnostic Tools for Early Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients With High Risk Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00391690 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
29 A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of Zoledronic Acid in Patients With Metastatic Prostate Cancer Who Can be Treated With a Group of Medications Known as Bisphosphonates Completed NCT00172016 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
30 Study to Evaluate Zoledronic Acid on Quality of Life and Skeletal-related Events as Adjuvant Treatment in Patients With Hormone-naïve Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis Who Have Undergone Orchiectomy. Completed NCT00237146 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
31 A Multi-center, Single Arm Study of Enzalutamide in Patients With Progressive Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Previously Treated With Abiraterone Acetate Completed NCT02116582 Phase 4 Enzalutamide
32 Zoledronic Acid in the Prevention of Skeletal-related Events in Hormone Refractory and Hormone-sensitive Prostate Cancer Patients With Bone Metastases Completed NCT00219219 Phase 4 Zoledronic acid
33 A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Dutasteride in Extending the Time to Progression of Low-Risk, Localized Prostate Cancer in Men Who Are Candidates for or Undergoing Expectant Management Completed NCT00363311 Phase 4 Dutasteride;Matching placebo
34 An Open Randomised Trial to Compare the Value of Prophylactic Versus Therapeutic Breast Radiotherapy in CASODEX Monotherapy Induced Gynaecomastia and/or Breast Pain in Prostate Cancer Patients Completed NCT00590213 Phase 4 Casodex 150mg
35 A Prospective, Multicenter, Open-label Clinical Evaluation of the Effect of IV Zoledronic Acid 4mg on PAIN, QUALITY OF LIFE and TIME IN INFUSION CHAIR in Breast Cancer, Multiple Myeloma, and Prostate Cancer Patients With Cancer-related Bone Lesions Completed NCT00029224 Phase 4 zoledronic acid
36 A Prospective, Single-arm Multicenter Study to Evaluate Effect of Intravenous Zoledronic Acid on Bone Metabolism Given Over 4 Months in Patients With Prostate Cancer or Breast Cancer and Bone Metastasis Completed NCT00334139 Phase 4 Zoledronic Acid
37 A Multicenter, Single-arm, Open-label, Postmarketing Safety Study to Evaluate the Risk of Seizure Among Subjects With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC) Treated With Enzalutamide Who Are at Potential Increased Risk of Seizure Completed NCT01977651 Phase 4 enzalutamide
38 MRI Substudy; Metabolic Changes Due to Iatrogenic Hypogonadism in Patients With Prostate Cancer: Orchiectomy vs. Triptorelin Completed NCT02102646 Phase 4 Triptorelin
39 Angelica Sinensis for the Treatment of Hot Flashes in Men Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Completed NCT00199485 Phase 4 Angelica Sinensis
40 A 12 Month Open Label Study of Serum Testosterone Recovery and PSA After Neo-Adjuvant Treatment With Eligard(TM) 22.5mg Used With Radiation Therapy in Patients With Early Prostate Cancer Completed NCT01136226 Phase 4 Eligard (TM)
41 A Randomized Phase IV Study Comparing Enzalutamide Versus Flutamide in CRPC Patients Who Have Failed Combined Androgen Blockade Therapy With Bicalutamide Plus ADT Completed NCT02918968 Phase 4 Enzalutamide;Flutamide
42 A Pilot Study on Endothelial Function and Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer (PCa) Patients, With Pre-existing Cardiovascular Disease, Treated With Degarelix vs. Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Agonists Completed NCT02475057 Phase 4 Degarelix (LHRH antagonist);LHRH agonist
43 Radical Prostatectomy and Perioperative Fluid Therapy Completed NCT00771966 Phase 4
44 A Pilot Study to Assess the Technical Feasibility of Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Interpositioning of the AVANCETM Nerve Graft for Reconstruction of the Neurovascular Bundle, With a Twenty-four Month Follow-up Term to Assess Efficacy Completed NCT00953277 Phase 4
45 A Randomized Double-Blind Parallel Group Study Comparing Casodex (or Generic Equivalent) 50mg Plus Placebo to Casodex (or Generic Equivalent) 50mg Plus Dutasteride 3.5mg Administered for 18 Months to Men With Prostate Cancer Who Have Failed First-Line Androgen Deprivation Therapy (Assessed by Rising PSA) Followed by a Two-Year Extension Phase Completed NCT00470834 Phase 4 dutasteride;placebo;bicalutamide
46 A Multicentric, Multinational (China and Russia), Randomised, Open, Controlled Study of Immediate 9 Months Adjuvant Hormone Therapy With Triptorelin 11.25 mg Versus Active Surveillance After Radical Prostatectomy in High Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Completed NCT01753297 Phase 4 Triptorelin 11.25 mg
47 Does Androgen Suppression Treatment In Prostate Cancer Reduce Myocardial Blood Flow Reserve? Completed NCT01230905 Phase 4
48 The Effect of Zoledronic Acid Compared to Placebo on Bone Mineral Density in Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy Completed NCT00063609 Phase 4 zoledronic acid
49 Effect of Isoflavones on Cognition, Quality of Life and Hot Flashes in Men With Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy Completed NCT00245518 Phase 4 Isoflavone;Placebos
50 Multicentre, Single Arm, Open Label, Non Controlled Phase IV Clinical Trial to Evaluate Safety of Cabazitaxel (Jevtana) in Combination With Oral Prednisone (or Prednisolone) for the Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer Previously Treated With a Docetaxel-containing Regimen Completed NCT02074137 Phase 4 CABAZITAXEL XRP6258;Prednisone;Prednisolone

Search NIH Clinical Center for Prostate Cancer

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 71 / NDF-RT 50 :

Estradiol acetate
estradiol cypionate
estradiol valerate
Estramustine Phosphate Sodium
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
Estrogens, Esterified (USP)
Ethinyl Estradiol
etoposide phosphate
Goserelin Acetate
Leuprolide Acetate
Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride
polyestradiol phosphate
Sodium estrone sulfate
synthetic conjugated estrogens, A
synthetic conjugated estrogens, B

Cell-based therapeutics:

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Prostate Cancer cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Cochrane evidence based reviews: prostatic neoplasms

Genetic Tests for Prostate Cancer

Genetic tests related to Prostate Cancer:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Familial Prostate Cancer 29
2 Malignant Tumor of Prostate 29 AR BRCA2 CDH1 CHEK2 KLF6 MAD1L1 MXI1 PTEN ZFHX3
3 Prostate Neoplasm 29

Anatomical Context for Prostate Cancer

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology organs/tissues related to Prostate Cancer:


MalaCards organs/tissues related to Prostate Cancer:

Prostate, Bone, Breast, Testes, Lymph Node, Lung, T Cells

Publications for Prostate Cancer

Articles related to Prostate Cancer:

(show top 50) (show all 42088)
# Title Authors PMID Year
KLF6, a candidate tumor suppressor gene mutated in prostate cancer. 6 56 54 61
11752579 2001
Mutation of the MXI1 gene in prostate cancer. 54 6 56 61
7773287 1995
Multiple newly identified loci associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. 61 6 56
18264097 2008
Comprehensive genetic evaluation of common E-cadherin sequence variants and prostate cancer risk: strong confirmation of functional promoter SNP. 6 56 54
16189707 2005
-160C/A polymorphism in the E-cadherin gene promoter and risk of hereditary, familial and sporadic prostate cancer. 54 56 6
14961571 2004
Multiple loci identified in a genome-wide association study of prostate cancer. 6 56
18264096 2008
Induced chromosomal proximity and gene fusions in prostate cancer. 56 61 54
19933109 2009
BRCA2 mutation in a family with hereditary prostate cancer. 61 6 54
11170288 2001
A candidate prostate cancer susceptibility gene at chromosome 17p. 6 54 61
11175785 2001
IL-23 secreted by myeloid cells drives castration-resistant prostate cancer. 56 61
29950727 2018
Rb1 and Trp53 cooperate to suppress prostate cancer lineage plasticity, metastasis, and antiandrogen resistance. 56 61
28059767 2017
SOX2 promotes lineage plasticity and antiandrogen resistance in TP53- and RB1-deficient prostate cancer. 61 56
28059768 2017
Identification of a novel germline SPOP mutation in a family with hereditary prostate cancer. 56 61
24796539 2014
Early detection of prostate cancer: AUA Guideline. 61 6
23659877 2013
A co-clinical approach identifies mechanisms and potential therapies for androgen deprivation resistance in prostate cancer. 56 61
23727860 2013
EZH2 oncogenic activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells is Polycomb-independent. 56 61
23239736 2012
The mutational landscape of lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer. 61 56
22722839 2012
Germline mutations in HOXB13 and prostate-cancer risk. 6 61
22236224 2012
Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study. 61 56
21743467 2011
The genomic complexity of primary human prostate cancer. 61 56
21307934 2011
SMAD4-dependent barrier constrains prostate cancer growth and metastatic progression. 61 56
21289624 2011
Identification of a cell of origin for human prostate cancer. 56 61
20671189 2010
MicroRNA145 targets BNIP3 and suppresses prostate cancer progression. 54 61 46
20332243 2010
B-cell-derived lymphotoxin promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer. 61 56
20220849 2010
Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study. 56 61
19767753 2009
Fine mapping and functional analysis of a common variant in MSMB on chromosome 10q11.2 associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. 6 54
19383797 2009
National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry laboratory medicine practice guidelines for use of tumor markers in testicular, prostate, colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers. 6 54
19042984 2008
Duplication of the fusion of TMPRSS2 to ERG sequences identifies fatal human prostate cancer. 54 56
17637754 2008
Distinct classes of chromosomal rearrangements create oncogenic ETS gene fusions in prostate cancer. 54 56
17671502 2007
Nuclear cytokine-activated IKKalpha controls prostate cancer metastasis by repressing Maspin. 54 56
17377533 2007
A large germline deletion in the Chek2 kinase gene is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. 54 6
17085682 2006
A common nonsense mutation in EphB2 is associated with prostate cancer risk in African American men with a positive family history. 6 54
16155194 2006
Identification of a novel Gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant. 54 6
16609730 2006
Recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS transcription factor genes in prostate cancer. 56 54
16254181 2005
A combined genomewide linkage scan of 1,233 families for prostate cancer-susceptibility genes conducted by the international consortium for prostate cancer genetics. 61 56
15988677 2005
Global histone modification patterns predict risk of prostate cancer recurrence. 56 61
15988529 2005
Frequent somatic mutations of the transcription factor ATBF1 in human prostate cancer. 6 54
15750593 2005
CHEK2 is a multiorgan cancer susceptibility gene. 6 54
15492928 2004
Gene expression profiling identifies clinically relevant subtypes of prostate cancer. 56 61
14711987 2004
No association of germline alteration of MSR1 with prostate cancer risk. 6 54
12958598 2003
Genetic counseling for prostate cancer risk. 61 56
12694223 2003
Mutations in CHEK2 associated with prostate cancer risk. 6 61
12533788 2003
Two percent of men with early-onset prostate cancer harbor germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene. 54 6
12474142 2003
RNASEL Arg462Gln variant is implicated in up to 13% of prostate cancer cases. 6 54
12415269 2002
Meta-analysis of associations of the Ser217Leu and Ala541Thr variants in ELAC2 (HPC2) and prostate cancer. 54 6
12515253 2002
Germline mutations and sequence variants of the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 gene are associated with prostate cancer risk. 6 54
12244320 2002
Germline mutations in the ribonuclease L gene in families showing linkage with HPC1. 6 54
11799394 2002
Association of common missense changes in ELAC2 ( HPC2) with prostate cancer in a Japanese case-control series. 54 6
12522685 2002
ELAC2/HPC2 involvement in hereditary and sporadic prostate cancer. 6 61
11507049 2001
Delineation of prognostic biomarkers in prostate cancer. 56 61
11518967 2001